<span dir="rtl">Close Reading Questions - המכללה האקדמית אשקלון</span>

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ןולקשא תימדקאה הללכמה






L

D




















דבלב דומיל יכרוצלו ימינפ שומישל






1

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART 1
-

READING STRATEGIES





page

o

Student obligations and grading guidelines




3

o

Overview of the Structure of an Academic Article



7

o


Reading Techniques








8

o


Recognizing the Structure of an Article





10

o


Computer, Networks and Education





11

o

A Guide to Reading and Analyzing Academic Articles



15

o

Word Formation








17

o


Integrate or Disintegrate? That Is the Question




2
6

o


References








2
8

o


Seeing the Forest for the Trees






30

o

The Real Odessa File







3
4

o

Connecting Ideas







39

o


Connectors








40

o


Listing and Sequencing






41

o


Legalize? No, Deglamorize






42

o


Cause and Effect







47

o


Assimilation Versus
Pluralism






49

o

Fixing a World that Fosters Fat






52

o

General Idea and Supporting Detail





55

o

Lying as America’s Pastime






57

o

Plagues, Man & History







60

o

Living with the Virus







62

o

Were You Influenced?







67


o

Comparison and Contrast






69

o

The Evil that Two Men Did






69

o

Emotional Smarts Key to Navigating Life Challenges



73

o

Inference









75

o

A Summary of Patterns of Organization





77

o

Sentence S
tructure







79

o

US Court Upholding Law Allowing Assisted Suicide



86

o

Vocabulary

-

Word Learning Strategies




91

o

Making Meaning








93

o

Avoiding Wa
r Over Natural Resources





98

o

Word Lists of Synonyms







105

o

Word Lists by Categories







107

o

Active and Passive







117


2

Academic Articles for Study


PART 2







o

Two Countries, In
tertwi
ned





121

(Main idea + supporting detail)

o

Designing Babies







1
26

(connectors)

o

Drugs and C
rime







133

o

Mob Rule








139

(listing)

o

Avoiding War over Natural Resources

148

o

Bicultural Competence






155

o

Bilingu
al Children’s Mother Tongue




1
6
2

o

Remediation Trainin
g Improves Reading Ability…


169

(structure of an article)

o

Will We Follow the Sheep






1
7
4

(Main

idea + supporting detail)

o

An Ounce of Prevention

180

o

T
he Economics of Smoking





183

(comparison & contrast)

o

The Next Petroleum






191

(vocabulary


UP/DOWN
)

o

The Duel of the Diamonds





19
8




3

STUDENT
OBLIGATIONS



ATTENDANCE


Attendance is required at all classes.
No more than

2 absences per semester

are allowed.

A student with numerous absences will
not

be given an internal grade (which constitutes 60% of the
final grade) or may not be allowed to continue his English course that year/semester.


GROUND RULES

Lateness

for class is unacceptable no matter what the reason may be. Students will not be allowed

to enter the classroom after the first 10 minutes of the lesson. Therefore, they will be considered
absent.


Other unacceptable behavior patterns
:

1)

early departures from lessons

2)

cellular phones may not be switched on during lessons

3)

food and drink during a
lesson

4)

switching class from one to another because of a student’s changing needs.

Once a student has signed up for a particular course with a specific instructor, he may not
attend a lesson given at a different hour even if the instructor is the same.
Al
l of the class
hours must suit the student.

Otherwise, he should not be enrolled in that particular course.


CLASS ASSIGNMENTS

Homework will be assigned regularly and must be completed for the next lesson. If you were ill or in
the army reserves and could
not attend the lesson, you are expected to contact someone from your
group in order to complete your homework assignment. Hand in the completed assignment
immediately upon your return to class.


TESTS

If a student knows he will not be able to take a sched
uled test, it is his responsibility to inform his
instructor so that appropriate measures can be taken.

If a student has missed a test, it is his obligation to inform the instructor and explain his absence.


STUDENTS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS

All students with s
pecial needs (e.g. extra time, use of a tape, new immigrants up to 5 years in Israel,
over 40’s)
must provide documentation from Bar Ilan
to validate their needs within the first 2
weeks of the course.


BOOKS

Students are required to buy the
newest

version of the Coursebook. Older copies are inadmissible.




ATTENDANCE IS COMPULSORY.

BOOKS MUST BE BROUGHT TO LESSONS.

SOME ELECTRONIC** AND ALL PAPER DICTIONARIES MAY BE USED.


**THE USE OF ‘PEN STYLE’ ELECTRONIC DICTIONARIES (QUICKTIONARY) OF ALL TY
PES IS
BANNED IN CLASS AND IN ALL EXAMS.


4

MITKADMIM
ANNUAL COURSE

GRADING GUIDELINES 2010


The PASS GRADE in English courses and ALL exams at Ashkelon Academic College is 60.


The
INTERNAL CLASS GRADE

will include no fewer than 5 (FIVE) internal tests:

TESTS


80%

Semester 1
-

Two regular exams (ranging from 1800


2200 words) No grades to be dropped
semester one
.


Semester 2


Two regular exams (2500


3000 words) and one sample final test (3000 words)



and a MAKE
-
UP

TOTAL
-

4 regular exams plus 1
sample final (3000 words)

Students should make up tests they miss DURING the course, not wait until the end.

At the end of the course a sixth (6
th
) exam should be given. It will be counted as follows:

a)

If the student takes the exam because he missed an
earlier one, he will now have 4 regular
exams and one compulsory, all to be counted.


TOTAL: 5 TESTS, all internal


b)

If the student wants to improve one of his grades in semester 2, the 6
th

test can replace one of
his weaker grades in the same type of test.

In other words, the student will still have 5
grades,
one of which must be a sample final exam


TOTAL: 5 out of 6 TESTS, all internal
The sample final grade cannot be dropped




HOMEWORK/ CLASSWORK:


5 %

Homework should be set each week. The teacher det
ermines the amount and type of classwork to be
counted in the grade.


GUIDED READINGS

-

semester 1 only, annual courses
-

5%;

At least 2 guided tests should be given.


(A class exercise, where the teacher may draw the students’ attention to significant
points in the text;
the questions are to be completed under test conditions)


READING PROJECT



annual course, semester 2 only
.


10%

Students will study a unit on empirical academic articles, and will be required to read, analyse and
answer questions on s
uch an article under test conditions.


FINAL MARK

The final mark consists of the internal grade (60%) and the final test (40%).


A minimum grade of 50 is required on the final test before calculations of the final mark can be
made.



ATTENDANCE IS COMPULSORY.

LATEST COPIES OF REQUIRED COURSEBOOKS MUST BE BROUGHT TO ALL LESSONS.

SOME ELECTRONIC** AND ALL PAPER DICTIONARIES MAY BE USED.


**THE USE OF ‘PEN STYLE’ ELECTRONIC DICTIONARIES (QUICKTIONARY) OF ALL TYPES IS
BANNED IN CLASS AND
IN ALL EXAMS.




5











יתנש סרוק

-

טנדוטסה תובוח


:רבוע ןוייצ

06

.ללכב סרוקלו ,םינחבמה לכל


תוחכונ


.םירועישה לכב תוחכונ תבוח
רתוימ רדעהל רוסא
מ
-
4

תועש
ו יתנש סרוקב רטסמסב תויעובש
מ
-
8

תועש
תויעובש
ילאירטסמס סרוקב )םישגפמ ינש(
תובר םימעפ רדענש טנדוטס .
אל

וכרעש( התיכ ןויצ לבקי
06
%

וא )יפוסה ןויצהמ
.הנש/רטסמס ותואב תילגנאה סרוק תא ךישמהל לכוי אלש


דוסי יללכ


םירוחיא

סנכהל לכוי אל טנדוטס .םילבוקמ אל איהש הביס לכמ רועישל

ירחא התיכל
06

לש תונושארה תוקדה
.רועישה
.תורדעהכ רבדה בשחיי ,ןכל


:םילבוקמ אל תוגהנתה יסופד


0
.םירועישהמ תמדקומ האיצי .

2
.רועישה ןמזב ןופאלפב רוביד .

3
.רועישב הייתשו הליכא .

4
ראשהל בייח טנדוטס .םייונישה תפוקתב רשאמ ץוח סרוק ףילחהל תורשפא ןיא .

.םשרנ אוה וילא סרוק ותואב
,ןכל
.טנדוטסל םיאתהל תוכירצ סרוקה תועש לכ



תיב ירועיש


הביס לכמ רועישמ רדענ טנדוטסה םא .אבה רועישל דע תיבה ירועיש תא םילשהל שי .עובק ןפואב ונתניי תיב ירועיש
םע רשק רוציל וילע ,איהש
רחא טנדוטס

ס .תיבה ירועיש יבגל ןכדעתהלו הצובקהמ
תא הצרמל הארי הזכ טנדוט
.התיכל ובושב דימ תיבה ירועיש


םינחבמ


הצרמל עידוהל וילע ,תכרעמב העבקנש הניחבב ןחבהל לכוי אלש עדוי טנדוטסה םא
שארמ
םידעצה וטקנייש ךכ ,
.םימיאתמה

.הצרמל ותורדעה תא ריבסהל ותבוחמ ,ןחבמב חכנ אל טנדוטסה םא


םידחוימ םיכרצ םע םיטנדוטס


לכ
דע םישדח םילוע ,תטלק יבג לע ןולאשה תעמשה ,ןמז תפסות( םידחוימ םיכרצ םע םיטנדוטסה
5

ינב ,ץראב םינש
46
)+
םימיאתמה םיכמסמה תא איצמהל םיבייח
ןליא רבמ

.סרוקה לש םינושארה םייעובשה ךלהמב


:םירפס


הסרגה תא שוכרל טנדוטסה לע
השדחה

.םינשי םירפסב שמתשהל רוסא .רפסה לש


םינולימ

שומיש לע טלחומ רוסיא לח
יגוס לכב

ןונגיסב( "טע" ינולימ
QUICKTIONARY

םינחבמב םגו התיכב םג )

תילגנא יסרוקב ןויצ תקולח רבסה


התיכ ןויצמ בכורמ סרוקה ןויצ


06
%

יפוס ןחבמ ןויצו


46
%
.


התיכ ןויצ
ךישמהל ותונכומו טנדוטסה לש עדיה תמר תא ףקשמ אלא ,"ןגמ" וניא הז ןויצ :
.האבה המרל


בכרה ןלהל
התיכ ןויצ



0
.

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) םינחבמה לכ
4

וא


-יפוסה ןויצה בושיחב םילולכ המרה תושירדל םאתהב םינחבמ

ןיא

"םימדקתמ" תמרל טרפ "ןויצ רופיש" ןחבמ



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6

:םיימינפ םינחבמב םיטנדוטסל תויחנה



1
.

.םיקיתב וראשוי רשא םייראלולס םינופלט ירמגל תובכל שי



2
.

התיכה תמדקב םיקית םישל שי



3
.

םיעצמאה םניה הייתשו הביתכ ילכ ,םינולימ
.הניחבה תעב שומישל םירתומה םידיחיה



4
.

הצרמה רושיאב ורותב דחא לכ ,תויחונל תאצל םירתומ םיטנדוטס

ה וא/ו
דבלב ה/חיגשמ




5
.

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6
.

.ןיינעב הערכהה ה/ול רשא ,הצרמה וא ה/חיגשה ידיב ןותנ תעמשמה אשונ



7

Chapter I

Overview of the
Structure of an Academic Article


GUIDE FOR GENERAL ARTICLES


1
.

T
ITLE
:



A
UTHOR



D
ATE



S
OURCE


2
.

Look at the title/headline) and subtitle. What can you


infer from them? (topic, author's attitudes, intentions)


3
.

What is the author's purpose in
writing this article? (e.g.


information, persuasive argument, criticism, a research article
,


a discussion, a book review, an historical survey
(


4
.

a) What is the main idea
?



b) How does the author support his main idea
?


Visually: charts, graphs, refer
ences, footnotes, pictures


Verbally: comparison, contrast, example, cause and effect
....


)
Quote and give paragraph numbers for each
(


5
.

What conclusions does the writer draw? What are the


implications of this conclusion
?


6
.

Is this article subjective
or objective? Support your answer with


relevant quotes, giving paragraph and line numbers
.


7
.


What is your personal reaction to the article? Explain
.


8

READING TECHNIQUES



1)

Understanding the unknown word/ phrase:


a.

From its context (from the sentence or p
aragraph in which it is written)

b.

Identifying the part of speech of the unknown word (to determine its
function/job in the sentence)

c.

Identifying prefixes and/or suffixes in the word




2)

Understanding the sentence:


a) Determining the main sentence if you
have more than one part (clause) in the sentence

b) Determining the subject and main verb of the main sentence

c) Understanding the relationship between two parts of one sentence or the relationship between
two sentences


e.g. contradiction, agreement,
addition, cause and effect, example...





3)

Identifying the Connecting Word and its Role:


(However, therefore, since, because, despite....)




4)

Identifying basic information:


T
itle_______________,
A
uthor_______________,
D
ate_____________,
S
ource________



5)

Skimming the article using the technique of Global Reading:


Read TADS, Subtitles, All of the INTRODUCTION, the FIRST sentence of every paragraph, All of
the CONCLUSION




6)

Identifying Reference Words


Common Reference words:


this, that, these, those, it,
he, she, they, them, its, his, her, their

such, one, ones, there, then


which, who, whom. whose






9

7) Recognizing the Author’s Purpose:


Why is the author presenting the given material?

His intention may be:

to warn, to allay fears, to inform,
to entertain, to persuade, or to advise about his subject.


ACTIVITY: What is the
writer’s purpose

in each of the following cases?


Choose from the previous list (
to warn, to allay fears, to inform, to entertain, to persuade, to advise)



1. Buy fruit and
vegetables only from authorized dealers. Wash each item with detergent before use.
Unwashed fruit and vegetables are a danger to your health.
















_______________

2. Keep this substance out of the reach of children.




_______________

3. The situ
ation is under control and there is no need for anyone to panic.


_______________

4. I am going to tell you a funny story.






_______________

5. The study showed that young people spend 22 hours per week watching


television.









_______________


6. I believe that examination of the facts shows that this is definitely


the best course to follow.







_______________

7. During the American Revolution some colonists remained loyal to the


British.









_______________

8.
The worst recorded epidemic of all time was the bubonic plague, which swept Europe, Asia and Africa from
1346 to 1353.





_______________





9. Placing airbags in all new cars would save thousands of lives every year. Auto manufacturers should be
required to install this safety
feature.








_______________


10. W
e must reform our penal system. The percentage of thos
e

released from prison who are later
rearrested

shows how inadequate the system is.





_______________


10

Recognizing the Structure of an Article



What is the “structure”?


1.

Does the
introduction present the main idea?


2.

How is the main idea supported? Is there a predominant style in the article? Is one of the
following styles used?

a.

examples

b.

question and answer

c.

comparison and contrast

d.

cause and effect

e.

facts / personal experiences


3.

What is the relationship between paragraphs?

a.

Does each paragraph present a new idea?

b.

Does one paragraph refer to a previous paragraph?

c.

Are subtitles provided?


4.

How can paragraphs be grouped according to ideas presented?


5. What is the relationship betwe
en the first sentence of a paragraph and the rest of the
paragraph?

a.

Is the first sentence of each paragraph the main idea of that paragraph?

b.

How is the rest of the paragraph constructed?

Examples/ question and answer/ comparison and contrast / cause and
ef
fect/ facts / personal experiences

c.

Does the last sentence of the paragraph express/sum up the main idea?


6.

Does the conclusion repeat, reinforce, or enlarge upon the main idea?


7.

Does the author offer opinions, make suggestions or predictions in the
conclusion?



Think about these questions as you read the following short text.

11

Computers,

Networks

and

Education



From
Scientific
American, September 1991

by Alan O. Key


1

The physicist. Murray Gall Mann has remarked that education in the
22
th

century is like being
taken to the world's greatest restaurant and being fed the menu. He meant that representations of
ideas (the menu) have replaced the ideas themselves (the food). In other words
,

students are taught
superficially about great discoveri
es instead of being helped to learn deeply for themselves.


2

In the near future, all the representations that human beings have invented will be instantly
accessible anywhere in the world on intimate, notebook
-
size computers. But will we be able to get
fr
om the menu to the food? Or will we no longer understand the difference between the two? Worse,
will we lose even the ability to read the menu and be satisfied just to recognize that it is one?


3

There has always been confusion between carriers and conten
ts, for example, between the
piano and musical feelings. Pianists know that music is not in the piano. It begins inside human
beings as special urges to communicate feelings. But many children are forced to "take piano" before
their musical impulses develo
p; then they turn away from music for life. The piano at its best can only
be an amplifier of existing feelings
.


4


The computer is the greatest "piano" ever invented, for it is the master carrier of
representations of every kind. Now there is a rush to h
ave people, especially schoolchildren, "take
computer”. Computers can amplify yearnings in ways even more profound than can musical
instruments. But if teachers do not nourish the romance of learning and expressing, any external
mandate for a new "literacy
"

becomes as much a crushing burden as being forced to perform
Beethoven's sonatas while having no sense of their beauty. Instant access to the world’s information
will probably have an effect opposite to what is hoped: students will become numb instead of

enlightened
.






5


In addition to the notion that the mere presence of computers will improve learning, several
other misconceptions about learning often hinder modern education. Stronger ideas need to replace
them before any teaching aid, be it a
computer or pencil and paper, will be of most service.


6


One of these stronger ideas is that we are capable of constructing new ways of thinking which
expand our understanding. Although understanding or creating such constructions is difficult, the
need
for struggle should not be grounds for avoidance. An educational system that tries to make
everything easy and pleasurable will prevent

most important learning from happening
.


7

One of the pitfalls of existing media is that media try to fight complexity.

In addition, the form of
the carrier of information is not neutral; it both dictates the kind of information conveyed and affects
thinking processes. This property applies to all media, not just the new high
-
tech ones. Socrates
complained about writing. H
e felt it forced one to follow an argument rather than participate in it, and
he disliked both its alienation and its persistence. He was unsettled by the idea that a manuscript
traveled without the author
,

with whom no argument was possible. Worse, the au
thor could die and
never be talked away from the position taken in the writing.


8

Users of media need to be aware, too, that technology often forces us to choose between
quality and convenience. Compare the emotions evoked by great paintings and illuminat
ed
manuscripts with those evoked by excellent photographs of the originals. The feelings are quite
different. For the majority of people who cannot make such comparisons directly, there is an
understandable tendency to accept the substitution as though not
hing were lost. Consequently, little
protest has been made over replacing high
-
resolution photographs of great art (which themselves do
not capture the real thing) with lower
-
resolution videodisc images (which distort both light and space
even further). Th
e result is that recognition, not reverie, is the main goal in life and also in school,
where recognition is the higher act to which most students are asked to aspire
.



12

Questions


1
. What is the author's purpose in writing this text?


a.

to criticize the
complexity of modern learning techniques
.

b.

to point out some of the dangers in misusing educational media
.

c.

to demonstrate the best way of using computers in education
.

d.

to clarify the misconceptions about educational tools
.


2
. What bothers the
author most about today's educational system?

_____________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________


3
. Briefly explain what the author's reaction would be to having computers in his c
lassroom
.

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________



4
. Based on what you have read, which of the following ideas would the author support? Choose two.













a.

Students should be taught the principles of computers as early as possible.

b.

Student should be given an environment that develops their desire to learn
.

c.

Students should be provided with tools that easily solve frustrating problems.

d.

Computers are be
neficial in that they provide strong framework for learning


e.


Technological teaching aids, which lower the quality of learning, are useless
.


Computers, Networks and Education


Vocabulary exercises


Find the synonym


1.

not in depth (para. 1)

____________________________

2.

immediately (para. 2) ____________________________

3.

impulses (para. 3)

____________________________

4.

support, encourage (para. 4) _______________________

5.

help (para. 5)


____________________________

6.

misconception (para. 5) ______
_____________________

7.

reason (para. 6)

_____________________________

8.

refers to (para. 7)

_____________________________

9.

characteristic (para. 7) ____________________________

10.

difficulties (para. 7)

_____________________________

11.

triggered (para. 8)

_____________________________

12.

Therefore, As a result (para. 8) ______________________

Complete the sentences


1.

A black cat is usually a representation of_________________________________

2.

We can expand our vocabulary by ______________________________________

3.

Alienation in the modern society usually brings about ______________________

__________________________________

4.

Nothing can substitute for ____________________________________________

5.

I have a tendency to _________________________________________________


13

COMBINED SKILLS: Summary Quiz 1

After reading the passage, circle the letter of the best answer to each question.

1

When the
Mayflower

left Plymouth, England, in September 1620 on its historic journey to the
New World, three of its one hundred and two pas
sengers were pregnant. ² The fates of the three
pregnant women and their children illustrate the fears that early American women facing childbirth must
have held for themselves as well as for their children's survival. ³ One of the passengers, Elizabeth
Ho
pkins, gave birth at sea to a baby boy she named Oceanus.
4
Oceanus Hopkins died during the
Pilgrims' first winter in Plymouth.
5
Two weeks after Oceanus' birth,
Mayflower

passenger Susanna
White bore her son, Peregrine, who lived into his eighties.
6
The spring after the
Mayflower
arrived in
Plymouth, passenger Mary Norris Allerton died giving birth to a stillborn baby.

2

During the seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries, nearly one and one
-
half percent of all births
resulted in the death of the mother
from exhaustion, infection, dehydration or hemorrhage.
8
Since the
typical mother gave birth to between five and eight children in her lifetime, her chances of dying in
childbirth ran as high as one in eight.
9
Even when the mother survived childbirth, she

had reason to be
anxious about the fate of her child. '°In even the healthiest seventeenth
-
century communities, one in ten
children died before the age of five. ¹¹Less healthy settlements saw three out of ten children dying in
their early years.

1. According to the author, the experience of the three pregnant
Mayflower

passengers and their babies


a. was very unusual for that time period.

b. demonstrated how safe ocean travel was in. that era.

c. was typical for that time period.

d. is

similar to the experience of today's women and infants,.


2. During the seventeenth century, childbirth in America was


a. rare

b. dangerous.


c. avoided.


d. easy



3. According to the passage, early childhood in Colonial
America was a time of great

a. health risk

b. hope.

c.

learning.

.d, exhaustion.


4. The first paragraph

a.

defines and illustrates the word
fate.

b.

lists the fates of three early American
pregnant women and their children.

c.

discusses the similarities between three pregnant travelers and their children.

d.


narrates the events of the
Mayflower's

journey.



5. This passage is made up mainly of


a. facts b. opinions.





14


6. From this passage, you could infer that

a.

childbirth in South America was much safer than in North America.

b.

early American families tended to be smaller than they are now.

c.

antibiotics to control infection were not available in seventeenth century America.

d.

all of the above


7. From the passage, you can conclude that in seventeenth
-
century America

a.

it wasn't uncommon for men to become widows

b.

mothers were likely to have a
t least one child die by the age of five.

c.

women experienced frequent pregnancies

d.

all of the above


8. The author's primary purpose in the passage is

a. to question. b. to praise


c. to inform.



d. to entertain

9. The tone of the second paragraph can be described as

a. angry


b. grim

c. ironic.

d. disbelieving

10. Which sentence best expresses the main idea of the passage?

a. Traveling on the
Mayflower

was dangerous for pregnant women and their babies.

b. There were great dangers involved with childbirth and childhood in early


America.

c. Women's health suffered greatly in colonial America.

d. In the early American colonies, infant mortality wa
s great.


15

A GUIDE TO
READING ACADEMIC ARTICLES

Knowing that all academic articles ought to follow some fairly strict conventions in their organization
and presentation is the first step in reading and understanding articles.

Step 1


Consider the Article
as a Whole

Examine the article as a whole. Try to decide something about the purpose, audience and content of
the paper before you start reading. Look for clues in the title and/ or subtitle, the acknowledgements
(if any), the first foot
-

or endnote, the a
uthor's biographical note (either with the article or at the front or
back of the book or journal).


Some questions to guide you in considering the article as a whole:

Who is writing the article
?


See if you can find out anything about the
author
. Check to

see what other articles or
books the author has written. It will give you an idea of how the article fits into the
author’s other works and the field in which the author is writing.


What audience is the author addressing?


This is important because it affects the style, content and approach the article takes to
its subject. This may be revealed by the
source

of the article
-

the publication (journal
or book) in which the article appeared.


What is the article about?


Look a
t the first couple of paragraphs; they should give you an idea of what the paper
is about.
The title

of the article should also suggest the main point of concern of the
article, the direction of the interpretation, and sometimes the time frame or period of

concern.


Step 2


Determine the Overall Purpose, Structure and Direction of the Article


Now that you’ve looked at the article as a whole, start reading.

You should be able to find the author’s
statement of purpose,

or
thesis

statement, before the end
of
the introduction. You should also be able to tell
what evidence

the author is going to use to support
the position she or he has taken.


You should also be able to tell the author’s point of view. Remember that research is not value
-
free,
nor culturall
y neutral. You may be able to tell what values the author seems to be promoting.


Also look at the
conclusion.

If it’s not clearly labeled, it will probably be the last two or three
paragraphs.


It is often useful to look at the conclusion before you read

the whole paper because it contains the
author’s summary of what has been said. If you can’t quite identify the thesis (they are often not
clearly stated), read the conclusion. Knowing where the author ended up is often a clue to where he
or she started f
rom. In many instances, too, the conclusion summarizes the whole paper, as should
the thesis statement.


16

Some questions to guide you in determining the overall purpose, structure and direction of the
article:

What is the author’s main point, or thesis?


Sometimes you can find this easily; the author says something like “the point of this
article is to” or “in this paper I intend to show/argue that.” Sometimes you have to look
for a simple statement that contains some echo of the title, the same phrase or
words,
and some brief statements of the argument that supports the assertion: “despite what
other scholars have said, I think this [whatever it is] is actually the case, because I
have found this [supporting point #1], this [supporting point #2], and this
[supporting
point #3].”

If the paper is well
-
crafted, the subtitles of the paper (when there are any) will contain
some allusion to the supporting points.


What evidence has the author used?


This question is often answered in step one, but you should als
o use what the author
tells you in the introduction to expand on your grasp of the evidence.

Academic papers are often “argued,” that is, constructed like an argument with a
statement of what the author has figured out or thought about a particular situation or
event (or whatever). Then, to persuade the reader, the author presents facts or
evidenc
e

that support that position.


What is the author’s point of view?


This can sometimes be easily seen, especially in “polemical” essays, where the author
bashes a number of arguments and then presents her or his own.



Step 3

Read the Article but pay at
tention to the writing and the presentation


As you read, watch not only for
what

the author is saying, but
also how

it is said. This step requires
that you read the article to gain an understanding of how the author presents the evidence and makes
it fit
into the argument. At this stage of the exercise, you should also take the time to look up any
unfamiliar words or concepts.

Although you are somewhat off the hook critically in this stage, you should be aware that there are
tricks the author can use to ma
ke sure you’re following the argument. Some of them are standard
ways to keep the author’s argument separate from the evidence. Look for clues like: “
for example
,


as Professor S. said
,” or “in my study area (or time
), I found

that
.” Also, look for connec
tors and
phrases
(“
however
,”


despite
,”


in addition
,” etc.)


Look, too, to see how the author switches from explaining how the evidence supports her or his
argument to the summary of the paper. The last few paragraphs should tidy up the discussion, show
how it all fits together neatly, point out where more research is needed, or explain how this article has
advanced learning in this discipline.


Step 4


Criticism and Evaluation of the Article


What is your reaction to the article? How has it added to yo
ur knowledge of the topic discussed?

How does it compare to other articles you have read on the same subject?


Based on an internet article at :

http://www.yukoncollege.yk.ca/~agraham/guides/#resources

© Amanda Graham and Yukon College, 1997
-
2004. Page last modified with minor editing changes 2 October 2004.



17

Chapter II

Word Formation

Look at the following examples taken from titles of articles:


Legalize? No. Deglamorize

Integrate or Disintegrate

Assimilation versus Pluralism

Crime in Cyberspace

Unconventional...weapons


Identify the roots of the words. Do you know them? What changes have been made and
how do these changes affect the words? In which words has the
part of speech
changed
and in which

has the
meaning
changed?


What is the effect of the prefix? What is the effect of the suffix?

PREFIXES


Prefix




Usual meaning


Example

1.

a




without




amoral

2.

ab




from, away



abduction

3.

ambi



both, two, double


ambivalent

4.

ante



before




antenatal

5.

anti




against




antibiotics, antiwar

6.

bene



good




beneficial

7.

bi




two




bilingual

8.

circum



around




circumvent

9.

co




together with



cooperation

10.

contra



against




contradict

11.

de




negative, from



defrost

12.

dis




away




disappear

13.

en, em



cause t
o be



enable, empower

14.

ex




out of, from



exterior

15.

extra



beyond, outside


extraordinary

16.

fore



before




forecast


17.

in (im,il,ir)



not




inefficient


18.

in




into




insight

19.

inter



among, between


international

20.

mal




bad, wrong



malnutrition

21.

mini



v
ery small



minimarket

22.

mis




wrong, in the wrong way

misunderstand

23.

mono



one




monocycle

24.

multi



many




multilingual

25.

non



not




nonsense


18

26.

over



above, beyond, too much

overhead, overtired


27.

per




through



perceive

28.

poly



many




polygamy

29.

post



afte
r




postpone

30.

pre




before




prehistoric



31.

re




again, back



renew, reread

32.

retro



back




retrospect

33.

semi



half




semicircle

34.

sub




under




submarine, subtitle

35.

super



above, more than


supermarket

36.

syn




with, along with


synonym

37.

trans



across,
over



transport


38.

tri




three




triangle

39.

ultra



beyond, very



ultraviolet

40.

un




not




uninteresting

41.

uni




one




unite



Here are two lists of prefixes expressing numbers. One list comes from Latin and the other from
Greek. Which words do you know w
ith these prefixes?


Meaning



Latin



Greek

One




uni



mono




Two




bi



di

Three




tri



tri

Four




quart



tetra

Five




quint



penta

Six




sex



hexa

Seven




sept



hept

Eight




oct



oct

Nine




non



ennea

Ten




dec



ten

Hundred



cent



hecto

Thousand



mil



kil

Half




semi



hemi


Sometimes the stem of the word also contains meaning:


Stem




Usual meaning



Example

1.

anthrop



man




anthropology

2.

aqua




water




aqueduct

3.

arch




chief, rule



archbishop


4.

audio




hear




audiologist

5.

auto




self




automatic

6.

bibl




book




bibliography

7.

capit




head




capital

8.

cent




hundred



century

9.

chron




time




chronological

10.

corp




body




corporation

11.

cosm




order, world



cosmopolitan

12.

dem




people




demographic

13.

derm




skin




dermatolog
ist

14.

dict




say




dictation

15.

dorm




sleep




dormitory


16.

fort




strong




fortify

17.

graph




write




graphologist

18.

hydro




water




hydrology


19

19.

log(o)




speech




dialogue

20.

magni




great, big



magnify

21.

met




measure



meter

22.

micro




small




microscope

23.

mit




send




transmit


24.

nym




name




pseudonym

25.

patho




disease, suffering


pathology

26.

ped (pod)



foot




podiatrist, pedicure

27.

phil




love




philosophy

28.

phobia




fear




claustrophobia

29.

phon




sound




phonetic

30.

photo




light




photograph

31.

port




car
ry




portable

32.

psych




mind




psychology

33.

scribe/script



write




inscription, scribe

34.

sect




cut




section

35.

solo




alone




soloist

36.

soph




wisdom



sophisticated

37.

spec




see, look



spectator

38.

spire (spir)



breathe



perspire

39.

tele




far




telegram

40.

t
herm




heat




thermometer

41.

viv




live




vivid, “Viva!”

42.

voc




voice




vocal


SUFFIXES


Suffix




Usual meaning



Examples

ability




capacity for, ability to

flexibility

able (ble, ible)



capable of being



learnable /

edible

al




possessing the

quality of


cylindrical

ance




state or

condition of



tolerance

ence




quality of




indifference

ate




to make




translate

ation




condition or


act of



ventilation

tion




action or state




devotion

dom




state or condition



wisdom

ee




recipient of an action



employee

en




to make




sharpen

er, or




person or thing who / that


investor

ese




language of




journalese

ess




female





actress

ful




characterized by,



careful





having the quality of

fy




to make




mystify

hood




state, condition



manhood


20

ic, ical





quality or



magical






condition of

ine





like, with the



marine






quality of

ious, ous, uous



like, full of



religious






having the quality of


various

ish





like, somewhat


reddish

ism, ist





action, state



anachronism

ist





person who



satirist

itis





disease of, condition






resulting from



bronchitis

ize





to make



theorize

ization





act or state of



realization

less





without, lacking


thoughtless

ly





like, In the manner of


happily

ness





quality, state



happiness






condition

ogy,ology




science, study of


ecology

oid





like, resembling


schizoid

ory





having quality of


contradictory

osis





state, condition,


osmosis

ous





like, full
of



dangerous

pathy





feeling of



sympathy

proof





resistant to



waterproof

ship





quality, state of


leadership

tion





state, condition


addiction

ward





in the direction of


forward

wise





in the direction



clockwise





or manner of

y





having the quality of,


healthy

somewhat



21

PRACTISE EXCERCISES

Prefixes


Root

Definition


Root

Definition

biblio

book


Phobia

fear

bio

life


Poly

many

gam

marriage


Port

carry

gen

kinds, types


Tele

far, distance

log(y)

study of


Theo

god

mono

one


Vis

see



Translate the following words into Hebrew:

1.

bibliography ___________________________

2.

biology ___________________________

3.

monogamy ___________________________

4.

biography ___________________________

5.

polyphonous

___________________________

6.

heterogeneous ___________________________

7.

bibliophobia ___________________________

8.

portable ___________________________

9.

televise ___________________________

10.theology ___________________________




Root

Definitio
n


Root

Definition

aud

hear


Graph

write, record

chron

time


man, manu

hand

cred

belief


Mort

death

dent

tooth


Phil

love

dict

tell, say


Phon

sound


Complete the following sentences according to the definitions in the table above:


1.

If
meter

means measure, a chronometer ___________________________.

2.

If something is
audible
, you can ___________________________ it.

3.

Incredulous

means ___________________________.

4.

The suffix
ist

refers to a person; that's why someone who works on your teeth is called
a ___________________________.

5.

If
contra

means against or opposite,
contradict

means
___________________________.

6.

A
chronograph

is ___________________________.

7.

The opposite of
automa
tic

is ___________________________.

8.

Does a
postmortem
occur before or after death? ___________________________

9.

If
anthrop

refers to man to mankind, what is a
philanthropist
?
___________________________

10.

What is a
dictaphone
? ___________________________





22

Suffixes



Suffix

Definition


Suffix

Definition

less

without


ment

state of

er, or

person or thing


ish

like, similar to

full

full of


It is

inflammation

ness

state or
condition


fy, able

to make or
cause

ly

a
characteristic,
in a certain
manner


Ible

to happen



Complete the following sentences, according to the table above:


1.

A person without a house is ___________________________.

2.

A kind person shows ___________________________.

3.

The opposite of strength is ___________________________.

4.

A person who
is idle is an example of _______________________.

5.

A very clean table is ___________________________.

6.

A snob acts ___________________________.

7.

Someone who heals is called a ___________________________.

8.

A bronchial illness is called
___________________________.

9.

If you resent something, you are full of ___________________________.

10.

If something can be expanded, it is ___________________________.

11.

Acting as though you were full of the devil is called being
___________________________.

12.

The

inflammation of the tonsils is called ___________________________.

13.

To serve as an example is to ___________________________.

14.

To make beautiful is ___________________________.

15.

To have a job is to have ___________________________.

16.

If you are qualified and a
vailable for a job, you are ___________________________.

17.

If you are inhumane, you probably act ___________________________.

18.

She made an arrange_________ with the loan company.

19.

If something can be moved, it is transport_________.

20.

When a sound is inaud______
___, it can't be heard.




23

Suffix

Definition


Suffix

Definition

able, ible

able to


er, or, ist

person, degree

ance, ence

state of being


ess

feminine
person

ant, ent

person,
condition


full, ous

full of

ate

to act or do


tion

state of being

cy, cracy

state of
condition


ic, al. ly

similar to



Add the correct suffix to the following words, according to the definitions in the table above:


1.

depend _________________________.

2.

infant _________________________.

3.

narrate _________________________.

4.

prince
_________________________.

5.

skill _________________________.

6.

bureau _________________________.

7.

host _________________________.

8.

tight _________________________.

9.

topic _________________________.

10.

work _________________________.

11.

success _______________________
__.

12.

vocal _________________________.

13.

sculpt _________________________.

14.

expend _________________________.

15.

form _________________________.


Affixes summary


Figure out the meaning of the following words using your knowledge of suffixes and prefixes.
these words in a sentence.

Then use


1.

Maladjustment

2.

extracurricular

3.

monogamist

4.

supervision

5.

unforeseeable

6.

demoralize

7.

semiconscious

8.

herbology

9.

phonetic

10.

philanthropist


24

11.

intravenous

12.

boredom

13.

Parentese

14.

Unbearable

15.

Trainee

16.

Brotherhood

17.

Theology

18.

Polyphonous

19.

Porta
ble

20.

Immortal


Translate the words in bold as they are used in the following sentences.

Use
y
our knowledge of the word formation


1.

Bibliotherapy

is a potent psychological tool used for treatment of emotional problems in
children and adolescents.

2.

The message of this novel is quite
ambiguous
.

3.

Some societies still keep
bigamous

practices.

4.

Being a
coordinator

is not an easy job.

5.

The decision regarding
legalization

of drugs will never be
unanimous
. The
controversy

surrounding this issue will never be r
esolved.

6.

In order to form an objective attitude to a certain issue one needs to be emotionally
detached
.

7.

Moshe Rabenu
envisioned

the Jewish people living in the land of milk and honey.

8.

Sometimes
immigrants

return to their homeland as a result of
maladjust
ment

in the new
country.

9.

Judaism, Islam and Christianity are
monotheistic

religions.

10.

America is a
multicultural

and
multilingual

country.

11.

The course is for
postgraduate
students only.

12.

Today pregnant women are required to perform
prenatal

tests to detect po
tential genetic
defects and diseases.

13.

Transboundary

natural resources may create disputes between nations.

14.

We were talking about him when he suddenly
materialized

in front of our eyes.

15.

Her
resourcefulness

helped her to win the “Survival” competition.





25

In the following poem, which has numerous nonsense words, use your knowledge of parts of
speech and affixes to guess possible meanings:


Jabberwocky
by Lewis Carrol


Twas brillig and the slithy toves

Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;

All mimsy were the
borogoves

And the momo raths outgrabe.

"Beware the Jabberwock, my son

The jaws that bite, the claws that catch !

Beware the Jubjub bird and shun

The frumious Bandersnatch!"

He took his vorpal sword in hand:

Long time the manxome foe he sought

;

So rested he by the Tumtum tree,

And stood awhile in thought.

And as in uffish thought he stood,

The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame,

Came whiffling through the tulgey wood,

And burbled as it came!


One, two! One, two! And through and through

The vorpal bla
de went snicker
-
snack

He left it dead, and with its head

He went galumphing back.


"And hast thou slain the Jabberwock?

Come to my arms my beamish boy!

0 frabjous day! Callooh ! Callay!"

He chortled in his joy.




Twas brillig, and the slithy toves

Did gy
re and gimble in the wabe,

All mimsy were the borogoves,

And the mome raths outgrabe.



26

Integrate

or

Disintegrate?

That

Is

the

Question




From Time, August 1990

by Charles Krauthammer



1

Federalism is the most boring word in the American political lexicon. Around the world,
however, it's a fighting word. Some countries will break, some blood will flow over it. From Kashmir to
Quebec, the world is seething with secessionists who have had en
ough of the federations to which
history and colonial masters have assigned them. They want out
.



2


There is something anachronistic about these secessionist movements. After all, this is the
era of unification, not only of Germany but also of a nine
-
ton
gued, multi
-
sovereign
,

historically driven
Europe into that remarkable new creature, the European Community. Integrationists point to the E.C
.
,
as the wave of the future, the only hope for peace and prosperity on a planet, is already suffering from
a surfe
it of sovereignty. Self
-
styled realists like former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher,
however, used to scoff at the notion of multinational union as Utopianism, a dangerous deviation from
the natural human condition of group homogeneity and ethnic
sovereignty.


3

Who is right? Is the federation of different peoples into super political structures the wave of
the future? Or is the breakup of such polyglot structures as the former Soviet Union into their ethnic
elements the norm
?


4

The answer is tha
t in the age of the fax and the fiber optic cable, federation is the future. But
federation works only under the condition of freedom. Otherwise what passes for federation is really
colonialism. And though colonialism had a good 500
-
year run, it is spent.
The only way to turn colonial
empires into real federations is to break up into their constituent parts and hope that in their wisdom,
they will see fit to knit themselves back together again
.


5

The secessionists in Quebec seem to have this idea in the ba
ck of their minds. They want not
total independence but what they call "sovereignty
-
association
".

They want a sovereign

Canada.

They

even envision keeping the Canadian dollar
.


6

I
t may be that in a postcolonial world, confedera
l

states

r
equire divorce
before

reconciliation.
The Baltic republics

might have chosen this path,

had Gorbachev allowed them to

go

their own way
.
After all, it is a natural Baltic interest

to retain economic communications and even military links

with

the

count
r
y

that will for dec
ades remain the greatest

power in that part of the wo
r
ld. The B
al
ts would
give up

many

attributes

of sovereignty in return for

a

flag

and

an

anthem
.


7

Gorbachev’s mistake

was
t
ha
t

he thought he could

indefinitely hold back nationalist
movements by threat

and

force

while making them see the light
i
n the benefits of

confederation.

There really are benefits to Confederation, as Europe is in the process of demonstrating. But people
are

h
a
r
dly likely to appreciate these benefits until they can

choose them
freely
.



8

T
ha
t
is

the

l
esson of the European Community
.
The

only

conceivable way to integrate such a
polyglot collection of peoples

with

a long history of mutual hosti
l
ity is

by

open

a
nd absolute consent.
Of course, there is one other way to

impose feder
ation, Abraham Lincoln's way: total war bringing

total victory. Anything short of that

partial Soviet

control over the Baltic republics, for example
,
is a

temporary solution that endures only so long as the colonia
l
power retains the will and the strength
to
exert unrelenting

repressive force. Remove it and secession follows
.


9

W
est Europeans have had at least a century to enjoy the

pleasures, such as they are, of
sovereignty. Others have

not. As Europe has discovered after two
W
orld
W
ars
,

sovereignty is
not all it
is thought to be. But those who

have never had it might be skeptical about such a judgment
.

They may need a taste of the fruit, before giving it up f
or
a higher good
.

















27

Questions


1.

Is the writer’s attitude towards federation
positive or negative?

___________________________


Copy a phrase from the text that supports your answer.


______________________________________________________________


2.

According to the writer, what must a nation experience first in

order for federation
to succeed?
(Answer

in O
N
E word
.)

___________________________


3.

W
hat main idea is supported by the example of Quebec secessionists

and the Baltic
republics?

a.

Neither of them is
seriously interested in independence
.

b.

States need to separate before they can suc
cessfully unite.

c.

Colonialism is a failure in both the East and the West.

d.

Leaders do not always handle secessionist claims wisely.


4.

Which advice would Mrs. Thatcher have given to Mr. Gorbachev?

a.

To allow the Baltic republics to go their own way
.

b.

To
impose

c
onfederation

on

the

Baltic

republics
.

c.

To
depress nationalists but encourage businessmen and

militarists.

d.

To be realistic and offer benefits to the Baltic Republics
.




5.

Paragraph 9 last sentence: "... the fruit... a higher good
."


What is the writer
referring to in each of these expressions?


“the fruit” ___________________________

“a higher good” ___________________________



Vocabulary Excercise:

1. List 5 words with prefixes and 5 with suffixes and 5 with both prefixes and suffixes and fill in the
following table:


Prefix

Sufffix

Both























2. How does the affix affect the word?


28

Chapter III

References

In English there are words or phrases that are used as substitutes. They can refer

Backward,

Forwards,

Out of the Text,

To
Nothing Specific

A) Backward Reference is

the most common in written academic texts. It refers

1. To a Noun or Noun Phrase

a. personal pronouns:

I, you, he, she, it, we, they, me, him, her, us, them

e.g.: Joan and Ann are twins and people often confuse
them.

b.
possessives:

mine, yours, hers, his, ours, theirs, its

e.g.: Israel has made peace with
its

greatest enemies.

c.
demonstratives:

this, these, that, those.

e.g.: Young American professionals prefer to live in the suburbs.

These

kinds of people have enough money to get away from the city.

d.
relative pronouns:

who, which, whose, that, whom, where, when

usually refer to the last noun phrase before the relative pronoun.

e.g.: People sometimes find themselves in situations
in which

they have to

make critical decisions.

2.

To a Verb Phrase

Whenever there is a helping verb (is, have, do, will, would, etc.) without the main

verb. The helping verb refers back to a verb that was already mentioned.

e.g.: Do you agree to take this woman to
be thy lawful, wedded wife? I
do.

3. To a Sentence or an Idea

Nouns like fact, idea, attitude, belief, etc. refer to ideas (expressed in whole

sentences or paragraphs) already mentioned in the text.

Words like that, this, these, etc. show that the idea was

mentioned in an earlier

part of the text.

e.g. There is more to it than
that.

B) Forward Reference

e.g. Although
she

was usually efficient, Mary, who was the secretary, forgot to

pick up the mail on that day.

C) Reference out of the Text

e.g. After reading other research,
we

set out to do
our

own study, (we refers to

the author.)

D) Empty "it" and "there"

e.g. There's a mouse in the room.

It's raining cats and dogs.


29

Finding References


A reference word usually refers to information that w
as mentioned earlier in the text. Therefore, in
order to find the word or words that can
replace the reference word(s)
, go back to sentences
you have already read.


Sample questions:


a.

What does

______x________ refer to?


b.

What word can you use
instead of ______
x
_________?


Common Reference words:

this, that, these, those, it, he, she, they, them, its, his, her, their

such, one, ones, there, then


which, who, whom. whose



Reference Exercises
:





A]


Dr. James Walsh explains that hearty laughter stimulates internal organs, making
them work better through the increase of circulation that follows the vibrating massage that
accompanies it, and heightens resistance against disease.


1.
The word "it
" refers to
___________________________.


B]

In one group of monkeys, disputes over females were responsible for the deaths of thirty out
of thirty
-
three of them. Two points are of particular interest in these fights for possession. First, they
are often c
arried to such an extreme that they end in the complete destruction of the objects of
common desire.


2.
What are "often carried to such an extreme..."?

______________________________________________________________


C]

It is interesting to note that it is

only strangeness within a similarity of species that is resented.
Monkeys do not mind being joined by a goat or a rat. Children do not object when animals are
introduced to the group. Indeed, such novelties are often welcomed.



3.
"... such novelties are

often welcomed." Which novelties may be welcomed?


_____________________________________________________________


D]

W
hen the physician measured his sedimentation rate, which indicates the extent of the
inflammation or infection in the body, he noted a si
gnificant reduction. This reduction held and
was cumulative.


4.
Which words can be used instead of "this reduction"?
____________________________________________________


30



Seei
n
g the Forest for
th
e
Tr
ees

M
aking Co
mm
on Ca
u
se


Herald Tribune
, 27.05.98

b
y
James
D. Wolfenso
hn

and

Kathryn S. Fuller


1

W
ASHINGTON

-

Some

may

thi
n
k

it unusual that the heads of a global d
evelopment bank and
an int
ern
ational

conservation organization should make

common cause to protect the world's forests.
The interests of finance

and
eco
log
y

are more often seen as being i
n
conflict. But the need to break
free of such stereot
y
pes is urgent. The worl
d’s
forests are dying, and it is only by acting
t
ogether that
we can help save them.



2

Nearly t
w
o
-
thirds of the earth's orig
inal
fore
st cover is gone, and what re
mains
is disappearing
at the rate of more

t
h
an one acre per second.
I
n the past

three months alone, the Brazilian

Amazon
has lost forests covering an area

the size of Belgium to f
ir
es set deliberately to clear land. Nearl
y

all of
South
-
E
ast Asia, meanwhile, remains cloaked

i
n acrid smoke from forest f
ir
es
.


3

The ecological cost of this destruction

is devastating. Scientists estimate that

about 100
species are driven into ext
in
ction every da
y
, primaril
y

through

loss of thei
r forest habitats.
M
an
y

of

these plant and animal species are critical not only to the earth's biodiversity

but to specialized fields
such as medicine. A frog livi
n
g in Peru produces a

painkiller more po
w
erful, but less addictive, than
morphine; a
f
lower g
ro
w
ing

in Madagascar is used in the treatment of

leukemia. But forests are more
than

n
atu
re's pharmacies; the
y

absorb carbon

gases

that create global warming
.


4


Like the ecological costs, the eco
nomic
costs of deforestation are astronomically high, runni
ng
into the billions

of dollars annually. In the end, the bur
den of these costs falls most heavily on the poor
of the developing world. Too often, conservation is depicted as a concern of the rich. This view is
tragically shortsighted.


5

Economics cannot remain healthy unless the resources on which they depend are sustainably
managed. True, rich countries can afford to spend more on conservation than poor ones. But
economies that degrade their environment for
short
-
term gain are rarely

sta
ble and ne
v
er sustainable
.


6

Nowhere is this more obvious than in

our mismanagement of the world's

forests.
A
t the Earth
Summit in Rio de

Jane
ir
o six years ago, the international

community ackno
wl
edged the danger

and
committed itself to a more sustainable

futur
e
. Bu
t

that promise has not

been kept. For
es
ts are often
called the

lungs of the
w
or
l
d for their role in

helping to regulate the exchange of oxygen and carbon
dioxide. Yet everywhere we look, from the rain forests of

the Amazon to the borea
l

forests
of

America,
t
h
e lungs are gasping


7

As
lea
d
e
r
s of organizations concerned ab
o
ut bot
h

the ecological and

economic viabilit
y

of
forests, we believe

we must do more to save them. The
r
efore, the Worl
d

Bank and
W
WF have

formed
an alliance for the conservation

an
d sustainable use of forests
.


8

This alliance has t
w
o objectives. Cur
rently, only 6 percent of the world’s forests are protected:
We propose to increase that figure to at least 10 percent of each of the world’s major forest types
by
the year 2000. Seco
nd,
w
e will
w
ork

w
ith countries, assisting the
m

with our

resources and our
expertise, to put 500

million acres of
f
orest under indepen
de
nt certification by 2005
.


9

T
w
enty
-
one countries in addition to

Brazil have ple
d
ged to meet our 10

percent target
,

an
d

w
e
will
w
ork to get

similar commitments from others, helping them
w
ith both the science and the

resources require
d

to select and protect

their forests
.


10

By itself, however, this will not be

enough. We also must reform forest
-
management
policies and mak
e conservation investments involving all levels

of society. Governments must be

31

encouraged not only to create more ecologically representative protected areas

but also to surround
them with sustainably managed buffer zones. Verifying

sustainable management

through
independent,
third party

certification can be

an invaluable means to
w
ard this end
.

Offering consumers
the choice of buying

"
good wood"
-
-

products certified as

having come from responsibly managed

forests
-
-

can harness market demand to

the drive
for sustainable forestry
.


11

Last, but not least, to conserve forests we must take into account the needs of the people who
live in them.


12

Creative mechanisms such as transition funding must be developed to help local communities
invest in sustainabil
ity. In all of our endeavors, we must be particularly sensitive to the needs and
rights of indigenous peoples.



James D.
Wo
If
ensohn is president of
the World Bank. K
a
thr
y
n S. Fuller is

President

of the
World
W
ild
l
i
f
e F
u
nd
-
US. They con
t
ribu
t
e
d

this
c
o
mment

t
o
The Washington Po
st.



Questions