Robot Study Guidex - redhotcyborgs - home

madbrainedmudlickΤεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική

20 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

62 εμφανίσεις

Robot:

a)

a machine that looks like a human being and performs various complex acts (as
walking or talking) of a human being;
also

:

a similar but fictional machine whose
lack of capacity for human emotions is often emphasized

b)

an efficient insensitive person

who functions automatically

c)

a device that automatically performs complicated often repetitive tasks

d)

a mechanism guided by automatic controls


Robot Timeline:

270 BC:
An ancient Greek engineer named Ctesibus made organs and water clocks with
moveable figur
es.


1700s:
Automatons: Swiss inventors Pierre and Henri
-
Louis Jacquet
-
Droz created
Automatic Scribe, a lifelike figure of a boy that could draw and write any message up to 40
characters long


1801:
Jacquard invents textile machine, which is operated by
punch cards/programmable
loom


Automated Beings




Greek and Western mythology told of living statues and dragons teeth coming to life
as sentient or subservient beings



Homer wrote about maidens made of gold in Iliad



Steam Man of the Prairies
,
a mechanical
man powered by steam



Industrial Revolution spawned a technological tidal wave


Automatons




18
th

century craze for animated objects



Early in 1739, Vaucanson presented his first complete automaton,
The Flute Player
at the Academie des Sciences. It was a lif
e
-
size figure capable of playing a flute.
Repertoire of 12 pieces of music.



The 1939:
The Tambourine Player
and
The Duck


L’Automate de Maillardet




A stylographic fountain pen replace the original writing instrument (quill or brush)



It lowered its head,
positioned its pen and began to produce elaborate sketches.
Four drawings and three poems


Ja
cquard Loom & Punched Cards



Automated loom that transformed 19
th

century textile industry and became
inspiration for future calculating and tabulating machines



Charles Babbage developed
difference engine



Herman Hollerith developed first commercial punch card equipment

Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein



Man made of mechanical and human parts brought to life by a mad scientist



In Shelley’s book, Victor Frankenstein claime
d “benevolent intentions and thirsted
for the moment when I should put them in practice”



Asks us to confront ideas about human accountability, social alienation and nature
of life itself



Theme in movies that artificial life is something to fear and destroy


Robot



Karel Capek coined the term in 1917. In Czech robot means worker, but the English
translation retained the original word


Can Machines Be Intelligent
?



1942:
Ashimov’s “Runaround” establishes the three laws of robotics



1943:
McCulloch and Pitt prop
ose neural
-
network architectures for intelligence



1946:
ENIAC is built at the University of Pennsylvania



1950:
Issac Asimov “I, Robot”



1950:
Turing Test proposed (Turing’s Computing Machinery and Intelligence)



1951:
Goertz designs 1
st

teleoperated articulated arm


Asimov’s Three Laws of Robotics

1)

A robot may not injure a human being or through inaction allow a human being to
come to harm

2)

A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders
would conflict with t
he First Law

3)

A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict
with the First or Second Law


Artificial Intelligence



1956:
AI named a Dartmouth computer conference, first meeting of McCarthy,
Minsky, Newell, and Simon



1959
:

Marvin Minsky and John McCarthy established AI Laboratory at MIT


Some Progress Towards Intelligent Machines is Made



1959
:
Rosenblatt introduces Perceptron



1959:
Samuel’s checkers program wins games against best human players



1960:
Unimation develops Uni
mate Robot System



1960:
Versatran is developed


first cylindrical robot



1962:
First commercial industrial robots


What the heck is intelligence?



1965:
Simon predicts, "by 1985 machines will be capable of doing any work a man
can do“



1966:
Weizanbaum's
ELIZA



1968:
Minsky's "Semantic Information Processing"



1968:
Chomsky and Halle's "The Sound Pattern of English"



1969:
Minsky & Papert's "Perceptions" (limits of single
-

layer neural networks)


Neural Nets First Appear



1974:
First computer
-
controlled robot



1975:
Cooper and Eribaum found Nestor to develop neural net technology



1977:
C3Po and R2D2 in Star Wars


Robots Perform Tricks, Cause Problems



1979:
Raj Reddy founds Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University.



1982:
John Hopfield resuscitates neural
nets.



1984:
Chamberlain's RACTER `writes' book



1984:
"Wabot
-
2" reads sheet music and plays organ.



1985:
Kawasaki robot kills Japanese mechanic during malfunction.



1986:
Anderson's robotic Ping
-
Pong player wins against human.



1986:
Max Headroom



1986:
McC
lelland & Rumelhart's "Parallel Distributed Processing“ (Neural Nets)



1986:
Neural net startup companies appear.



1987:
Robotic
-
vision revenue $300 million.



1988:
Minsky and Papert publish revised edition of "Perceptrons"


Some Real Robots:



1994:

CMU’s D
ante II


6 legged walking robot.

o

Mission
--

rappel and walk autonomously over rough terrain in a harsh
environment; receive instructions from remote operators; demonstrate
sophisticated communications and control software; and determine how
much carbon d
ioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and sulfur dioxide exist in the steamy
gas emanating from fumaroles in the crater




1995:

Intuitive Surgical formed to design & market surgical robotic systems.



1997
: Sojourner rover robot sends images of its travels on Mars.



2000
: Honda showcases Asimo


humanoid robot



2000
: Sony introduces Sony Dream Robots (SDR)



2001
: Sony releases 2
nd

generation of Aibo robot dog.



2001
: MD Robotics launches Space Station Remote Manipulator Systems (SSRMS)



SSRMS



The 55
-
ft. arm, called
the Space Station Remote Manipulator System, is part of
Canada's Mobile Servicing System maintenance and repair kit for the ISS.



Attached at the end of the arm is a 12
-
ft. "hand," or Special Purpose Dexterous
Manipulator, formed by a small robot that will

be used in jobs requiring more
refined and flexible control





How Robots Work:

Humans & Robots consist of:




A body structure



A
muscle system

to move the body structure



A sensory system that receives information about the body and the surrounding
environment



A power source to activate the muscles and sensors



A
brain system

that processes sensory information and t
ells the muscles what to do


Korea Plans To Build 2 Robot Theme Parks



November 13, 2007
(Computerworld)

--

The South Korean government Tuesday
announced plans to help build two robot theme parks as part of an effort to boost its
robotics industry.




The government estimates the cost of the two parks at 1.48 trillion won ($1.6 billion
U.S.), and plans to con
tribute 50 billion won ($54 million U.S.) to the cost of each
site. Construction is set to begin in 2009, and work is slated to be completed by
2013, according to a
statemen
t

released on the South Korean government's Web
site.




The theme parks will be built in Incheon, which is about 25 miles west of Seoul, and
Masan, a port city on the country's southern coast.




"The two cities will be developed as meccas for the country's r
obot industry, while
having amusement park areas, exhibition halls and stadiums where robots can
compete in various events," the ministry said in the statement.




The ministry also pointed out that South Korea's 766 billion won ($834 million U.S.)
robotics
industry ranks sixth in the world and is considered a key growth industry.
Robotics research and manufacturing efforts in Korea focus on service robots that
clean homes and provide entertainment.


Researcher: Humans will love, marry robots 2050



October 31,

2007

(Computerworld) An artificial intelligence researcher predicts
that robotics will make such dramatic advances in the coming years that humans
will be marrying robots by the year 2050.




Robots will become so human
-
like
--

having intelligent conversat
ions, displaying
emotions and responding to human emotions
--

that they'll be very much like a new
race of people, said David Levy, a British artificial intelligence researcher whose
book, "
Love and Sex with Robots
," will be released on Nov. 6.




Gone, he says, will be the jerky movements and artificial
-
sounding voices generally
associated with robots. These will be highly human
-
like machines that people fall in
love with, becom
ing aides, friends and even spouses.



It may sound like science fiction, but Levy, who turned his book into an academic
Ph.D. dissertation at Maastricht University in The Netherlands this fall, said it's
something we've been moving toward for decades now.


What Can Personal Robots Do?

(
a) Entertainment robots: A typical example is Sony's Aibo. Robots of this kind are likely to
develop initially for entertainment applications where it does not matter if they make
mistakes (as they will be considered cute even

if they fail at something), and after a while
more useful applications will be gradually added. Aibo first appeared in canine form, then
as a lion cub, and next as a bear, and the fourth
-
generation model is in the form of a
stereotypical robot.


(b) Welfa
re robots: These are care robots for the elderly and disabled, and are designed to
assist with movement, sight and listening
-
related tasks, and conveying the user's wishes to
others. They do not necessarily need to be in human form or be capable of movemen
t, and
an entire room could serve perfectly well as a robot.


(c) Rescue robots: Robots of this kind rescue victims of disasters such as earthquakes, and
are designed to find and recover survivors buried in rubble. In the future, robots could be
based at g
lobal robot bases for participation in disaster relief activities throughout the
world. Projects envisaged include Robots Sans Frontieres and Thunderbirds 21.


(d) Pet robots: These are robots that serve as a substitute for pet animals. Living together
wit
h robots has a positive psychological (therapeutic) effect on humans. Pet robots can
liven up the lives of people living alone, and also seek outside help if something happens to
their owner.


(e) Domestic robots: Such robots perform ordinary household tas
ks, such as cooking,
laundry and cleaning, as a member of the family. They can also act as playmates and
companions, and serve as doctors or nurses when a member of the family is ill. As they
operate in the environment in which humans live and should not f
eel out of place to
humans, they must be humanoid robots in the same form as humans.