1 The Internet, Email, Ebusiness and the Worldwide Web (www)

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1 The Internet, Email, Ebusiness and the Worldwide Web (www)
1

1.1 In the beginning

ARPANET 1

1.2 The emergence of layered protocols for data communication 2

1.3 SNA (systems network architecture) 3

1.4 DECnet 5

1.5 Other mainframe computer manufacturers 5

1.6 X.25 (ITU
-
T recommendation X.25) 5

1.7 DTE (data terminal equipment), DCE (data circuit
-
terminating equipment),

line interfaces and protocols 7

1.8 UNI (user
-
network interface), NNI (network
-
network interface) and INI

(inter
-
network interface) 10

1.9
Open systems interconnection (OSI) 11

1.10 EDI (electronic data interchange) 17

1.11 CompuServe, prestel, minitel, BTx (Bildschirmtext) and teletex 18

1.12 The role of UNIX in the development of the Internet 20

1.13 The appearance of the PC (personal compu
ter) 20

1.14 Local area networks (LANs) 20

1.15 LAN servers, bridges, gateways and routers 22

1.16 Why did IP win through as the standard for ‘open’ communication? 24

1.17 The development and documentation of IP (Internet protocol) and the

Internet 24

1.18

Electronic mail and the domain name system (DNS) 24

1.19 html, WindowsNT and the Worldwide Web 26

1.20 Internet addresses and domain names 26

1.21 What are ISPs (Internet service providers) and IAPs (Internet access

providers)? 27

1.22 The emergence of eb
usiness 27

viii Contents

2 Fundamentals of Data Communication and Packet Switching
29

2.1 The binary code 29

2.2 Electrical or optical representation and storage of binary code numbers 30

2.3 Using the binary code to represent textual information 31

2.4 AS
CII (American standard code for information interchange) 31

2.5 EBCDIC and extended forms of ASCII 34

2.6 Use of the binary code to convey graphical images 35

2.7 Decoding binary messages

the need for synchronisation and for avoiding

errors 36

2.8 Digital
transmission 37

2.9 Modulation of digital information over analogue media using a modem 38

2.10 Detection and demodulation

errors and eye patterns 44

2.11 Reducing errors

regeneration, error detection and correction 48

2.12 Synchronisation 51

2.13 Packet s
witching, protocols and statistical multiplexing 55

2.14 Symmetrical and asymmetrical communication: full duplex and all that! 60

2.15 Serial and parallel communication 62

2.16 The problem of long lines

the need to observe the maximum line length 62

3 Basi
c Data Networks and Protocols
67

3.1 The basic components of a data network 67

3.2 Layer 1

physical layer interface: DTE/DCE, line interfaces and protocols 70

3.3 Layer 2

data link layer 96

3.4 Layer 3

network layer and network layer addresses 103

3.5 Laye
r 4

transport layer protocol 111

3.6 Layers 5

7

higher layer protocols 114

3.7 Protocol stacks and nested protocol control information (PCI) 117

3.8 Real networks and protocol stack representations 119

3.9 Protocol encapsulation 119

3.10 Control and manage
ment protocols 120

3.11 Propagation effects affecting protocol choice and network design and

operation 122

4 Local Area Networks (LANs)
125

4.1 The different LAN topologies and standards 125

4.2 Ethernet (CSMA/CD; IEEE 802.3) 126

4.3 Ethernet LAN standards

(IEEE 802.3 and 802.2) 128

4.4 Ethernet LAN datalink layer protocols

LLC and MAC 129

4.5 Ethernet physical layer

basic functions of the physical layer signalling

(PLS) 135

4.6 Ethernet hubs (half duplex repeaters) 136

Contents ix

4.7 Alternative physical
layers

ethernet, fast ethernet and gigabit ethernet 138

4.8 LAN segments and repeaters

extending the size of a single collision

domain 142

4.9 LAN switches

extending coverage and managing traffic in LAN networks 145

4.10 Other types of LAN (token ring and
token bus) 149

4.11 LAN operating software and LAN servers 156

4.12 Interconnection of LANs

bridges, switches, VLANs, routers and

gateways 157

5 WANs, Routers and the Internet Protocol (IP)
165

5.1 WANs (wide area networks), routers, Internet protocol (IP)

and IP addresses 165

5.2 Main functions of routers 167

5.3 Unicast, broadcast, multicast and anycast forwarding 172

5.4 Routing table format

static and dynamic routing 173

5.5 Routing table conventions 176

5.6 Simple IP routing control mechanisms: time
-
to
-
live (ttl) and hop limit fields 177

5.7 Internet protocol version 4 (IPv4) 178

5.8 ICMP (Internet control message protocol) 184

5.9 Internet addressing (IPv4) 187

5.10 Differentiated services (Diffserv and DS field) 193

5.11 Internet protocol version 6 (I
Pv6) 198

5.12 ICMP for IPv6 204

5.13 IPv6 addressing 205

5.14 Multicasting 209

6 Routing Tables and Protocols
215

6.1 Routing tables: static and dynamic routing

a recap 215

6.2 Choosing the best route by comparing the routing distance or
cost
of the

altern
atives 216

6.3 Storage, updating and recalculation of the routing table and routing database 218

6.4 The accuracy and stability of routing tables 219

6.5 Representation of destinations in a routing table 222

6.6 Routing protocols and their associated algor
ithms and metrics 223

6.7 Distributing routing information around an internetwork 223

6.8 Distance vector and link state protocol routing methodologies 227

6.9 Initiating router protocols: neighbour discovery and the hello procedure 229

6.10 Routing protoc
ols and their relationship with the Internet protocol (IP) 229

6.11 The different internetwork routing protocols

when to use them 230

6.12 RIP (routing information protocol) 232

6.13 OSPF (open shortest path first) 237

6.14 BGP4 (border gateway protocol ve
rsion 4) 259

x Contents

6.15 Problems associated with routing in source and destination local networks 266

6.16 Routing management issues 274

7 Transport Services and Protocols
277

7.1 Transport services and end
-
to
-
end communication between hosts 277

7.2 U
ser datagram protocol (UDP) 282

7.3 Transmission control protocol (TCP) 283

7.4 Resource reservation protocol (RSVP) 299

7.5 MPLS (multiprotocol label switching) 305

8 IP Networks in Practice: Components, Backbone

and Access
317

8.1 The components and hier
archy of an IP
-
based data network 317

8.2 The Internet, intranets, extranets and VPN 320

8.3 Network technologies typically used in IP
-
backbone networks 323

8.4 Access network technologies 332

8.5 Link establishment and control 338

8.6 Wireless technologie
s for Internet access 350

8.7 Host functionality and software for communication via IP 354

9 Managing the Network
357

9.1 Managing and configuring via the console port 357

9.2 Basic network management: alarms, commands, polling, events

and traps 359

9.3 Ma
nagement information base (MIB) and managed objects (MOs) 361

9.4 Structure of management information (SMIv1 and SMIv2) 364

9.5 Management information base
-
2 (mib
-
2 or MIB
-
II) 365

9.6 Remote network monitoring (RMON) 366

9.7 MIB for Internet protocol versi
on 6 (ipv6MIB) 369

9.8 Simple network management protocol (SNMP) 376

9.9 The ISO management model: FCAPS, TMN, and CMIP/CMISE 393

9.10 Tools for network management 397

10 Data Networking and Internet Applications
407

10.1 Computer applications and data net
works: application layer protocols 407

10.2 Telnet 411

10.3 FTP (file transfer protocol) 416

10.4 TFTP (trivial file transfer protocol) 425

10.5 Secure shell program and protocol (SSH or SECSH) 428

10.6 RTP/RTPC: real time signal carriage over IP networks
444

10.7 Applications, protocols and real networks 448

10.8 Other network/application protocols of note 450


13 Data Network Security
507

13.1 The trade
-
off between confidentiality and interconnectivity 507

13.2 Data network protection: the main types of t
hreat and counter
-
measure 508

13.3 Destination access control methods 512

13.4 Firewalls 516

13.5 Path protection 524

13.6 Network entry or access control 541

13.7 Encryption 550

13.8 Application layer interface for security protocols 560

13.9 Other risks
and threats to data security and reliable network operations 560

14 Quality of Service (QOS), Network Performance

and Optimisation
565

14.1 Framework for network performance management 565

14.2 Quality of service (QOS) and network performance (NP) 566

14.3

Quality of service (QOS), type of service (TOS) and class of service (COS) 569