Making Data Pay Dividends: Real-time News meets Knowledge Management


6 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 5 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

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Data Pay Dividends:
Real-time News meets
Knowledge Management
Current business strategies indicate that executives should pay
more attention to information management,
because the failure
or success of every organization
depends on how it leverages
the value of its information. Organizations with dynamic
vision have begun to use "real-time
news delivery" as a key
Knowledge Management tool.
executives must develop and manage their
information investments, and to do so they rely on
to select and organize the data they will use to make critical
decisions. Real-time
news delivery gives the executive the
proper context for compiling and organizing the information
he or she will turn into valuable data for his or her organ-
ization - regardless of whether
that information is business
news, science news, technical news, or financial
The goal of this briefing paper is to provide practical
information to help executives understand the differences
among several "current awareness" products designed to raw
data into useful knowledge.
On the surface, these awareness
products often appear to have identical elements, so this paper
will provide
a comparative guide to news and information
technology tools with a primary focus on Knowledge
The ranking of several information
services by an independent
consulting firm, Arnold Information Technology, compared
technology tools that directly relate performance and
functionality to success, and attaches relative values to a list of
features and benefits of each tool.
The resulting, in-depth study of Retrieval Technologies, Inc.'s
News Machine®, a document database system for
storage and
of real-time news, and its web interface 1st PageTM,
offers insight into technologies which
deliver competitive
intelligence and Knowledge Management to organizations.
The evaluation and analysis of Knowledge
Management tools,
like RTI's 1st PageTM web product, provides critical
perspective for leveraging the value of information within
both global business environments or specialized workgroups.
Retrieval Technologies welcomes your comments on the
information included in this document. For more information
Retrieval Technologies and their products, visit
The Challenge to Management:
Information to Knowledge
Organizations want all of their personnel to benefit from
effective use of information.
The following overview
how raw data becomes information before it is
translated into the type of knowledge employees and
can use effectively.
Whether knowledge is viewed from an organizational or
point of view, its effective use depends on filtering
through masses of raw data to convert information into
a tacit
or focused knowledge.
The challenge for management lies in
deploying the systems which can execute the filtering
in such a way that the information which survives can be made
immediately available throughout the organization.
The filtering process
applies equally to information in
people's heads as it does to raw data gathered electronically
As employees collaborate, they gather information
which could be useful to their entire organizations.
information is also a
critical part of Knowledge Management,
which if done properly can prove to be the greatest single
competitive advantage one
organization has over another.
To successfully integrate Knowledge Management
into an
organization, managers must consider these questions:
* How does an organization implement real-time
information technologies without costly infrastructure
* What are the support, training, and maintenance
requirements for a real-time news and information
What are "real" Knowledge Management and
collaborative features for real-time news
and information?
Before answering these questions, it is useful to explore the
changes taking place in highly successful organizations where
information is seen as a valuable asset.
The Fundamentals of
Knowledge Management
The meaning of the term
"Knowledge Management" is hotly
debated by business and academic leaders,
from Ernst &
Young to the Harvard
Business School. Many businesses
believe that "Knowledge Management"
is achieved by
many sources of internal and external
data. But raw
data is not knowledge.
And while filtered information
is very valuable, what
really want is the added value of
the knowledge
and experience of
employees, consultants and colleagues. This
knowledge is truly valuable, and costly
to recreate.
Companies like
3M and Asea Brown Boveri have used
information technology to unleash
the expertise of their
globally to increase revenues, develop
products, and increase
market share.' In his book The
Individualized Corporation, Christopher
A. Bartlett records
the importance
of managing the knowledge
implicit in an
organization but
embedded within the minds of its employees.
Managing information
is recognized as an essential and
business task. "Knowledge Management,"
stripped of its media hyperbole,
can be broken down into four
concerns: organizing, gathering, disseminating,
refining data. In other
words, collecting data, making it
available to employees, instantly
sharing the insights with
colleagues, and capturing
qualitative data about the
The full title
of this book is The Individuals Corporation:
Fundamentally New Approach to Management.
Great Companies
Are Defined by Purpose,
Process, and People. The book
is published
by Harper
Collins, 1997.
But because "knowledge"
itself can be intangible
-- locked up
in people's
heads -- specific actions must
be taken to share
ideas, and thoughts.
To cite one example,
many professionals
routinely tear or clip
articles from trade publications,
newspapers, or newsletters.
The fact that
a colleague clipped an article
from the Wall
Street Journal and used
that bit of information to rethink
issue is valuable. Consider
the value of that clipping
when it can be
shared with other colleagues.
The article then
becomes a catalyst for opportunity.
The sender's comment
becomes the "nugget"
of knowledge that moves
beyond the
of a single professional's
daily routine.
how the use of "Knowledge
Management" can erase
the following Executive
Executive Myth #1: Data
is Information.
A collection
of documents in print or electronic
form, or a pile
of disks containing spreadsheets,
is not information. At
the raw
data contains useful facts when
someone or some
process grinds through
the collection. Low-cost or no-cost
feeds generate a large flow of
data, but not always
information. Search tools such
as Netscape
and Yahoo provide
little useful information
unless the user is able to define
his business interests in a
generic keyword.
Myth #2. There is always enough
time to sort
through presumably all the useful
The time required
to scan, sift and make sense of
raw data can
be substantial, and the resulting
"information" is not always
that valuable. The first
information routing products
that the number of documents
sent to a person is
too large or not relevant.
Myth #3. Sharing information
is simple.
Simple collaboration
on a single document requires
mechanical copying, or the use
of several computer programs,
and the typing of
explanations. The effort required
to share
that information with colleagues
is a formidable barrier to a
person whose time is limited.
Simple decisions
in an office require instant
action with no
There is little or no penalty
for deciding to have a
Pepsi or a Coca-Cola. But
the potential cost of making an
choice in a complex, information-intensive
and high-
risk environment is substantially
New Tools for Knowledge
Not Text Retrieval
New software tools
and services promise to solve
overload" or to "make Knowledge
a standard
business process." But the integration
of business
S30 -
information into an organization
requires an assessment of
how that information can be controlled.
An organization should have the following concerns about
* Relevancy. Many professionals
do not have the time to
search for material or to review irrelevant information.
* Timeliness. Old
information might have historic value,
but decision-makers agree that
current, accurate
is absolutely essential. The stakes are too
high to base decisions on old information.
* Easy delivery. Most computer users can figure out how to
accomplish almost any task, but a mouse click or two
should still be all it takes to forward an important news
item to the right person.
For organizations to keep information relevant,
timely, and
easy to disseminate they must embrace a new wave of
The Three Waves of Information Technology
Handling real-time flows
of electronic information has moved
through three distinct waves of development. The time
between wave crests is getting
shorter: The next wave is about
to crest.
The First Wave
The first wave
of real-time news feeds proved effective, if
somewhat unpolished. Two approaches moved content from
one person to another or from a centralized system to various
Early online services offered customers a menu of sources
that could be screened either by keywords like IBM or a
general topic
area like Education. The behind-the-scenes
functions were set up by experts who programmed the
computers to perform these
functions. Customers
submitted requests to an intermediary. The intermediary,
in turn, translated the request
to the programmer who set
up the system.
First-wave services were limited to a select clientele. Costs
were high because programmers had to set up each "profile"
Changes were time-consuming
because a chain of different
specialists were required to make a change, regardless of the
complexity of
the change.
Despite the limitations, real-time services whet customers'
appetites for more intelligent
information distribution.
The Second Wave
Second wave technologies
allowed end users to set up their
own profiles.
Placing these controls in the hands of the
customer expanded the market for real-time information prod-
ucts. About 300 of the Fortune 500
-- virtually all investment
banks and brokerage businesses, and most of the major
consulting firms - have tried some type of real-time
information service in this category.
The Second wave
expansion of information delivery included:
* Costly infrastructure and lengthy implementation
for proprietary desktop applications.
* Lack of customer support, training, and management tools
needed to handle the problems created
by a large amount
of documents being sent to desktop computers with
* Costly per-document pricing schemes which made service
to worldwide organizations impractical.
* Weak or inadequate accounting and administrative
services to ensure that copyright, license, and reuse
stipulations were enforced.
wave services represented a substantial jump over the
first wave services. Even today second wave
services suffer
from accepted weaknesses, An example of this is the
saver" model of putting news on a computer user's
desktop. Pointcast -- or Microsoft's Active
Desktop as well --
can easily swamp the bandwidth or storage capacity of
desktop systems.
.- ,^?:
Second wave filtering services such as NewsEDGE (Desktop
and Individual) primarily use a
Windows-based client-server
architecture which reduces bandwidth, but creates
deployment strategy that requires every desktop to be
individually loaded with an application.
These developments
started the popular wave of real-time news and high-value
Third Wave
The primary company in
this new crest of information
delivery is Retrieval
Technologies, Inc. The acknowledged
leader in the field, RTI combines advanced filtering services,
collaboration tools,
Knowledge Management features, and
state-of-the-art interfaces to simplify even the most
information task. Third-wave services have these
* Search: The capability to query content based
on text and
metadata. The search
interface needs to be adaptable to
different skill levels of users. Searching is as simple as
point & click or as sophisticated
as Boolean.
Other data: Integrating internal company information with
other content.
* Pull: The ability
to retrieve or receive content from the
Internet and World Wide Web.
* Services:
Content stratification allows organizations to
deliver different content packages to different
groups with
multiple services using one system.
* Aggregating: Collecting multiple
newswires and other
to be searched by a single system.
* Indexing: Allowing users to add keywords
automatically tag stories of interest.
* Annotating: Users can annotate articles for self-reference
or for sharing with others. Value-added
information can
be added to the content of a particular article or news
* Editing: Providing a mechanism to edit a story and
it on a system.
* Voting: Creating opportunities to implicitly
and explicitly
vote on stories.
* Push: Giving users the choice of automatically receiving
e-mailed stories of predetermined
* Alert:
Having audio or visual stimulus to make users
aware of breaking news stories.
* Collaborating: Allowing
colleagues to simultaneously
share and view specific documents.
Other important characteristics of Third wave services
* Easy-to-use, point-and-click "forms" using
web browsers. This facilitates tuning, changing,
controlling content flows, user features and
The architecture is open, modular, scalable, and
* A system that provides an Expert Locator feature
which lets the user
find colleagues who have valuable
knowledge about topics of interest.
in Third Wave systems. What does "intelligence"
mean? It is
not just the duplication
of human reasoning. Innovations in
administrative tools that require no programming
are now
relatively common.
Security functions administered from a
graphical console are integrated. Engineering
allows systems
to be searchable and distributed.
"Intelligence" also
extends to a design that "remembers" what
a particular individual requires and delivers it in
the manner in
which they want
the information. Furthermore, Third Wave
service allows the individual to add
value to the information.
The Reality of Real-Time
While dozens of real-time news sources are available, current
innovations and advancements will
compel corporations to
identify and call for their increased implementation. The
advent of the
"push" model has been successful in
popularizing electronic news via the Internet
Pointcast's idea is to send stories on a topic of interest to
user in a screen saver format. Microsoft
has taken the "push"
model and extended it to its Active Desktop.
Users can select
of content - including News - that can be
accessed by Internet Explorer
4.x users.
Another interesting twist to news delivery is
the concept of
custom pages on Internet search
services. Crayon, Excite,
InfoSeek, Lycos, MSNBC, and Yahoo offer this
service. A
visitor to the site selects a category
or keyword. Each day a
personal "Web page" is created for the user. The
object of
these services remains
traffic generation to the site with
advertising. The site has entertainment value, not
news value
per se.
A selected list of"real-time"
news services follow, based on
four categories:
* Free Internet services
* Internet pages with user defined standing
* Internet pages offering news in pre-defined
* Commercial
enterprise services.
categories above appears in the table below:
Third Wave Services are providing data capture
Today's articles
principal difference in information services between the
Second Wave and the Third Wave is the built-in
Category |
Company Product Comments
Free Internet services
icrosoft Corp.Start's Channel Definition
Format services
Public debut set for late 1998
Corp. IBusiness Network Screen-saver model
with user-selectable "channels"
Company Product
Internet pages with user defined standing
ClariAlert Original Internet news service
offered to individuals and Inter net
Service Providers
Heads Up and News Page Now
NewsEDGE. Categories are added manually each day.
Netscape n box Direct
Users register. News delivered by electronic
News Alert News Alert
Advertising supported news; some for-fee
services available
Internet pages offering news in pre-defined categories
Dow Jones & Co. Dow Jones Interactive
Paid subscribers; institutional services available through
New York Times Co. ew
York Times on the Free in the U.S. Subscription
model likely. Exclusive on-line
delivery via Lexis Nexis for enterprise service.
nquisit "Inquisit"
previously Flat fee service. Available to individuals
and small companies.
Commercial Enterprise Services -'"*
NewsEDGE News EDGE First! Enterprise service
with keyword matching for users' topics.
Dow Jones & Co. Dow Vision Ral
time updates for Dow Jones's publications and additions to
the Dow Jones's collection from other publishers.
searching and
profiles offered.
The Dialog Corp. Profound
Web access to commercial databases;
includes numerous news
services, full text newspapers,
etc. Documents can be viewed in
Adobe Portable Document
Format technology.
Technologies, News Machine 1st Page Intelligent real-time news
service. Supports profiles,
categories, and key word searches, using Knowledge
Management with Collaborative
euters usiness Briefing: Fixed price
service. Text-based news available without charge via
eadline, Target, Select,
Yahoo and other Web partners. Financial data re quires special
earch agreement and hardware.
WavePhore ewscast previously called eal time news in a browser-based
model. Niche-oriented.
aracel Today
How does one select a service? The starting point,
of course, is
that an organization wants to provide a source of relevant,
real-time news and information
to its professionals. The need
for high-quality information delivered in real-time
is usually
an easy
decision, but the real choice is, "What service? What
Selecting the wrong
system of real-time news delivery can
result in five very difficult situations:
The Flood Problem. The selected service generates
much information. The data floods
the network, creating
local storage problems,
and then is later often ignored.
this case, the idea of news delivery is very
different from
the reality of the service. (Pointcast)
2. The
Irrelevant Problem. The selected service meters the
flow of material directly or indirectly.
Users get a number
of news items
on the established cycle. However, the
articles may not be specific to the user's interests
needs. The result is that the service
is described as
and a "waste of time." (Lycos)
3. The Control Problem. Changes -
no matter how trivial
- defy the busy user.
System administration struggles to
manage profiles, copyright,
and licensed usage. The
organization discovers that real-time news
isn't real-time.
(Individual, Inc. now NewsEDGE)
4. The Missing Story Problem. The selected service
limited and cannot incorporate other sources.
Stories not
covered by a single source are technically
missing and
unavailable to that service. (DowVision)
5. The Cost Problem.
The service works, but at a price.
Additional hardware and software has to be added to
accommodate the service.
Additional network and
desktop capacity is required to handle the usage
of the
service. Even
more troublesome, accounting personnel
have no good tools to manage
the real-time news services
to ensure that invoices are accurate and in-line with
budgets. When costs
soar, usage is curtailed and some
users eliminated. (Lexis/Nexis)
These examples
seem to recognize that real-time news is
desired -- it is the delivery mechanism and implementation
that defines
the value of the separate services.
Evaluation Criteria
What makes an effective news service? Criteria suggestions
developed by Arnold Information
Technology appear in the
Appendix. Since interest in Third Wave technologies
peaking, these criteria were used to evaluate product from
Retrieval Technologies,
RTI has developed a suite of real-time information services
branded as News Machine®
and 1st PageTM, and these
products are distinguished from competitors based on
1. News Machine technology was designed and
to be a modular,
open, and distributed solution. As a
result, new innovations are immediately embraced
by RTI
technology no matter the operating environment. In the
language of computing, RTI's
technology is known as
scalable and flexible.
2. News Machine technology
has been designed so that
impact on
a customer's network is minimized. A zero
administration goal means no arduous tasks await the
system administrator
at a client site. Virtually no training,
special support or ad hoc instruction is
required to install,
modify, deploy, or extend the service. Designed as an
product, large-scale implementation is quick
and easy utilizing standard web
3. News Machine has
built source- and user-usage tracking,
and other
administrative, security, and accounting
functions are also included in the
architecture. License
compliance is ensured from start-up.
4. 1
provides easy-to-use, point-and-click "guides" to
help searching and "forms" to facilitate tuning,
and controlling
content flows, user features and
5. 1st Page uses collaborative features allowing
sharing and viewing
of documents by multiple users.
6. News Machine allows organizations
to deliver different
content packages
to different groups using one system.
7. 1st Page can create searching 'guides'
that are based either
on sophisticated searches
or upon the users' terms of
8. Searching using the RTI model
is adaptable to the
different skill
levels of the users. Searching ranges from a
simple mouse-click to the sophisticated
9. Comments or Notes can
be attached to a particular article
or news
item for reference, or for sharing with others
later. This adds value to information.
10. RTI can integrate information produced
by an
organization's staff and
advisors or by an unlimited
number of outside
11. 1st Page records implicit
and explicit information about
allowing readers to rank a document's value
or to
have an article determine its own
ranking relative to the
use of other articles.
12. Using captured
data, the RTI system allows users to
locate experts on topics based on viewed
How does a system manager determine
if RTI's Third wave
can mesh with the organization's Knowledge
Management initiatives, network infrastructure,
and customer
content needs?
The following table arrays several
of the real-time news
and compares them to each other based
on the
Companies are rated
on a scale of 1 to 3 with one being the lowest score (acceptable)
and three being the highest score (excellent).
Filtering functions Keyword and phrase matching eyword, text, relevance,
Natural language converted to
Duplicate stories
sometime roximity, stock symbol, Boolean
ncluded oolean, advanced
guide, Duplicates are included
imilarity and quorum
uplicates are not shown but
marked as available
__ 2 3 2
Criteria NewsEDGE
Retrieval Technologies WavePhore
Desktop Data News Machine 1
" Page NewsCast
System infrastructure lients' network must be News Machine handles all Runs on clients' intranet;
enhanced; requires system services; no appreciable
network bandwidth must be managed
administrator; windows based impact; intranet based product
he system can be hosted at RTI
or at the customer site
2 3 1
Indexing and value- added Some tagging applied by human Use of information producers' Some automatic key wording;
etadata indexers ags; additional tags (metadata) information producer supplied
created for each story
tags used for financial in
automatically and on the fly; formation;
system uses these for building
special content collections
2 2
ricin Enterprise pricing perceived as Per seat prices in-line with other Prices in line with other
'high" by clients premium services; special remium services
enterprise site license pricing
l________ __
_2 2
& administration
ood but limited tools Comprehensive tools Minimal tools
Security tools for individual Comprehensive security tools; Security tools for individual
enterprise, workgroup, and ccess
2 3 2
ources Good; multiple aggregators and Quality name brands like Dow Most content comes from
some primary publishers, limited Jones, Reuters, Financial Times aggregators
to 32 news feeds and numerous customized
ndustry content packages.
Unlimited news feeds and the
ability to integrate in-house data
2 3
Ease of use Good ery good Very good
3 3
Integration functions epends upon clients' network Extensive user and enterprise Good integration; browser
environment customization of browser model
3 2
Interface andpresentation Very good Very good Very good
2 2
N/A.Folders, e-mail, exporting, N/A.
haring searches
Management N/A. User-added notes, comments, N/A.
features accounting, voting
and expert
The independent
consulting firm identified the News
Machines as significantly
ahead of its competitors when the
study was conducted
in 1998, as shown above. RTI showed
strong performance in the following ways:
Users can create folders
to store individual articles of interest.
More importantly, a user - with authorization - can choose
to share folders of documents. A particular document can be
routed to an individual or a group of people. Users can share
articles and profiles. Annotations can be added to documents.
The collaboration functions of News Machine® and 1st PageTM
are extremely flexible yet still easily controlled so that
licensing and copyright concerns are automatically enforced.
1st Page allows a wide range of integration with other
collaboration and workgroup products.
The News Machines and 1st PageTM retrieval technologies
provide easy-to-use or sophisticated
techniques to query
Symbol - Searches for information on a company
based on its stock symbol. Type the stock symbol
into the
dialog box, then click on the search button.
Real-time stock prices can also be generated using
this search technique.
Text - This full-text search queries all of the articles
in the database for instances of the specified word or
Keyword - Finds keywords that have been assigned
to an article by the information provider or 1st Page.
At the bottom of each article is a details icon where
you can find keywords that the wire service has
chosen to assign to the article.
Source - Searches for news
provided by a specific
press outlet such as Associated Press. If you wished
to see only stories released by Associated Press, you
would enter AP into the source
code dialog box.
Page provides
a reference list of sources.
Boolean - Allows you to combine terms or eliminate
them for more precision by using operators like
This is a
search technique.
Relevancy or Fuzzy - Searches
for up to five terms or
concepts that you rank in terms of relevance. The
search is an OR search; it will locate all documents
which contain any of the specified search terms.
Power - A menu-driven Boolean search allowing you to use
multiple search techniques for several
terms or concepts. If
wish to perform a symbol search, or change the Boolean
Operator, there is a drop-down list
to the left of each Search
Similarity or Query By
Example - Takes a current article or
documents and finds others similar to them by using
the attached metadata.
Quorum - Allows users the ability to select multiple queries
and combine them into a single search.
Guides -"Topics"
that are saved searches created to be
representative of an industry, market, region or sources broken
down by
sources or groups of sources.
Advanced Guide - Allows users the ability
to select multiple
Topics across one or more Guides and combine them into a
single Profile using
the searches developed for each Topic.
Users may add their own keywords to articles. RTI adds
value-added indexing elements,
including classification and
category information. Any indexing terms provided by the
provider are used by the system. When these
features are aggregated, not only can a user locate a story by
concept, business discipline, or keyword,
but when reviewing
a document the user can add index terms or phraseology
to a company or a specific technical discipline. This
means that users of the service can locate documents using the
vocabulary with which they are accustomed.
These indexing
terms are most often used to create a 'custom' guide of
profiles for an organization.
Blending Third-Party and Client Content
News Machines provides the tools necessary to blend
information from the real-time feeds offered by Retrieval
and other sources of information. Documents
are automatically
indexed and assigned metatags in real-time
before they are merged with
the archive of real-time and other
information. The result is that a document
on 1 st PageTM can
be delivered to the person or persons who need
access to a
particular unit of information. Special profiles can be set-up
for retrieving
documents, or these documents can be included
with the high-value documents
from an unlimited number of
"The right information at the right time is
of any battle."-Napoleon
The questions
posed at the outset of this paper can now be
resolved. The RTI News Machine®
and 1st PageTM technology
will be used below as the yardstick
against which to measure
How does an organization implement real-time
technologies without costly infrastructure changes?
is best accomplished when the provider of
real-time news has
a "plug and play solution." This means
that the addition of a
high-value service like real-time
news becomes an "information
appliance." The provider
can choose to
have the entire system hosted or part of the
system hosted, or the
client may choose to install the
necessary server
hardware/software and link the news
system to
the client's web browser. It works right out of
the box. No
additional work is placed upon the system
administrator. More importantly,
it works with the client's
present network, so no infrastructure
changes are
What are the support, training, and maintenance
requirements for a real-time news service?
The Internet has made
the browser interface the defacto
standard for desktop computing regardless
infrastructure. The plug-and-play
solution for
eliminates complex network set-up. With
the built-in help and reference guides, virtually no
training is required for anyone. Still, training programs
are available.
The business problem that knowledge management is
designed to solve is that knowledge acquired through
isn't formally shared and is therefore often
wasted, or at least not effectively re-used. Being able to
locate experts, share annotated documents, and vote on
their relevance, both implicitly and explicitly, becomes
critical to data sharing. Going beyond simple keyword
searches -- such as needed Boolean searches or tracking
original metadata tags - is critically important, and must
be easy to do.
In summary, it is
obvious that successful organizations
recognize the value of the highest
quality news being
delivered in a method
to maximize its usefulness. Retrieval
Inc. has engineered a real-time news solution
that can increase an organization's
responsiveness, enhance its
decision-making, and bolster the knowledge assets
of an
About Arnold Information
Arnold Information Technologies (AIT) specializes
technology assessment and information engineering.
Since 991, AIT has provided services focused
on electronic
publishing and database technology to
a broad spectrum of
organizations. AIT provides a comprehensive resource for
financial, technical, and product development.
The firm has completed
more than 50 major projects in Japan,
England, France, the Netherlands
and the United States. AIT
has principal offices are located in
Harrod's Creek Kentucky,
with offices in New York, New York,
Massachusetts, and San Carlos, California.
About Retrieval
Technologies, Inc.
For nearly a decade,
Retrieval Technologies, Inc. has been
creating information products
that integrate seamlessly in to
today's working environments.
RTI has its real-time news
products installed worldwide.
For more information about
Retrieval Technologies, Inc., visit
Web site at
call 703-905-9000 or write:
Technologies, Inc.
7900 Westpark Drive, Suite T305
McLean, Virginia 22102
What are "real" Knowledge Management and collaborative
features for real-time news and information?
PROCEEDINGS 1998 7th International Conference & Exhibit OPEN SOURCE
SOLUTIONS: Global Intelligence Forum - Link Page
Valuing Competitive intelligence
High-Ticket Research and the Human Hire: Pushing the Assets of Time And Talent

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