Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management

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Copyright © 2006 by Idea Group Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or distributed in
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Product or company names used in this set are for identification purposes only. Inclusion of the names of the products or
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Encyclopedia of knowledge management / David Schwartz, Editor.
p. cm.
Summary: "This encyclopedia is a research reference work documenting the past, present, and possible future directions of
knowledge management"--Provided by publisher.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 1-59140-573-4 (hc) -- ISBN 1-59140-574-2 (ebook)
1. Knowledge management. 2. Information resources management. 3. Information networks--Management. 4. Organizational
learning. I. Schwartz, David G.
HD30.2.E53 2006
658.4'038--dc22
2005013818
British Cataloguing in Publication Data
A Cataloguing in Publication record for this book is available from the British Library.
All work contributed to this encyclopedia is new, previously-unpublished material. Each article is assigned to at least 2-3 expert
reviewers and is subject to a blind, peer review by these reviewers. The views expressed in this encyclopedia are those of the authors,
but not necessarily of the publisher.
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Mark Ackerman, University of Michigan, USA
Monica Divitini, Norwegian Institute of Science and Technology, Norway
Robert Galliers, Bentley College, USA and London School of Economics, UK
Dan Holtshouse, Xerox Corporation, USA
Murray Jennex, San Diego State University, USA
William R. King, University of Pittsburgh, USA
Dorothy Leidner, Baylor University, USA
Pat Molholt, Columbia University, USA
Sue Newell, University of London Royal Holloway, UK and Bentley College, USA
Laurence Prusak, Babson College, USA
Dave Snowden, The Cynefin Centre, UK
Leon Sterling, University of Melbourne, Australia
Dov Te’eni, Tel-Aviv University, Israel
Fons Wijnhoven, University of Twente, The Netherlands
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Aarons, Jeremy / Monash University, Australia......................................................................................................166
Al-Ahmadi, Mohammad Saad / Oklahoma State University, USA.....................................................................523, 787
Ali, Irena / Department of Defence, Australia...........................................................................................................561
Amjad, Urooj / London School of Economics and Political Science, UK.........................................................403, 855
Andreu, Rafael / IESE Business School, University of Nevarra, Spain....................................................................173
Angehrn, Albert / Centre for Advanced Learning Technologies (CALT), INSEAD, France....................................58
Ariely, Gil / University of Westminster, UK and Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya, Israel.............................281, 713
Atkinson, Barry E. / Monash University, Australia...................................................................................................17
Badia, Antonio / University of Louisville, USA.........................................................................................................289
Barnard, Yvonne / EURISCO International, France................................................................................................389
Baroni de Carvalho, Rodrigo / FUMEC University, Brazil.......................................................................................410
Becerra-Fernandez, Irma / Florida International University, USA.........................................................................230
Berends, Hans / Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands................................................................352
Berztiss, Alfs T. / University of Pittsburgh, USA................................................................................................24, 892
Boersma, Kees / Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands............................................................................305
Bolisani, Ettore / University of Padova, Italy...........................................................................................................360
Bonifacio, Matteo / University of Trento, Italy..........................................................................................................122
Bouquet, Paolo / University of Trento, Italy..............................................................................................................122
Boy, Guy / EURISCO International, France.............................................................................................................389
Buchholz, William / Bentley College, USA..............................................................................................................694
Burkhard, Remo A. / University of St. Gallen, Switzerland.....................................................................................551
Burstein, Frada / Monash University, Australia.................................................................................................17, 840
Butler, Tom / University College Cork, Ireland...................................................................................................1, 884
Cepeda-Carrión, Gabriel / University of Seville, Spain..............................................................................................34
Clarke, Steve / The University of Hull, UK.................................................................................................................30
Coakes, Elayne / University of Westminster, UK.........................................................................................................30
Colucci, Simona / Politecnico di Bari, Italy.............................................................................................................105
Connell, N.A.D. / University of Southampton, UK.............................................................................................721, 870
Corral, Karen L. / Arizona State University, USA....................................................................................................130
Cristani, Matteo / University of Verona, Italy...........................................................................................................137
Croasdell, David / University of Nevada, Reno, USA........................................................................................244, 876
Cuel, Roberta / University of Verona, Italy........................................................................................................122, 137
Davenport, Daniel L. / University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center, USA..............................................451, 809
Dekker, David J. / Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.......................................................................818
Derballa, Volker / University of Augsburg, Germany........................................................................................645, 651
Di Biagi, Matteo / University of Padova, Italy..........................................................................................................360
Di Noia, Tommaso / Politecnico di Bari, Italy..........................................................................................................105
Di Sciascio, Eugenio / Politecnico di Bari, Italy......................................................................................................105
Dieng-Kuntz, Rose / INRIA, ACACIA Project, France................................................................................................67
Dingsøyr, Torgeir / SINTEF Information and Communication Technology, Norway............................................757
Disterer, Georg / Hannover University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Germany....................................................381
Donini, Francesco M. / Universit
á
della Tuscia, Italy..............................................................................................105
Dori, Dov / Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Israel and
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA........................................................................................................683
Ein-Dor, Phillip / Tel-Aviv University, Israel............................................................................................................848
Ekbia, Hamid R. / University of Redlands, USA........................................................................................................237
Eppler, Martin J. / University of Lugano, Switzerland......................................................................................317, 551
Farmer, William M. / McMaster University, Canada..............................................................................................599
Ferri, Fernando / Instituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione e le Politiche Sociali - CNR, Italy..............................802
Fink, Dieter / Edith Cowan University, Australia....................................................................................................381
Fong, Patrick S.W. / The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong............................................................665
Fortier, Jean-Yves / University of Picardie Jules Verne, France.............................................................................741
Freeze, Ronald / Arizona State University, USA.......................................................................................................605
Fuller, Christie M. / Oklahoma State University, USA............................................................................................188
Ganguly, Auroop R. / Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA.....................................................................................81
Gillman, Daniel W. / Bureau of Labor Statistics, USA...............................................................................................97
Goldsmith, Ronald E. / Florida State University, USA..............................................................................................311
Grant, J. / Towson University, USA...........................................................................................................................583
Grifoni, Patrizia / Instituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione e le Politiche Sociali - CNR, Italy.............................802
Gupta, Amar / University of Arizona, Tucson, USA....................................................................................................81
Hädrich, Thomas / Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany......................................................251, 442
Hall, Dianne / Auburn University, USA.....................................................................................................................244
Hara, Noriko / Indiana University, USA...................................................................................................................237
Heavin, Ciara / National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland................................................................................621
Hemmje, Matthias / FernUniversität Hagen, Germany............................................................................................344
Hendriks, Paul H.J. / Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands...................................................657, 749, 818
Hofer, Franz / Graz University of Technology, Austria............................................................................................544
Holsapple, Clyde W. / University of Kentucky, USA..........................................................................397, 419, 451, 809
Hsu, HY Sonya / Southern Illinois University, USA...........................................................................................274, 826
Imberman, Susan / City University of New York, USA.............................................................................................197
Jacobson, Carolyn McKinnell / Marymount University, USA..................................................................................507
Jasimuddin, Sajjad M. / University of Southampton, UK.........................................................................................870
Jennex, Murray E. / San Diego State University, USA......................................................................................429, 436
Jones, Kiku / University of Tulsa, USA.....................................................................................................................419
Joshi, K.D. / Washington State University, USA.......................................................................................................397
Kai-Uwe Brock, Jürgen / University of Strathclyde, UK..........................................................................................635
Kamthan, Pankaj / Concordia University, Canada..................................................................................................478
Kankanhalli, Atreyi / National University of Singapore, Singapore......................................................................459
Kao, Anne / Boeing Phantom Works, USA................................................................................................................115
Kassel, Gilles / University of Picardie Jules Verne, France....................................................................................741
Khan, Shiraj / University of South Florida (USF), USA............................................................................................81
King, William R. / University of Pittsburgh, USA.............................................................................................493, 538
Kingma, Sytze / Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands.............................................................................305
Klein, Jonathan H. / University of Southampton, UK...............................................................................................870
Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen / University of Twente, The Netherlands.............................................................................180
Kulkarni, Uday / Arizona State University, USA......................................................................................................605
LaBrie, Ryan C. / Seattle Pacific University, USA...................................................................................................130
Land, Frank / London School of Economics and Political Science, UK..........................................................403, 855
Leal, Antonio / University of Seville, Spain..............................................................................................................614
Levitt, Raymond E. / Stanford University, USA............................................................................................................51
Lindsey, Keith L. / Trinity University, USA...............................................................................................................499
Linger, Henry / Monash University, Australia.........................................................................................................840
Loebbecke, Claudia / Department of Media Management, University of Cologne, Germany...................................58
Ma, Z.M. / Northeastern University, China..............................................................................................................161
Maier, Ronald / Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany...........................................................251, 442
Maule, R. William / Naval Postgraduate School, USA............................................................................................627
Metaxiotis, Kostas / National Technical University of Athens, Greece...................................................................204
Minker, J. / University of Maryland at College Park, USA.....................................................................................583
Mongiello, Marina / Politecnico di Bari, Italy.........................................................................................................105
Munkvold, Glenn / Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.....................................................762
Murphy, Ciaran / University College Cork, Ireland................................................................................................884
Mykytyn Jr., Peter P. / Southern Illinois University, USA.......................................................................................274
Natarajan, Rajesh / Indian Institute of Management Lucknow (IIML), India.........................................................297
Nelson, Reed E. / Southern Illinois University, USA.................................................................................................826
Neville, Karen / National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland...............................................................................621
Newell, Sue / Bentley College, USA..........................................................................................................................862
Niederée, Claudia / Fraunhofer Institut für Integrierte Publikations-und Informationssysteme, Germany...........344
Nissen, Mark E. / Naval Postgraduate School, USA.................................................................................................51
Nitse, Philip S. / Idaho State University, USA............................................................................................................44
Nolas, Sevasti-Melissa / London School of Economics and Political Science, UK.........................................403, 855
Oshri, Ilan / Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands................................................................................487
Pachet, François / Sony CSL - Paris, France............................................................................................................672
Padmanabhan, G. / GE Transportation Systems, USA...............................................................................................795
Pai, Hsueh-Ieng / Concordia University, Canada....................................................................................................478
Paquette, Scott / University of Toronto, Canada........................................................................................................90
Parker, Kevin R. / Idaho State University, USA.........................................................................................................44
Pascoe, Celina / University of Canberra, Australia..................................................................................................561
Paukert, Marco / Fraunhofer Institut für Integrierte Publikations-und Informationssysteme, Germany..............344
Pillai, Kishore Gopalakrishna / Florida State University, USA.............................................................................311
Poteet, Stephen R. / Boeing Phantom Works, USA...................................................................................................115
Pousttchi, Key / University of Augsburg, Germany...........................................................................................645, 651
Prat, Nicolas / ESSEC Business School, France......................................................................................................211
Quach, Lesley / Boeing Phantom Works, USA.........................................................................................................115
Rao, H. Raghav / University at Buffalo, USA.............................................................................................................795
Real, Juan C. / Pablo de Olavide University, Spain.................................................................................................614
Reychav, Iris / Bar-Ilan University, Israel................................................................................................................221
Ribière, Vincent M. / New York Institute of Technology, USA.................................................................................336
Roldan, Jose L. / University of Seville, Spain...........................................................................................................614
Román, Juan A. / National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), USA................................................336
Rosen, Peter A. / University of Evansville, USA................................................................................................523, 787
Roussos, George / University of London, UK...........................................................................................................569
Sabherwal, Rajiv / University of Missouri at St. Louis, USA....................................................................................230
Sacco, Giovanni M. / Università di Torino, Italy.......................................................................................................145
Saunders, Chad / University of Calgary, Canada....................................................................................................515
Scarso, Enrico / University of Padova, Italy.............................................................................................................360
Schwartz, David G. / Bar-Ilan University, Israel..........................................................................................10, 259, 728
Shariq, Syed Z. / Stanford University, USA...............................................................................................................833
Shaw, Duncan / Aston University, UK.......................................................................................................................591
Shekar, B. / Indian Institute of Management Bangalore (IIMB), India..................................................................297
Sieber, Sandra / IESE Business School University of Nevarra, Spain.....................................................................173
Sivakumar, Shyamala C. / Saint Mary’s University, Canada..................................................................................152
Snowden, Dave / The Cynefin Centre, UK..................................................................................................................678
Sousa, Célio A.A. / Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands......................................................................657
St. Louis, Robert D. / Arizona State University, USA...............................................................................................130
Sterling, Leon / University of Melbourne, Australia................................................................................................368
Tan, Bernard C.Y. / National University of Singapore, Singapore.........................................................................459
Tansel, Abdullah Uz / Bilkent University, Turkey.....................................................................................................197
Tauber, Doron / Bar-Ilan University, Israel..............................................................................................................259
Tavares Ferreira, Marta Araújo / Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Brazil........................................410
Te’eni, Dov / Tel-Aviv University, Israel....................................................................................................................734
Thanning Vendelø, Morten / Copenhagen Business School, Denmark...................................................................833
Tsekouras, George / University of Brighton, UK.....................................................................................................569
Upadhyaya, S. / University at Buffalo, USA...............................................................................................................795
van der Bij, Hans / Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands............................................................352
Vat, Kam Hou / University of Macau, Macau...........................................................................................................530
Wang, Huaiqing / City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong................................................................................267
Wang, Y. Ken / Washington State University, USA..................................................................................................876
Warne, Leoni / Department of Defence, Australia....................................................................................................561
Weggeman, Mathieu / Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands......................................................352
Wei, Kwok-Kee / City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong..................................................................................459
Weisberg, Jacob / Bar-Ilan University, Israel..........................................................................................................221
Wickramasinghe, Nilmini / Illinois Institute of Technology, USA..........................................................................326
Wijnhoven, Fons / University of Twente, The Netherlands................................................................................180, 703
Wilson, Rick L. / Oklahoma State University, USA..................................................................................188, 523, 787
Woods, Steven / Boeing Phantom Works, USA.........................................................................................................115
Xu, Dongming / University of Queensland, Australia..............................................................................................267
Yaniv, Eyal / Bar-Ilan University, Israel....................................................................................................................728
Zarri, Gian Piero / University of Paris IV/Sorbonne, France...................................................................467, 769, 780
Zeleznikow, John / Victoria University, Australia...................................................................................................578
Zhou, Yu Josephine / International University of Applied Science, Bad Honnef-Bonn., Germany........................635
Zyngier, Suzanne / Monash University, Australia...................................................................................................373
+￿￿JA￿JI
Anti-Foundational Knowledge Management / Tom Butler............................................................................................1
Aristotelian View of Knowledge Management / David G. Schwartz..............................................................................10
Biological and Information Systems Approaches / Barry E. Atkinson and Frada Burstein.........................................17
Capability Maturity / Alfs T. Berztiss...............................................................................................................................24
Communities of Practice / Elayne Coakes and Steve Clarke.........................................................................................30
Competitive Advantage of Knowledge Management / Gabriel Cepeda-Carrión.........................................................34
Competitive Intelligence Gathering / Kevin R. Parker and Philip S. Nitse....................................................................44
Computational Experimentation / Mark E. Nissen and Raymond E. Levitt....................................................................51
Coopetition / Claudia Loebbecke and Albert Angehrn.................................................................................................58
Corporate Semantic Webs / Rose Dieng-Kuntz..............................................................................................................67
Creating Knowledge for Business Decision Making / Shiraj Khan, Auroop R. Ganguly, and Amar Gupta................81
Customer Knowledge Management / Scott Paquette.....................................................................................................90
Data Semantics / Daniel W. Gillman...............................................................................................................................97
Description Logic-Based Resource Retrieval / Simona Colucci, Tommaso Di Noia, Eugenio Di Sciascio,
Francesco M. Donini, and Marina Mongiello..........................................................................................................105
Dissemination in Portals / Steven Woods, Stephen R. Poteet, Anne Kao, and Lesley Quach........................................115
Distributed Knowledge Management / Roberta Cuel, Paolo Bouquet, and Matteo Bonifacio....................................122
Document Search Practices / Karen L. Corral, Ryan C. LaBrie, and Robert D. St. Louis............................................130
Domain Ontologies / Matteo Cristani and Roberta Cuel..............................................................................................137
Dynamic Taxonomies / Giovanni M. Sacco....................................................................................................................145
Table of Contents
E-Learning for Knowledge Dissemination / Shyamala C. Sivakumar............................................................................152
Engineering Design Knowledge Management / Z.M. Ma...............................................................................................161
Epistemology and Knowledge Management / Jeremy Aarons.......................................................................................166
External and Internal Knowledge in Organizations / Rafael Andreu and Sandra Sieber...............................................173
External Knowledge Integration / Jeroen Kraaijenbrink and Fons Wijnhoven.............................................................180
Extracting Knowledge from Neural Networks / Christie M. Fuller and Rick L. Wilson.................................................188
Frequent Itemset Mining and Association Rules / Susan Imberman and Abdullah Uz Tansel.....................................197
Healthcare Knowledge Management / Kostas Metaxiotis..............................................................................................204
Hierarchical Model for Knowledge Management, A / Nicolas Prat...............................................................................211
Human Capital in Knowledge Creation, Management and Utilization / Iris Reychav and Jacob Weisberg...................221
ICT and Knowledge Management Systems / Irma Becerra-Fernandez and Rajiv Sabherwal.....................................230
Incentive Structures in Knowledge Management / Hamid R. Ekbia and Noriko Hara................................................237
Inquiring Organizations / Dianne Hall and David Croasdell........................................................................................244
Integrated Modeling / Thomas Hädrich and Ronald Maier..........................................................................................251
Integrating Knowledge Management with the Systems Analysis Process / Doron Tauber and
David G. Schwartz......................................................................................................................................................259
Integration of Knowledge Management and E-Learning / Dongming Xu and Huaiqing Wang....................................267
Intellectual Capital / HY Sonya Hsu and Peter P. Mykytyn Jr........................................................................................274
Intellectual Capital and Knowledge Management / Gil Ariely.......................................................................................281
Intelligence and Counterterrorism Tasks / Antonio Badia.............................................................................................289
Interesting Knowledge Patterns in Databases / Rajesh Natarajan and B. Shekar........................................................297
Intranet and Organizational Learning / Kees Boersma and Sytze Kingma.....................................................................305
Knowledge Calibration / Ronald E. Goldsmith and Kishore Gopalakrishna Pillai.....................................................311
Knowledge Communication / Martin J. Eppler..............................................................................................................317
Knowledge Creation / Nilmini Wickramasinghe............................................................................................................326
Knowledge Flow / Vincent M. Ribière and Juan A. Román...........................................................................................336
Knowledge in Innovation Processes / Marco Paukert, Claudia Niederée, and Matthias Hemmje..............................344
Knowledge Integration / Hans Berends, Hans van der Bij, and Mathieu Weggeman...................................................352
Table of Contents
Knowledge Intermediation / Enrico Scarso, Ettore Bolisani, and Matteo Di Biagi.....................................................360
Knowledge Management Agents / Leon Sterling..........................................................................................................368
Knowledge Management Governance / Suzanne Zyngier..............................................................................................373
Knowledge Management in Professional Service Firms / Dieter Fink and Georg Disterer..........................................381
Knowledge Management in Safety-Critical Systems Analysis / Guy Boy and Yvonne Barnard..................................389
Knowledge Management Ontology / Clyde W. Holsapple and K.D. Joshi...................................................................397
Knowledge Management Processes / Frank Land, Urooj Amjad, and Sevasti-Melissa Nolas.....................................403
Knowledge Management Software / Rodrigo Baroni de Carvalho and Marta Araújo Tavares Ferreira...................410
Knowledge Management Strategy Formation / Clyde W. Holsapple and Kiku Jones..................................................419
Knowledge Management Success Models / Murray E. Jennex.....................................................................................429
Knowledge Management System Success Factors / Murray E. Jennex........................................................................436
Knowledge Management Systems / Ronald Maier and Thomas Hädrich....................................................................442
Knowledge Organizations / Daniel L. Davenport and Clyde W. Holsapple..................................................................451
Knowledge Producers and Consumers / Atreyi Kankanhalli, Bernard C.Y. Tan, and Kwok-Kee Wei.........................459
Knowledge Representation / Gian Piero Zarri..............................................................................................................467
Knowledge Representation in Pattern Management / Pankaj Kamthan and Hsueh-Ieng Pai......................................478
Knowledge Reuse / Ilan Oshri........................................................................................................................................487
Knowledge Sharing / William R. King............................................................................................................................493
Knowledge Sharing Barriers / Keith L. Lindsey..............................................................................................................499
Knowledge Sharing Between Individuals / Carolyn McKinnell Jacobson...................................................................507
Knowledge Sharing in Legal Practice / Chad Saunders.................................................................................................515
Knowledge Structure and Data Mining Techniques / Rick L. Wilson, Peter A. Rosen,
and Mohammad Saad Al-Ahmadi..............................................................................................................................523
Knowledge Synthesis Framework / Kam Hou Vat..........................................................................................................530
Knowledge Transfer / William R. King...........................................................................................................................538
Knowledge Transfer Between Academia and Industry / Franz Hofer............................................................................544
Knowledge Visualization / Martin J. Eppler and Remo A. Burkhard............................................................................551
Learning in Organizations / Irena Ali, Leoni Warne, and Celina Pascoe......................................................................561
Table of Contents
Learning Networks and Service Oriented Architectures / George Tsekouras and George Roussos.............................569
Legal Knowledge Management / John Zeleznikow........................................................................................................578
Logic and Knowledge Bases / J. Grant and J. Minker...................................................................................................583
Mapping Group Knowledge / Duncan Shaw..................................................................................................................591
Mathematical Knowledge Management / William M. Farmer........................................................................................599
Measuring Knowledge Management Capabilities / Uday Kulkarni and Ronald Freeze..............................................605
Measuring Organizational Learning as a Multidimensional Construct / Juan C. Real, Antonio Leal,
and Jose L. Roldan.....................................................................................................................................................614
Mentoring Knowledge Workers / Ciara Heavin and Karen Neville.............................................................................621
Military Knowledge Management / R. William Maule...................................................................................................627
MNE Knowledge Management Across Borders and ICT / Jürgen Kai-Uwe Brock and Yu Josephine Zhou..............635
Mobile Knowledge Management / Volker Derballa and Key Pousttchi.......................................................................645
Mobile Technology for Knowledge Management / Volker Derballa and Key Pousttchi.............................................651
Motivation for Knowledge Work / Paul H.J. Hendriks and Célio A.A. Sousa..............................................................657
Multidisciplinary Project Teams / Patrick S.W. Fong.....................................................................................................665
Musical Metadata and Knowledge Management / François Pachet.............................................................................672
Narrative / Dave Snowden..............................................................................................................................................678
Object-Process Methodology / Dov Dori.......................................................................................................................683
Ontology / William Buchholz.........................................................................................................................................694
Operational Knowledge Management / Fons Wijnhoven...............................................................................................703
Operational Knowledge Management in the Military / Gil Ariely..................................................................................713
Organisational Storytelling / N.A.D. Connell..................................................................................................................721
Organizational Attention / Eyal Yaniv and David G. Schwartz.....................................................................................728
Organizational Communication / Dov Te’eni...................................................................................................................734
Organizational Semantic Webs / Jean-Yves Fortier and Gilles Kassel..........................................................................741
Organizational Structure / Paul H.J. Hendriks................................................................................................................749
Postmortem Reviews / Torgeir Dingsøyr........................................................................................................................757
Practice-Based Knowledge Integration / Glenn Munkvold............................................................................................762
Table of Contents
RDF and OWL / Gian Piero Zarri..................................................................................................................................769
Representation Languages for Narrative Documents / Gian Piero Zarri......................................................................780
Secure Knowledge Discovery in Databases / Rick L. Wilson, Peter A. Rosen, and Mohammad Saad Al-Ahmadi......787
Secure Knowledge Management / S. Upadhyaya, H. Raghav Rao, and G. Padmanabhan..........................................795
Sketching in Knowledge Creation and Management / Fernando Ferri and Patrizia Grifoni......................................802
Social Capital Knowledge / Daniel L. Davenport and Clyde W. Holsapple..................................................................809
Social Network Analysis / David J. Dekker and Paul H.J. Hendriks............................................................................818
Social Network Perspective on Knowledge Management, A / Reed E. Nelson and HY Sonya Hsu..............................826
Tacit Knowledge Sharing / Syed Z. Shariq and Morten Thanning Vendelø.................................................................833
Task-Based Knowledge Management / Frada Burstein and Henry Linger..................................................................840
Taxonomies of Knowledge / Phillip Ein-Dor.................................................................................................................848
Theoretical and Practical Aspects of Knowledge Management / Frank Land, Sevasti-Melissa Nolas,
and Urooj Amjad.........................................................................................................................................................855
Understanding Innovation Processes / Sue Newell.......................................................................................................862
Understanding Organizational Memory / Sajjad M. Jasimuddin, N.A.D. Connell, and Jonathan H. Klein.................870
Virtue-Nets / David Croasdell and Y. Ken Wang...........................................................................................................876
Work and Knowledge / Tom Butler and Ciaran Murphy..............................................................................................884
Workflow Systems and Knowledge Management / Alfs T. Berztiss...............................................................................892
+￿￿JA￿JI
>O +=JAC￿HO
Theoretical Aspects of Knowledge Management
Philosophical Underpinnings
Theoretical and Practical Aspects of Knowledge Management / Frank Land, Sevasti-Melissa Nolas,
and Urooj Amjad.........................................................................................................................................................855
Epistemology and Knowledge Management / Jeremy Aarons.......................................................................................166
Work and Knowledge / Tom Butler and Ciaran Murphy..............................................................................................884
Inquiring Organizations / Dianne Hall and David Croasdell........................................................................................244
Anti-Foundational Knowledge Management / Tom Butler............................................................................................1
Aristotelian View of Knowledge Management / David G. Schwartz..............................................................................10
Intellectual Capital and Knowledge Management / Gil Ariely.......................................................................................281
Types of Knowledge
Taxonomies of Knowledge / Phillip Ein-Dor.................................................................................................................848
Knowledge Management Ontology / Clyde W. Holsapple and K.D. Joshi...................................................................397
Knowledge Management Models
Knowledge Organizations / Daniel L. Davenport and Clyde W. Holsapple..................................................................451
Social Capital Knowledge / Daniel L. Davenport and Clyde W. Holsapple..................................................................809
Hierarchical Model for Knowledge Management, A / Nicolas Prat...............................................................................211
Effects of Knowledge Management
Knowledge Management Processes / Frank Land, Urooj Amjad, and Sevasti-Melissa Nolas.....................................403
Table of Contents by Category
Processes of Knowledge Management
Creation
Knowledge Creation / Nilmini Wickramasinghe............................................................................................................326
Multidisciplinary Project Teams / Patrick S.W. Fong.....................................................................................................665
Sketching in Knowledge Creation and Management / Fernando Ferri and Patrizia Grifoni.......................................802
Postmortem Reviews / Torgeir Dingsøyr........................................................................................................................757
Extracting Knowledge from Neural Networks / Christie M. Fuller and Rick L. Wilson.................................................188
Discovery
Creating Knowledge for Business Decision Making / Shiraj Khan, Auroop R. Ganguly, and Amar Gupta................81
Computational Experimentation / Mark E. Nissen and Raymond E. Levitt....................................................................51
Interesting Knowledge Patterns in Databases / Rajesh Natarajan and B. Shekar........................................................297
Gathering
Mapping Group Knowledge / Duncan Shaw..................................................................................................................591
Document Search Practices / Karen L. Corral, Ryan C. LaBrie, and Robert D. St. Louis............................................130
Competitive Intelligence Gathering / Kevin R. Parker and Philip S. Nitse....................................................................44
Calibration
Knowledge Calibration / Ronald E. Goldsmith and Kishore Gopalakrishna Pillai.....................................................311
Modeling
Object-Process Methodology / Dov Dori.......................................................................................................................683
Integrated Modeling / Thomas Hädrich and Ronald Maier..........................................................................................251
Knowledge Visualization / Martin J. Eppler and Remo A. Burkhard............................................................................551
Integration
Knowledge Integration / Hans Berends, Hans van der Bij, and Mathieu Weggeman...................................................352
External Knowledge Integration / Jeroen Kraaijenbrink and Fons Wijnhoven.............................................................180
Table of Contents by Category
Practice-Based Knowledge Integration / Glenn Munkvold............................................................................................762
Integration of Knowledge Management and E-Learning / Dongming Xu and Huaiqing Wang....................................267
Dissemination
Dissemination in Portals / Steven Woods, Stephen R. Poteet, Anne Kao, and Lesley Quach........................................115
Knowledge Communication / Martin J. Eppler..............................................................................................................317
E-Learning for Knowledge Dissemination / Shyamala C. Sivakumar............................................................................152
Reuse
Knowledge Reuse / Ilan Oshri........................................................................................................................................487
Sharing
Knowledge Sharing / William R. King............................................................................................................................493
Knowledge Sharing Barriers / Keith L. Lindsey..............................................................................................................499
Organisational Storytelling / N.A.D. Connell..................................................................................................................721
Mentoring Knowledge Workers / Ciara Heavin and Karen Neville.............................................................................621
Narrative / Dave Snowden..............................................................................................................................................678
Tacit Knowledge Sharing / Syed Z. Shariq and Morten Thanning Vendelø.................................................................833
Synthesis
Knowledge Synthesis Framework / Kam Hou Vat..........................................................................................................530
Organizational and Social Aspects of Knowledge Management
Organizational Learning
Learning in Organizations / Irena Ali, Leoni Warne, and Celina Pascoe......................................................................561
Measuring Organizational Learning as a Multidimensional Construct / Juan C. Real, Antonio Leal,
and Jose L. Roldan.....................................................................................................................................................614
Intranet and Organizational Learning / Kees Boersma and Sytze Kingma.....................................................................305
Organizational Attention / Eyal Yaniv and David G. Schwartz.....................................................................................728
Table of Contents by Category
Organizational Memory
Understanding Organizational Memory / Sajjad M. Jasimuddin, N.A.D. Connell, and Jonathan H. Klein.................870
Biological and Information Systems Approaches / Barry E. Atkinson and Frada Burstein.........................................17
Organizational Structure
Organizational Structure / Paul H.J. Hendriks................................................................................................................749
Transfer
Knowledge Transfer / William R. King...........................................................................................................................538
Knowledge Sharing Between Individuals / Carolyn McKinnell Jacobson...................................................................507
Organizational Communication / Dov Te’eni...................................................................................................................734
Knowledge Transfer Between Academia and Industry / Franz Hofer............................................................................544
Corporate Culture
Coopetition / Claudia Loebbecke and Albert Angehrn.................................................................................................58
Motivation
Motivation for Knowledge Work / Paul H.J. Hendriks and Célio A.A. Sousa..............................................................657
Knowledge Producers and Consumers / Atreyi Kankanhalli, Bernard C.Y. Tan, and Kwok-Kee Wei.........................459
Incentive Structures in Knowledge Management / Hamid R. Ekbia and Noriko Hara................................................237
Social Networks Analysis
Social Network Analysis / David J. Dekker and Paul H.J. Hendriks............................................................................818
Social Network Perspective on Knowledge Management, A / Reed E. Nelson and HY Sonya Hsu..............................826
Community-Based
Communities of Practice / Elayne Coakes and Steve Clarke.........................................................................................30
Virtue-Nets / David Croasdell and Y. Ken Wang...........................................................................................................876
Learning Networks and Service-Oriented Architectures / George Tsekouras and George Roussos.............................569
Table of Contents by Category
Innovation Processes
Knowledge in Innovation Processes / Marco Paukert, Claudia Niederée, and Matthias Hemmje..............................344
Understanding Innovation Processes / Sue Newell.......................................................................................................862
Intellectual Capital
Intellectual Capital / HY Sonya Hsu and Peter P. Mykytyn Jr........................................................................................274
Privacy Issues
Secure Knowledge Management / S. Upadhyaya, H. Raghav Rao, and G. Padmanabhan..........................................795
Managerial Aspects of Knowledge Management
Knowledge Management Strategies
Knowledge Flow / Vincent M. Ribière and Juan A. Román...........................................................................................336
Knowledge Management Success Models / Murray E. Jennex.....................................................................................429
Competitive Advantage of Knowledge Management / Gabriel Cepeda-Carrión.........................................................34
Knowledge Management Strategy Formation / Clyde W. Holsapple and Kiku Jones..................................................419
Task-Based Knowledge Management / Frada Burstein and Henry Linger..................................................................840
Human Capital in Knowledge Creation, Management and Utilization / Iris Reychav and Jacob Weisberg...................221
Knowledge Management Systems
ICT and Knowledge Management Systems / Irma Becerra-Fernandez and Rajiv Sabherwal.....................................230
Knowledge Management Systems / Ronald Maier and Thomas Hädrich....................................................................442
Integrating Knowledge Management with the Systems Analysis Process / Doron Tauber and David G. Schwartz...259
Workflow Systems and Knowledge Management / Alfs T. Berztiss...............................................................................892
Knowledge Management Software / Rodrigo Baroni de Carvalho and Marta Araújo Tavares Ferreira...................410
Distributed Knowledge Management / Roberta Cuel, Paolo Bouquet, and Matteo Bonifacio....................................122
Managing the Knowledge Environment
External and Internal Knowledge in Organizations / Rafael Andreu and Sandra Sieber...............................................173
Table of Contents by Category
Knowledge Intermediation / Enrico Scarso, Ettore Bolisani, and Matteo Di Biagi.....................................................360
MNE Knowledge Management Across Borders and ICT / Jürgen Kai-Uwe Brock and Yu Josephine Zhou..............635
Metrics
Measuring Knowledge Management Capabilities / Uday Kulkarni and Ronald Freeze..............................................605
Capability Maturity / Alfs T. Berztiss...............................................................................................................................24
Knowledge Management System Success Factors / Murray E. Jennex........................................................................436
Operational
Operational Knowledge Management / Fons Wijnhoven...............................................................................................703
Governance
Knowledge Management Governance / Suzanne Zyngier..............................................................................................373
Mobility
Mobile Knowledge Management / Volker Derballa and Key Pousttchi.......................................................................645
Technological Aspects of Knowledge Management
Representation
Knowledge Representation / Gian Piero Zarri..............................................................................................................467
RDF and OWL / Gian Piero Zarri..................................................................................................................................769
Knowledge Representation in Pattern Management / Pankaj Kamthan and Hsueh-Ieng Pai......................................478
Representation Languages for Narrative Documents / Gian Piero Zarri......................................................................780
Artificial Intelligence in Knowledge Management
Description Logic-Based Resource Retrieval / Simona Colucci, Tommaso Di Noia, Eugenio Di Sciascio,
Francesco M. Donini, and Marina Mongiello..........................................................................................................105
Logic and Knowledge Bases / J. Grant and J. Minker...................................................................................................583
Knowledge Management Agents / Leon Sterling..........................................................................................................368
Table of Contents by Category
Data Mining
Knowledge Structure and Data Mining Techniques / Rick L. Wilson, Peter A. Rosen, and
Mohammad Saad Al-Ahmadi.....................................................................................................................................523
Secure Knowledge Discovery in Databases / Rick L. Wilson, Peter A. Rosen, and Mohammad Saad Al-Ahmadi......787
Frequent Itemset Mining and Association Rules / Susan Imberman and Abdullah Uz Tansel.....................................197
Meta-Knowledge and Metadata
Ontology / William Buchholz.........................................................................................................................................694
Organizational Semantic Webs / Jean-Yves Fortier and Gilles Kassel..........................................................................741
Data Semantics / Daniel W. Gillman...............................................................................................................................97
Domain Ontologies / Matteo Cristani and Roberta Cuel..............................................................................................137
Musical Metadata and Knowledge Management / François Pachet.............................................................................672
Corporate Semantic Webs / Rose Dieng-Kuntz..............................................................................................................67
Dynamic Taxonomies / Giovanni M. Sacco....................................................................................................................145
Mobility
Mobile Technology for Knowledge Management / Volker Derballa and Key Pousttchi.............................................651
Application-Specific Knowledge Management
Healthcare in Knowledge Management
Healthcare Knowledge Management / Kostas Metaxiotis..............................................................................................204
Safety Critical Systems
Knowledge Management in Safety-Critical Systems Analysis / Guy Boy and Yvonne Barnard..................................389
Customer Knowledge Management
Customer Knowledge Management / Scott Paquette.....................................................................................................90
Engineering Design
Engineering Design Knowledge Management / Z.M. Ma...............................................................................................161
Table of Contents by Category
Professional Services Knowledge Management
Knowledge Management in Professional Service Firms / Dieter Fink and Georg Disterer..........................................381
Legal Knowledge Management / John Zeleznikow........................................................................................................578
Knowledge Sharing in Legal Practice / Chad Saunders.................................................................................................515
Mathematical Knowledge
Mathematical Knowledge Management / William M. Farmer........................................................................................599
Military Knowledge
Operational Knowledge Management in the Military / Gil Ariely..................................................................................713
Military Knowledge Management / R. William Maule...................................................................................................627
Intelligence and Counterterrorism Tasks / Antonio Badia.............................................................................................289
xxi
No function of man has so much permanence as virtuous activities - these are thought to be more durable even than
knowledge of the sciences - and of these themselves the most valuable are more durable because those who are happy
spend their life most readily and most continuously in these; for this seems to be the reason why we do not forget them.
The attribute in question, then, will belong to the happy man, and he will be happy throughout his life; for always,
or by preference to everything else, he will be engaged in virtuous action and contemplation, and he will bear the
chances of life most nobly and altogether decorously, if he is ‘truly good’ and ‘foursquare beyond reproach’.
–Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, Book 1, 10
Grant me the strength, time and opportunity always to correct what I have acquired, always to extend its domain;
for knowledge is immense and the spirit of man can extend indefinitely to enrich itself daily with new requirements.
–Oath of Maimonides, 1135-1204
I dedicate this volume to my parents
Phil and Faygie Schwartz
and in honor of my father’s 70
th
birthday.
A man who is a student of the teachings of both
Aristotle and Maimonides, and lives life guided by the
virtues inspired by those great teachers.
,A@E?=JE￿￿
xxii
.￿HAM￿H@
A whole encyclopedia devoted to knowledge management (KM)! Who would have thought this possible a few decades
back when the subject was first developed? What a great distance we have all traveled since then. Back then if someone
would have predicted such a venture I’m sure much laughter would have ensued. I, myself, would have been astounded.
And yet, here we are with just such a venture. I think it can be safely stated that when a field of study reaches a point
when such a product is produced, it has truly arrived and can no longer be thought of as a fad or management fashion.
We have reached just this point.
It might be of value to readers of this foreword to stop for a moment and consider where knowledge management
came from—intellectually and in practice and how it evolved from a collection of disparate insights and models from
several disciplines into a reasonably coherent subject that can have an entire encyclopedia be devoted to it.
In the realm of theory there were several social science disciplines that were the foundation of the subject, economics
may have been the most important of these. Economists had been looking at the subject of knowledge as long ago as
Adam Smith in the 18
th
century—the division of labor being, after all, a knowledge-based concept. The great Victorian
economist, Alfred Marshall, wrote about knowledge often being the basis for firm location and clustering. More recently
economists during World War II began measuring how long it took to build a combat plane, and then how long it took
to build the second and third plane. This early focus on learning-by-doing proved to have a significant influence on
subsequent knowledge studies. The contemporary emphasis on evolutionary economics, behavioral economics, and
the economics of information, have all emphasized the role of knowledge as has many areas of development economics.
Sociology, too, offered many insights. The current fascination of networks and knowledge derives from sociological
tools developed in the past forty years. The interest in communities of practice is strongly influenced by sociological
analysis and methods. Trust, too, falls into the category of sociology and is proving a very durable way of understanding
why knowledge is effective (or not) in organizations and nations. In fact, the whole movement that emphasizes
knowledge as a social phenomenon is a function of much social theory and analysis.
Philosophy has given us at least two critical thinkers for us to digest and reflect on, Michael Polanyi (originally a
chemist) and Gilbert Ryle. It can even be argued that Aristotle and Plato play behind the field roles that still influence
what we say about knowledge.
The fields of computer science have given us much to think and work with. Artificial intelligence may not have lived
up to all its hype, but it had a very strong role in stimulating thought on what knowledge can and can not be modeled
that is still being debated. There are also some applications that can truly said to be knowledge-based. The same can
be said for expert systems. Cognitive science, especially when it is applied to system thinking, has also proven to be
a powerful stimulant with great potential for understanding and modeling knowledge.
Of course, management and business scholars have often taken the lead in the field, synthesizing some of the work
mentioned above, as well as developing theories, cases, approaches, proscriptions that can be applied fairly easily by
actual knowledge practitioners at work. Often this work was influenced in turn by several earlier management trends,
especially information management, the quality movement, and re-engineering. The need for business schools to
develop cases for teaching the growing number of KM classes has also spurred practical research into how the theory
looks and works out when actually implemented in an organization.
Reviewing the contents of this encyclopedia, I am struck by the diverse and eclectic nature of the field as well as
how much convergence and coherence has emerged in such a short time. This volume manages to deal with virtually
every aspect of the field without becoming some huge unwieldy black box of a thing focused on data, information,
knowledge and everything else under the sun. It is fascinating to see just how much agreement there exists amongst
researchers and practitioners as to what KM is, what are its component pieces and core processes, and what are the
drivers and mechanisms that make it work.
xxiii
There is no doubt in my mind that knowledge will only grow in the coming decades as a source of wealth throughout
the world economy. The various forms of knowledge—from an individual speculating at her desk to a patent or
embedded practice—will gain in value and subsequently gain in management attention and focus. More and more
organizations and countries are focusing on knowledge as bedrock of their policy. This volume should provide all of
these pioneers with an essential reference source for ideas as to what needs to be addressed and what we have learned
about the subject over the past few decades.
Laurence Prusak
Distinguished Scholar, Babson College, USA
xxiv
2HAB=?A￿￿￿￿M￿A@CA￿=￿=CA￿A￿J=I=￿=OAHA@
￿K￿JE￿,EI?EF￿E￿=HO 2KHIKEJ
WHY AN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT—AND WHY
NOW?
Albert Einstein once said, “Whoever undertakes to set himself up as a judge of truth and knowledge is shipwrecked
by the laughter of the Gods.” Fortunately Einstein did not extend that fate to those who limit their judgmental activities
to the management of knowledge.
But an encyclopedia? The very term brings to mind images of heavy dusty tomes documenting centuries of study.
So when Mehdi Khosrow-Pour of IGI approached me with the idea for an encyclopedia of knowledge management (KM),
my initial reaction was one of skepticism. Would it not be presumptuous, I thought, to take a field as young as knowledge
management and compile an encyclopedia?
Then I took a good look at what has been going on in KM-related research over the past two decades. Over 15 peer-
reviewed research journals with major aspects of KM as a primary focus (Table 1) producing over 500 articles per annum
as well as major annual conferences such as KMEurope (http://www.kmeurope.com) and smaller events covering
everything from practical aspects of knowledge management (http://www.dke.univie.ac.at/pakm2004/) to the knowl-
edge and argument visualization (http://www.graphicslink.demon.co.uk/IV05/).
Table 1. KM-focused research journals
# Journal Title Publisher
1 Data and Knowledge Engineering Elsevier Science
2 Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Springer-Verlag
3 IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering IEEE Computer Society
4 Int. J. of Intellectual Property Management Inderscience Publishers
5 Int. J. of Knowledge and Learning Inderscience Publishers
6 Int. J. of Knowledge Management Idea Group Publishing
7 Int. J. of Knowledge Management Studies Inderscience Publishers
8 Int. J. of Learning and Intellectual Capital Inderscience Publishers
9 Int. J. of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering

World Scientific
10

Journal of Information and Knowledge Management World Scientific
11

Journal of Intellectual Capital Emerald Publishers
12

Journal of Knowledge Acquisition Academic Press
13

Journal of Knowledge Management Emerald Publishers
14

Knowledge and Information Systems Springer-Verlag
15

Knowledge, Technology, and Policy Transaction Publishers
16

Knowledge-Based Systems Elsevier Science
17

Organizational Learning Sage Publications
18

The Knowledge Engineering Review Cambridge University Pres
s

xxv
Burden’s (2000) KM bibliography, which encompasses both research and industry/trade publications, cites over
900 books and a whopping 8,000 articles devoted to the field. In Rollett’s (2003) KM bibliography we are treated to over
1,000 academic research articles on KM.
During the period this volume was being compiled at least two new peer-reviewed KM research journals were
announced:
• International Journal of Knowledge Management Studies (Inderscience Publishers)
• International Journal of Knowledge Management (Idea Group Publishing)
All this, in addition to the established list of more general information systems and information science journals
and conference venues that serve as a forum knowledge management research. And of course an abundance of industry
magazines and newsletters dedicated to the understanding, development, and adoption of organizational knowledge
management have been established.
It became clear that not only is there a need to create an authoritative repository of knowledge management concepts,
issues, and techniques; but an even stronger compelling need to create a logical structure that maps out the field of
knowledge management across its diverse disciplines.
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ARTICLES IN THE VOLUME
How does this differ from a traditional encyclopedia? Every scientific and intellectual pursuit presents a spectrum of
knowledge ranging from the speculative to the experimental to the proven to the well-established. An encyclopedia
traditionally presents definitive articles that describe well-established and accepted concepts or events. While we have
avoided the speculative extreme, this volume does include a number of entries that may be closer to the ‘experimental’
end of the spectrum than the ‘well-established’ end. The need to do so is driven by the youth of the discipline and the
desire to not only document the established, but to provide a resource for those who are pursuing the experimental and
speculative.
Alavi and Leidner, in their oft-cited Review of Knowledge Management and Knowledge Management Systems
(2001) bring three pointed conclusions to the fore:
There is no single clear approach to the development of knowledge management systems—it is a multi-faceted
endeavor.
Knowledge management is a dynamic, continuous organizational phenomenon of interdependent processes with
varying scope and changing characteristics.
Information technology can be used to extend knowledge management beyond traditional storage and retrieval of
coded knowledge.
Not only does this encyclopedia reinforce those conclusions, it relishes and thrives in the complexity and diversity
to which they allude. The systems and technology perspective is but one of many that have been dealt with in this
volume. While we do not wish to lose focus on our main goal of managing knowledge in organizations, in order to better
achieve that goal it is necessary to look at areas of study as diverse as epistemology and anthropology in order to map
the future directions of knowledge management.
With that goal in mind, a wide net was cast in the Call for Papers in an attempt to attract researchers from many relevant
disciples. The resulting articles that appear in this volume were selected through a double-blind review process followed
by one or more rounds of revision prior to acceptance. Treatment of certain topics is not exclusive according to a given
school or approach, and you will find a number of topics tackled from different perspectives with differing approaches.
A field as dynamic as KM needs discussion, disagreement, contradiction—and of course wherever possible,
consensus. But we must not sacrifice any of the former on the altar of the latter.
To that end, each author has provided a list of key terms and definitions deemed essential to the topic of his or her
article. Rather than aggregate and filter these terms to produce a single “encyclopedic” definition, we have preferred
instead to let the authors stand by their definition and allow each reader to interpret and understand each article
xxvi
according to the specific terminological twist taken by its author(s). The comprehensive Index of Key Terms provided
at the back of this volume provides pointers to each concept and term in its multiple incarnations.
VOLUME STRUCTURE
The Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management is divided into six logical categories:
1.Theoretical Aspects of Knowledge Management
2.Processes of Knowledge Management
3.Organizational and Social Aspects of Knowledge Management
4.Managerial Aspects of Knowledge Management
5.Technological Aspects of Knowledge Management
6.Application-Specific Knowledge Management
The Table of Contents by Category will help you find articles based on this logical section structure.
Within each of the six major categories are one or more articles on each of the topics that comprise that category—
often multiple articles on different aspects of a given topic.
Even though the articles appear in alphabetical order based on the title of the article, the Table of Contents by
Category gives our readers a content-oriented logical map to this publication.
PEELING BACK THE LAYERS
The first five sections are the result of what I would characterize as a layered approach to the discipline of knowledge
management. It is this layered view, as shown in Figure 1 that I have sought to reinforce with this encyclopedic volume.
Consider the view presented in Figure 1 giving a holistic view of knowledge management and its foundations. The
central core of philosophies (the middle) must inform our choice of practical knowledge management processes (the
first ring). These processes must be implemented and adapted to address managerial, social and organizational needs
(the second ring). Finally the implementation of KM process to meet our organizational needs must be supported by
and implemented through a set of relevant information technologies (the outer ring).
The primary processes that make up knowledge management in practice should ideally derive from the core theories.
Figure 1 illustrates a number of the philosophers whose theories of knowledge, economics, and business form the core
of knowledge management. Understanding these philosophies is fundamental to our common endeavor. Without
grounding our processes in their theoretical soil we run the very real risk of simply cobbling together processes on an
opportunistic basis. We must, in a disciplined manner, turn to our theoretical core in determining the essential processes
of KM. In cases where experience begets a process that has yet to be identified with a core theory one must not belittle
the need to eventually discover that grounding. At the end of the day this is what will help distinguish fad from enduring
science.
The layer of processes presents one view of the different stages, activities, and cycles that comprise knowledge
management. Processes need to be pragmatic, in terms of our ability to implement them, comprehensive so that we can
achieve end-to-end solutions, replicable and generalizable so they can be applied across a wide range of organizations.
That is not to say that these processes should be devoid of organizational context. On the contrary, it is the function
of the third layer, that of organizational, social and managerial considerations, to mold, combine, and innovate using
the KM processes in order to meet their well-defined theory-driven goals.
Encasing all is the outer ring—that of the enabling technologies that so often seem to be driving KM rather than
facilitating it. Figure 1 is, of course, representative rather than exhaustive. Additional technologies and new
applications of existing technologies will continue to expand this layer.
Being driven by technology is not necessarily negative. Consider how the development of the electron microscope
led to the discovery of a plethora of atomic and elemental behaviors. The observation of these behaviors led to the
development of new theories upon which those discoveries were validated and new discoveries predicated. So too the
xxvii
computing, storage, and communications technologies available today are enabling the implementation and study of
new types of knowledge representation, sharing, communications, and interactions.
As the theoreticians among us deepen their understanding of the many diverse technologies that have a positive
impact on KM, they can experimentally apply those technologies more effectively and in innovative ways. As the
technologists among us are enriched with a solid theoretical foundation they can focus their efforts on the most
promising application areas and most difficult theoretical challenges. And our social scientists provide us with lenses
through which we can view both theory and technology, and perhaps build the bridge between theory and praxis.
Everyone benefits from a richer more constructive research and development environment.
HOW TO USE THIS BOOK
As a Research Reference
The primary purpose of this volume is to serve as a research reference work. To that end extensive indexing has been
undertaken to allow the reader quick access to primary and secondary entries related to keywords and topics. The six
logical sections and the list of topics provided for each section will enable the reader to locate and delve deeply into
any given area of knowledge management from their desired perspective.

Creation
Discovery
Gathering
Validation
Modeling Calibration
Classification Integration
Dissemination
Sharing
Reuse
Organizational Learning
and Organizational Memory
Cooperation
Motivation
Intellectual
Capital
Culture
Social
Networks
Communities
Competitive
Advantage
Minsky
Gadamer
Heid
-
egger
Ryle
Popper
Kuhn
Desc
-
artes
Hegel
Maimo
-
nides
Marshall
Polanyi
Aristotle
Plato
Kant
Theoretical
Philosophical
Core
Systems Architecture,
Integration and Lifecycle
Knowledge
Representation
Data Mining
Meta
-
knowledge
Computer
Mediated
Communication
Software
Agents
Security, Encryption
Access control
Interface,
Human Factors
Mobility
Information
Retrieval
Unstructured Data
Indexing and Storage
Knowledge
Discovery
Semantics
and
Ontology
Trust
Transfer
Strategy
Theoretical
and
Philosophical
Core
KM
Processes
Organizational,
Social, and
Managerial
Elements
Supporting
and Enabling
Technologies
Figure
1
:
Layer upon Layer of
Knowledge Management
Networks
Portals
Maintenance
Metrics
Privacy
Creation
Discovery
Gathering
Validation
Modeling Calibration
Classification Integration
Dissemination
Sharing
Reuse
Organizational Learning
and Organizational Memory
Cooperation
Motivation
Intellectual
Capital
Culture
Social
Networks
Communities
Competitive
Advantage
Creation
Discovery
Gathering
Validation
Modeling Calibration
Classification Integration
Dissemination
Sharing
Reuse
Organizational Learning
and Organizational Memory
Cooperation
Motivation
Intellectual
Capital
Culture
Social
Networks
Communities
Competitive
Advantage
Minsky
Gadamer
Heid
-
egger
Ryle
Popper
Kuhn
Desc
-
artes
Hegel
Maimo
-
nides
Marshall
Polanyi
Aristotle
Plato
Kant
Theoretical
Philosophical
Core
Minsky
Gadamer
Heid
-
egger
Ryle
Popper
Kuhn
Desc
-
artes
Hegel
Maimo
-
nides
Marshall
Polanyi
Aristotle
Plato
Kant
Theoretical
Philosophical
Core
Systems Architecture,
Integration and Lifecycle
Knowledge
Representation
Data Mining
Meta
-
knowledge
Computer
Mediated
Communication
Software
Agents
Security, Encryption
Access control
Interface,
Human Factors
Mobility
Information
Retrieval
Unstructured Data
Indexing and Storage
Knowledge
Discovery
Semantics
and
Ontology
Trust
Transfer
Strategy
Theoretical
and
Philosophical
Core
KM
Processes
Organizational,
Social, and
Managerial
Elements
Supporting
and Enabling
Technologies
Figure
1
:
Layer upon Layer of
Knowledge Management
Networks
Portals
Maintenance
Metrics
Privacy
Figure 1. Layer upon layer of knowledge management
xxviii
As a Course Reference
The sheer comprehensiveness combined with the logical structure of this volume also lends itself towards use as a
reference for knowledge management courses.
Selecting two to three articles from each of the six section results in many possible study sequences for a
comprehensive introductory course in knowledge management. Alternatively, the first five logical sections of this
volume can be used individually as the curricular foundation for courses in: knowledge management theory, designing
KM processes, organizational KM, managing KM, and technologies for knowledge management respectively.
CONCLUSION
The need for an Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management is driven by the tremendous growth and diversity that has
become associated with knowledge management. Whether treated as an emerging discipline (Jennex & Croadsell, 2005;
Schwartz, 2005), or a possibly recycled concept (Spiegler, 2000), knowledge management will continue to make its mark
on organizations of all forms and sizes. The need to help organizations manage their knowledge has been extolled in
nearly two decade’s worth of management literature. In order to truly understand and appreciate what goes into making
knowledge management work, we need to approach it from theoretical, procedural, social, managerial and technical
perspectives. The layered approach can help us achieve those objectives.
The process of editing this encyclopedia has been enlightening. Most enjoyable has been the interaction with the
authors, some of whom have appeared from the most unexpected of places, and others who have come forward from
established bastions of knowledge management research.
It is my sincere hope that this volume serves not only as a reference to KM researchers, both novice and veteran,
but also as a resource for those coming from the hundreds of disciplines and organizations upon which knowledge
management has, should, and will have an everlasting impact.
REFERENCES
Alavi, M., & Leidner, D.E. (2001). Knowledge management and knowledge management systems: Conceptual founda-
tions and research issues. MIS Quarterly, 1(25), 107-136.
Burden, P.R. (2000). Knowledge management: The bibliography. Information Today Inc. Retrieved November 2004, from
http://domin.dom.edu/faculty/SRIKANT/lis88001/kmbib.html
Jennex, M.E., & Croasdell, D. (2005). Is knowledge management a discipline? International Journal of Knowledge
Management, 1(1).
Rollett, H. (2003). Knowledge management bibliography. Retrieved November 2004, from http://www2. iicm.edu/
herwig/kmbib.html
Schwartz, D.G. (2005). The emerging discipline of knowledge management. International Journal of Knowledge
Management, 2(1).
Spiegler, I. (2000). Knowledge management: A new idea or a recycled concept? Communications of the Association for
Information Systems, 14(3).
David G. Schwartz
Bar-Ilan University, Israel
xxix
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First and foremost, I would like to acknowledge the efforts of the more than 160 researchers from over 20 countries whose
work appears in this encyclopedia. Without your hard work, responsiveness in the review and revision process,
attention to detail, and of course your daily research endeavors, this volume could never have taken shape. I have
thoroughly enjoyed my interactions with you, the debates over terminology, clarity of thought and discourse, big
picture vs. small picture, KM philosophy, and hundreds of other points that arose during the review process. In the
cases in which authors have worked with me to split their initial contributions into multiple articles in order to preserve
the necessary granularity and clarity of the volume, I thank you for your openness and willingness to revisit, restructure,
and rethink your writings.
I thank our huge team of reviewers comprised of all the authors whose work appears in this volume and well as many
others too numerous to list. I thank you all for taking part in the Herculean review effort.
The highly professional team at Idea Group Inc. deserves a special note of thanks. Dr. Mehdi Khosrow-Pour, whose
vision for a comprehensive set of encyclopedias covering all aspects of information technology and management,
conceived the Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management and saw the need and potential for this volume. Jan Travers
and Renée Davies have, through their professionalism, support and encouragement, made the editorial and production
process as smooth as could have been hoped for.
To my editorial advisory board (EAB)—I thank you thrice, for it is a threefold contribution that you have brought
to this volume. First, by helping conceptualize a high level map of the knowledge management landscape, we were able
to compose a call for papers that encouraged all forms, schools, types, approaches, and levels of KM researchers to
propose a diverse superset of articles from which the final volume developed. Second, by having access to the “social
networks” of some of the preeminent knowledge management and information systems researchers in the world, we were
able to generate a phenomenal high quality response to the CFP. Finally, I thank you for helping to fine-tune the article
line-up, making sure the gaps were filled and the presentations cohesive and coherent.
Thanks to my colleague and friend Dov Te’eni who, in addition to his editorial advisory board participation, helped
me before this project was even announced—to clarify the need, conceptualization, and direction of what an
encyclopedia of knowledge management should be, and has provided encouragement and valued advice throughout.