Ecosystem Services-Wetland Stressorsx

lyricalwillingΜηχανική

22 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

65 εμφανίσεις

Common Stressors to Wetland Habitats



(make this a subpage to
http://oregonexplorer.info/wetlands/ImportanceofWetlands/ThreatstoWetlands



Wetlands are threatened
by society’s growth and development in a number of ways. The most obvious
is the outright conversion of wetlands to other land uses, such as commercial or residential

use
.

However,
climate c
hange

,

and increasing

population and economic activity create a number of stressors
that undermine the abilities of wetlands to properly function and provide
ecosystem services

(link to
Ecosystem Services_MAIN page)
. Below is a list
and explanation
of som
e of these human
-
induced
stressors.


Enrichment, Eutrophication, Organic Loading, Reduced Dissolved Oxygen



Increased
concentrations of nitrogen or phosphorus


increase biological oxygen demand

(
reducing available

dissolved oxygen
)

and increases
in
toxic
gases (
e.g.
, hydrogen sulfide,
ammonia)



Source
s
:
fertilizer
s
, livestock waste
disposal systems
, wastewater treatment systems, fossil fuel

combustion, unmanaged urban runoff

Contamination Toxicity




Increas
ed

concentration
s

of metals and synthetic

organic su
bstances



Source
s
:

agricultur
al pesticides
, min
e waste
, urban runoff, landfills, hazardous waste sites, fossil
fuel combustion, wastewater

treatment systems

Acidification





Increas
ed

acidity (decreas
ing

pH)



Source
s
:
mining
,
fossil fuel

combustion
, depositio
n of acid rain

Salinization



Increas
ed

concentrations of

dissolved salts



Source
s
:

deicing

salt
s
,
irrigation
return water, stormwater, seawater intrusion

and salt spray

Sedimentation



Increas
ed

sediment
ation

causing

the
burial of

organi
sms and alteration of
streambed
substrate



Source
s
:
agriculture,
altered

stream

flows, urban runoff, dredged fill material, erosion fro
m
forestry, roads,
mining
,

and construction sites

Turbidity



Reduc
ed

water

clarity

result
ing from
suspended

sediments



Source
s
:

agriculture,
altered

stream flows, urban runoff

Vegetation Removal



Reduc
ed shading and cooling of water caused by removal of riparian vegetation



Source
s
:

agricultur
e and

forestry
, channelization, bank stabilization, urban development,
grazing, disease,
fire

Thermal

Alteration



Elevated

t
emperature
s

of water or sediment



Source
s
:
heated effluent from
power plants

or

other industrial facilities, removal of shading
riparian
vegetation,

lowering of summertime
stream flows caused by agricultural diversions
,
global climate

warming

Dehydration



Reduc
ed

water levels and/or increased frequency, duration, or extent of

de
siccation of wetland
sediments



Source
s
:
channelization of nearby

streams,

subsurface

drainage,

ground or surface water
withdrawals for agricultural, industrial,

or residential use
,

global climate change

Inundation



Increas
ed
wetland water levels and/or increase
d

frequency, duration, or extent of

saturation of
wetland sediments



Source
s
:

impoundment
s

for

agriculture, aquaculture,

or
waterfowl management
,

changes in
land use that

increase
ru
noff to
streams and
wetlands

Other
Stressors



Increase
d

distance between, and reduc
ed patch
sizes of


of suitable

habitat ( fragmentation)
,

p
redation from pets, disturbance from visitation,

invasion by non
-
native species

[
#
]
(link

to EPA ’01 anchor in references)





Compiled by Treg Christopher, Institute for Natural Resources, 2012