Interoperability of the Electric Power System (EPS) Framework for Describing Load Side

lynxfatkidneyedΔίκτυα και Επικοινωνίες

26 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

63 εμφανίσεις

IEEE GUIDE FOR
Load Side Smart Grid Interoperability

IEEE Preliminary Draft 0.1

Revision 0.1

Copyright © 2009 IEEE. All
rights reserved


1


IEEE Std P2030 Draft Guide for Smart Grid
Interoperability of the Electric Power
System (EPS)

Framework for
Describing
Load Side



Prepared by the
Load Side
Sub
-
Group of


Taskforce 1,

Power Engineering Technology of IEEE SCC21 P2030


Copyright © 2009 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

Three Park Avenue

New York, New York 10016
-
5997, USA

All rights reserved.


Load Side Outline Proposal for TF1

Date:

2010
-
03
-
01

Author(s):

Name

Affiliation

Address

Phone

email

Greg
Bernstein

Grotto Networking

Fremont, California, USA

(510) 573
-
2237

gregb@grotto
-
networking.com

Liang
Downey

Nextek Power
Systems

Detroit, MI

313
-
887
-
1321


Liang.downey@nexte
kpower.com

Kim Mosley

KYMS Consulting

Chino, CA

909
-
851
-
6299

Mosleyk2@asme.org





This document is an unapproved draft of a proposed IEEE guide to the XXXX series of XXX guides on Smart Grid
Interoperability of the EPS for application in transmission substations. A
s such, this document is subject to change. USE
AT YOUR OWN RISK! Because this is an unapproved draft, this document must not be utilized for any
conformance/compliance purposes. Permission is hereby granted for IEEE Standards Committee participants to
rep
roduce this document for purposes of IEEE standardization activities only. Prior to submitting this document to another
standards development organization for standardization activities, permission must first be obtained from the Manager,
Standards Licensi
ng and Contracts, IEEE Standards Activities Department. Other entities seeking permission to
reproduce this document, in whole or in part, must obtain permission from the Manager, Standards Licensing and
Contracts, IEEE Standards Activities Department.



I
EEE Standards Activities Department

Standards Licensing and Contracts

445 Hoes Lane, P.O. Box 1331

Piscataway, NJ 08855
-
1331, USA

IEEE GUIDE FOR
Load Side Smart Grid Interoperability

IEEE Preliminary Draft 0.1

Revision 0.1

Copyright © 2009 IEEE. All
rights reserved


2


IEEE Std P2030 Draft Guide for Smart Grid
Interoperability of the Electric Po
wer System (EPS)
Framework for D
escribing
Loads
and Load Side
Applications


1.

Overview of Loads and Load Side Applications (End Use
Applications)


This document provides description of electric loads that consume energy and end
-
use applications aimed at
demand response
for load shedding
in the context of
smart grid. Integration of
electrical
, information and
communications technology is necessary to achieve seamless operation for electric generation, delivery, and end
-
use
,

enabling
multi channel power flow

between sources of power and devices that consume
or store power. The
development of advan
ced power electronics, communication and control technologies

is making it possible to
make the grid smart, by using power when, where and how it is generated
efficien
tly and
reliab
ly
. Interconnection
and intra
-
facin
g frameworks and strategies with design definitions are addressed in this standard, providing
guidance in expanding the current knowledge base. This expanded knowledge base is needed as a key element in
grid architectural designs and operation to promote a

more reliable and flexible electric power system.


1.1

Load Description

1.1.1.

Residential


The largest use of electricity in the average U.S. household was for appliances (including
refrigerators

and
lights
), which consume approximately two thirds of all the electricity used in the residential sector.
Air
-
conditioning

accounted for an estimated 16 percent, space heating 10 percent, and water heating 9
percent; No single appliance dominated the use of electri
city. Refrigerators consumed the most
electricity (14 percent of total electricity use for all purposes), followed by lighting (9 percent), clothes
dryers (6 percent), freezers (3 percent), and color TV’s (3 percent).
1

IEEE GUIDE FOR
Load Side Smart Grid Interoperability

IEEE Preliminary Draft 0.1

Revision 0.1

Copyright © 2009 IEEE. All
rights reserved


3






S
urce:
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/recs/recs2001/enduse2001/figure1.html



1.1.2.

Commercial Buildings

Table E5A. Electricity Consumption (kWh) by End Use for All Buildings, 2003
2



Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)

Total

Space
Heat
-

ing

Cool
-

ing

Venti
-

lation

Water
Heat
-

ing

Light
-

ing

Cook
-

ing

Refrig
-

eration

Office
Equip
-

ment

Com
-

puters

Other













All Buildings ..........................

1,043

49

141

128

26

393

7

112

20

46

122


The largest load in commercial building
sector

is
lighting
. It consumes about 40% of the total energy in
this sector.

Next
in line is
cooling

and
ventilation




1.1.3.

Industrial

Below is a sample data provided by DOE EIM for energy use
d

in
1998.


Net



Electricity(b)

End Use

(million kWh)



ALL
MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES


TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION

889,474

Indirect Uses
-
Boiler Fuel

5,568

Direct Uses
-
Total Process

705,697


Process Heating

103,299


Process Cooling and Refrigeration

54,473


Machine Drive

457,344

IEEE GUIDE FOR
Load Side Smart Grid Interoperability

IEEE Preliminary Draft 0.1

Revision 0.1

Copyright © 2009 IEEE. All
rights reserved


4



Electro
-
Chemical Processes

87,200


Other Process Use

3,380

Direct Uses
-
Total Nonprocess

157,736


Facility HVAC (g)

79,355


Facility Lighting

61,966


Other Facility Support

14,338


Onsite Transportation

1,380


Conventional Electricity Generation

--


Other Nonprocess

Use

696



The largest load in the manufacturing process is
Machine Drive

which run motors.



Facility use of energy centers around
Lighting

and
HVAC


1.1.4.

Transportation Sector

Electric vehicle and plug
-
in hybrid vehicle are growing
loads in the transportation sector. IEEE 1890 is
tasked to develop standards for this sector. Although the number of EV and PHEVs on the road is still
small but as more and more people are adopting th
ese new forms of environmentally friendly vehicles,
providing power to run these loads are becoming critical to the energy supply industry

1.2

Load Characteristics and Analysis


Common to all industries, Lighting, HVAC, Electric Drives to Run Machines (includ
ing EV/PHEV) and
Computer/Communication equipment are key loads that use the vast majority of the electricity.


1.2.1

DC Loads

Fed with AC Power from Transmission Grid

(legacy)

Since the advent of semi
-
conductors in the 1950’s, their ubiquity has steadily grown to the point where
electronic devices are the fastest growing sector of the total load globally. All
microprocessors re
quire direct
current

(DC)

and many devices operate i
nternally on DC power since it can be precisely regulated for sensitive
components
, such as electronics ballasted lighting, LEDs, Variable speed drive to run motors for HVAC and
machines in the factory
, and of course all computing, communication equipment
and digital consumer devices.

Building electrical systems are fed with AC that

is converted to DC via p
ower supply

to every
electronic device.
This is because the legacy AC networks are dominant due to its primary advantage over DC as a superior
medium for

long distance transmission from wholesale power generating stations to their distant customers
-

loads.

1.2.1.1

Interconnection, g
rid connected
-
ness
, AC input, DC use

1.2.1.1.1

External Power Supply voltage, current, efficiency, power factor

1.2.1.1.2

Internal Power Supply voltage, c
urrent, efficiency

1.2.1.2

Electrical properties of the compon
ents ports/wires

1.2.1.3

Unique device ID
, needed to be identifiable on the grid

1.2.1.4

General device characteristics: type
, manufacturer, Energy Star rating

1.2.1.5

Equipment operator, for use in billing/credit with a
mobile device such as PEV


1.2.2

DC Loads

Fed with DC Power from Distributed Energy Resources

(emerging)

There are 2 large global trends afoot that are changing the status quo. The first of these is the growth in
distributed power generating resources (DG),
especially renewable one such as solar PV and small wind turbines.
Each of these resources is intrinsically DC. The other trend

creating the opportunity for DC power networks is
the increasing density of electronic loads that themselves are DC power

cons
umers. Therefore, in applications
IEEE GUIDE FOR
Load Side Smart Grid Interoperability

IEEE Preliminary Draft 0.1

Revision 0.1

Copyright © 2009 IEEE. All
rights reserved


5


where DG sources are close to DC loads and there is no need for long distance transmission, DC power networks
have proliferated, the country of Japan has recognized a DC IT standard and an industry consortium has formed
to

promote common DC power standards worldwide.

The key benefits DC power networks bring are avoided conversion losses, superior compatibility with power
storage techniques and renewable energy, all leading to higher integrated system efficiencies on the ord
er of
25%

1.2.2.1

Interconnection, grid connected
-
ness, DC input, DC use

1.2.2.1.1

DC power supply voltage, current, efficiency

1.2.2.2

Electrical properties of the components ports/wires

1.2.2.3

Unique device ID, needed to be identifiable on the grid

1.2.2.4

General device characteristics: type,
manufacturer, Energy Star rating

1.2.2.5

Equipment operator, for use in billing/credit with a mobile device such as PEV

1.2.3

Legacy AC Load

Although there are many legacy loads still powered by AC, there is less and less pure AC load as the world is
continuously going digital. Before the widespread adoption of DC micro
-
grid, an hybrid DC/AC system will allow
DC loads (new) to receive power fro
m DC sources (new) and AC loads (old) to continue receive power from AC
sources (old).

1.2.3.1

Interconnection, grid connected
-
ness, AC input, DC use

1.2.3.1.1

AC power supply voltage, current, efficiency, power factor

1.2.3.2

Electrical properties of the components ports/wires

1.2.3.3

Unique device ID, needed to be identifiable on the grid

1.2.3.4

General device characteristics: type, manufacturer, Energy Star rating

1.2.3.5

Equipment operator, for use in billing/credit with a mobile device such as PEV


1.3

Load Applications


The equation between energy su
pply to energy demand is in
-
balanced today due to many technological,
historical and economical reasons
. The idea of a
Smart Grid
is to break the bottleneck between
the
demand and
the
supply making the grid smart so as to reduce usage or deliver less power

at the source via higher efficiency
to meet the same
level of
load demand.

1.3.1

Energy Efficiency

Applications

I
t

is generally thought that an increase in energy efficiency is when either energy inputs are reduced for a given
level of service, or there are increased or enhanced services for a given amount of energy inputs
3

1.3.1.1

Appliance Efficiency

Many appliances manufac
tured today are with much higher efficiency than earlier generation product.
Taking lighting as an example
, U.S. commercial buildings used a total of 352 billion kWh of
electricity for
lightin
g

in
.

CBECS data suggest

greater energy savings will occur by replacing existing fluorescent

in 1995.
L
ights with
more energy
-
efficient equipment

such as
electronic ballasts
, which increase fluorescent
efficiency by up to 25 percent. There remains a significant fraction of commercial building floor

space that
can be upgraded with more energy
-
efficient
lighting equipment
4

1.3.1.2

Power Distribution Efficiency


DC Microgrid

and Community Power



In applications where DG sources are close to DC loads and there is no need for long distance transmission,
DC power networks have proliferated. The key
benefits DC power networks bring are avoided conversion

IEEE GUIDE FOR
Load Side Smart Grid Interoperability

IEEE Preliminary Draft 0.1

Revision 0.1

Copyright © 2009 IEEE. All
rights reserved


6


losses, superior compatibility with power storage techniques (battery) and renewable energy, all leading to
higher integrated system efficiencies on the order of 25%


Using DC Microgrid for DC loads w
ill reduce the need to build long distance transmission line to move prime
power, alleviating the dependence on the grid transmission line. Similar to what happened to the computing
industry for the past 50 years, it moved from main frame based computing t
o very distributed computing
architecture
known today as internet. The vision of internet for power is become a reality today.

1.3.2


Energy Management

1.3.2.1

Smart Meters,
monitoring, data acquisition and control example

1.3.2.2

Home Gateway

1.3.2.3

TOU

1.3.2.4

Tiered Rates

1.3.3

Demand Respons

From [FERC] italics added:


The Commission uses the term
demand response

to refer to the ability of customers to respond to either a
reliability trigger or a price trigger from their utility system operator, load serving entity, regional transmission
organ
ization/independent system operator (RTO/ISO) or other demand response provider by lowering their
power consumption. For many years, the term was used to refer to peak clipping actions that were confined to a
limited number of hours of the year. As adopted

in Order No. 719, the Commission defined demand response to
mean “a reduction in the consumption of electric energy by customers from their expected consumption in
response to an increase in the price of electric energy or to incentive payments designed t
o induce lower
consumption of electric energy.” Demand response can be both
dispatchable

and
non
-
dispatchable
.
Dispatchable

demand response refers to planned changes in a customer’s consumption in a response to
direction from someone besides the customer.
It includes
direct load control

of customer appliances such as
those for air conditioning and water heating,
directed reductions

in return for lower rates (called curtailable or
interruptible rates), and a variety of wholesale programs offered by RTOs/ISOs

that compensate participants
who curtail loads when directed for either reliability or economic reasons. This direction to reduce load can be in
response to acceptance of consumer’s bid to sell its demand reduction at a price in an organized market (a
who
lesale price responsive demand response) or to be sold to a retail provider.
Non
-
dispatchable

demand
response refers to programs and products in which the customer decides whether and when to reduce
consumption based on a retail rate design that changes ov
er time. This is sometimes called retail price
-
responsive demand and includes dynamic pricing programs that charge higher prices during high
-
demand hours
and lower prices at other times.


As used in this Discussion Draft, the term demand response includes
consumer actions that can change any part
of the load profile of a utility or region, not just the period of peak usage. As a result of technology innovations
and policy directions, new types and applications of demand response are emerging. In particular,

consumer
response to signals from a utility system operator,
load
-
serving entity
, regional transmission
organization/independent system operator (RTO/ISO), or other demand response provider, can be deployed to
IEEE GUIDE FOR
Load Side Smart Grid Interoperability

IEEE Preliminary Draft 0.1

Revision 0.1

Copyright © 2009 IEEE. All
rights reserved


7


shape any or all parts of a customer’s
load p
rofile
. This concept of demand response encompasses the effect of
smart appliances in customer dwellings that can respond in near real
-
time to the signals of a load
-
serving entity,
or other demand response provider, or to changes in bulk power system condi
tions such as a change in system
frequency. It also includes the smart integration of changeable consumption with variable generation to enable
the addition of new technologies such as wind farms and roof top solar systems to utility systems. Demand
respon
se also includes deployment of devices that can manage demand as needed to provide grid services such
as regulation and reserves, and can also draw power from energy storage devices such as plug
-
in hybrid electric
vehicle batteries to provide these same gr
id services. Demand response can go beyond simple reduction in peak
period consumption to include shifting consumption from peak to off
-
peak hours. For example, the use of
energy storage devices may be advanced through the use of time
-
of
-
use rates that enc
ourage night
-
time
charging of home energy storage systems, plug
-
in hybrid vehicles and all
-
electric vehicles.

1.3.3.1

Categories of Demand Response Systems

From [NYISO]:

1.

Energy Efficiency

programs reduce electricity consumption and usually reduce peak demand

2.

Price Response

programs move consumption from day to night (real time pricing or time of use)

3.

Peak Shaving

programs require more response during peak hours and focus on reducing peaks
every high
-
load
day

4.

Reliability Response

(contingency response) requires the fastest, shortest duration response. Response is only
required during power system “events”

this is new and slowly developing

5.

Regulation Response

continuously follows the power s
ystem’s minute
-
to
-
minute commands to balance the
aggregate system

this is very new and may have the potential to dramatically change production costs,
especially for aluminum and chlor
-
alkali


Examples of older
Price response

and
Peak Shaving

programs fro
m PG&E are summarized in the following table:

Name

Simple Description

Communications

Critical Peak
Pricing (CPP)

Provides lower energy rates on non
-
CPP event days in
exchange for higher rates on CPP event days

e
-
mail, text messaging, 3PM
the day ahead

Demand
Bidding
Program
(DBP)

Pays you an incentive to reduce your electric load
according to a bid that you submit. For each event you
may elect to submit or not submit a bid (minimum
duration 2 hours, minimum reduction 50kW)

e
-
mail, text messaging, day
-
ah
ead, day
-
of (1 hour to
submit bid, 15 minute
notification of acceptance to
reduction)

Base
Interruptible
Program
(BIP)

Pays you an incentive to reduce your facility's load to or
below a level that is pre
-
selected by you. This pre
-
selected level is called
the
Firm Service Level (FSL).

Penalties for not meeting this level during an event. No
more than 10 events per month, 120 hours per year.
(minimum reduction 100kW)

e
-
mail and fax, 30 minutes
advanced notice


These programs have only available to customers

with with billed maximum demand of 200kW or greater and
require a remotely readable interval type meter.

IEEE GUIDE FOR
Load Side Smart Grid Interoperability

IEEE Preliminary Draft 0.1

Revision 0.1

Copyright © 2009 IEEE. All
rights reserved


8


A more modern program is
PeakChoice™

that provides numerous options:

Options

Description

Participation
level

Committed
: Participants receive guaranteed monthly incentives for committing to
reduce electricity consumption when called upon. The higher your commitment,
the higher the monthly incentives you'll earn. If you select PeakChoice Committed
but are unable to meet you
r agreed upon reduction, some penalties may be
incurred.

Best Effort
: Decide, on the spot, whether your company can respond to
PeakChoice reduction events. Earn incentives when PG&E notifies you and you're
able to reduce your electricity. Once notified,
you have up to
two hours

to respond
and confirm your participation. If you are not able to reduce your electricity when
asked, no problem (and no penalty).

Advance
Notice

Decide how much "advance" time your company needs in order to reduce
consumption. C
hoose from
two days, one day, four hours or 30 minutes
.

Reduction
Size

Determine the amount of electrical reduction you can accommodate.

Timing

Select between weekdays from 1 p.m. to 7 p.m. or 24 hours a day, seven days a
week.

Total Days

Select the
total number of days you are able to participate.


To participate in this program one must have internet access with e
-
mail, and be able to curtail at least 10kW of
demand.

Note that the above methods deal with relatively long advance notice or response t
imes. Reference [NYISO]
discusses the use of demand response systems to provide
ancillary services.

A summary of ancillary services that
could be aided by load side control is given in the following table [NYSISO]:

Service

Service Description

Response
Speed

Duration

Cycle Time

Normal Conditions

Regulating
Reserve

Online resources, on
automatic generation control

(AGC), that can respond rapidly to
system
-
operator requests for up and down movements; used to track the minute
-
to
-
minute fluctuations in sys
tem load and to correct for unintended fluctuations in
generator output to comply with control performance standards (CPSs) 1 and 2 of the
North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC 2006)

~1 min

Minutes

Minutes

Load
Following or
Fast Energy
Markets

Similar to regulation but slower. Bridges between the regulation service and the hourly
energy markets. Supplied by the 5 minute energy market.

~10 minutes

10 min to hours

10 min to hours

Contingency Conditions

10 Minute
Spinning
Reserve

Online

generation or responsive load, synchronized to the grid, that can increase
output immediately in response to a major generator or transmission outage and can
reach full output within 10 min to comply with NERC’s Disturbance Control Standard
(DCS)

Second
s to < 10 min

10 to 120 min

Hours to Days

10 Min Non
-
Synchronous
Reserve

Same as spinning reserve, but need not respond immediately; resources can be offline
but still must be capable of reaching full output within the required 10 min

<10 min

10 to 120 min

Hours to Days

IEEE GUIDE FOR
Load Side Smart Grid Interoperability

IEEE Preliminary Draft 0.1

Revision 0.1

Copyright © 2009 IEEE. All
rights reserved


9


30 Min
Operating
Reserve

Same as non
-
synchronous reserve, but responds within 30 minutes; used to restore
spinning and non
-
synchronous reserves to their pre
-
contingency status


< 30 min

2 hours

Hours to Days

Other Services

Voltage
Control

The injection or absorption of reactive power to maintain transmission
-
system
voltages within required ranges


Seconds

Seconds

Continuous


As can be seen from this table that the reaction time from the load to participate in some ancillary services is
significantly faster than that for
price response

or
peak shaving,
but relatively reasonable for smart grid.

1.3.3.2


Categorizing Loads for Demand Re
sponse

The aim of this section is to characterize loads in a manner that allows their use in any of the five previously
defined categories of demand response systems to which they apply (energy efficiency, price response, peak
shaving, reliability response
, regulation response).

1.3.3.2.1

Individual Load Properties

The raw electrical characteristics, capabilities, and limitations of a device.

Electric Current consumption (real time & historical)

a.

Example: "Current Transformer Encoding Module" [SEQ]
--

such a devices
is used to measure either
large residential loads or appliances via current transformer measurements.

Example: Embedded measurement from smart appliances

1.3.3.2.2

Individual Load Usage

1.3.3.2.3

Aggregated Load Property and Use

Load profiles, historical, weather related, etc


Residential "Home Energy Gateway"

a.

Example: see [SEQ].

1.3.3.2.4

Aggregated Load Property and Use

1.3.4

Load Control

1.3.5

Direct Load Control

Utility or (intermediary) directly controls an individual device such as A/C, pool pump, etc., by communicating
"directly" with it
(e.g., pager systems, etc…)

1.3.5.1

Direct Load Control (on/off)

1.3.5.1.1
Example: 30A contactor (roughly an on/off relay) for general use via local radio control [SEQ]

1.3.5.1.2
Example: remote control power outlets [SEQ].

1.3.5.2

Themostat (HVAC)

1.3.5.2.1
Example: wireless HVAC module for thermostat upgrade (preserves existing thermostat) [SEQ]

1.3.5.2.2
Example: New smart thermostats with smart grid or home gateway interfaces



IEEE GUIDE FOR
Load Side Smart Grid Interoperability

IEEE Preliminary Draft 0.1

Revision 0.1

Copyright © 2009 IEEE. All
rights reserved


10


1.3.6

In
-
direct Load Control

Utility or (intermediary) directly controls an

individual device such as A/C, pool pump, but communicates with
some type of gateway rather than talking to the device itself.

Home gateways? [SEQ]

1.3.7

Aggregate Load Control

Here a utility or intermediary talks to some type of load aggregator. This interfac
e is being standardized as part
of the OpenADR [OpenADR] efforts. Smart home gateways seem like they can act as an aggregate load controller
too [SEQ].


1.4

Load Side Power Distribution Topology: Hybrid DC/AC System




1.4.3

Load Centric Grid


Ne
w Meaning for Smart Grid

Traditionally the focus of the power industry has been on the grid, but the grid is not a mean to itself. The grid
was invented to serve the power needs of the load, if instead we put the LOAD as the center of the attention,
we
will come up with different kinds of ideas on how best to send power to the load either locally or remotely.
The concept of smart grid will carry on new meaning.

The concept of Zero Energy Building is to promote the idea that a building must have a mean to

generate its own
power to serve the building’s power needs. Keep the Zero Energy Building concept in mind, any renewable
IEEE GUIDE FOR
Load Side Smart Grid Interoperability

IEEE Preliminary Draft 0.1

Revision 0.1

Copyright © 2009 IEEE. All
rights reserved


11


energy or onsite energy system should be designed according to the needs of the load. If the peak generation is
matched to the load, t
hen every clean watt will be utilized without any conversion loss. During the none
-
peak
period of the renewable generation, utility grid power will come into play to make up the difference, therefore
accomplishing a true peak shaving in the most efficient
way.

Because renewable or onsite energy sources are still very expensive to implement, although “selling excess
power back to the utility” via “feed
-
in” tariff is a nice to have concept, it does not make economic sense in
reality. With government rebate a
nd tax incentives, we are still talking about $2
-
3/KWH for the installed cost of
Solar PVs, for example, even if user can sell the excessive solar power back to the utility, at most, user is getting
paid at the whole sale rate of the KWH, say 10cents/KWH.
Secondly, selling precious solar power back to utility,
an inversion process is un
-
avoided converting DC power to AC,

at the electronic load side, the load will again
convert the AC back to DC either internal or externally. These added conversions contrib
ute to further energy
loss. Sizing the renewable generation capacity to match the load is a mean to avoid these un
-
necessary loss
.

1.4.4

Hybrid AC/DC Microgrid


D
istributed Energy

In the not too distant future, all loads will be electronics driven thus DC in n
ature, therefore a DC micro
-
grid
makes perfect sense for energy efficiency, simplicity and reliability purposes. But before that, a hybrid AC/DC
system will act as an interim solution while more and more loads are becoming DC
-
ready.


In the hybrid AC/DC sy
stem, most if not all renewable/onsite DC generation will be used to power directly the
DC loads, and AC power will continue to supply power to the legacy AC loads. An energy transfer mechanism
allowing multiple paths to exist, (1)sending utility AC power
to DC loads to make up the shortage of renewable
supply, (2)supplying excessive DC power back to utility grid to power the existing AC legacy loads, (3)charge
battery, etc., will require a smart power router device to act as inverter/rectifier/converter co
mbined.



IEEE GUIDE FOR
Load Side Smart Grid Interoperability

IEEE Preliminary Draft 0.1

Revision 0.1

Copyright © 2009 IEEE. All
rights reserved


12



1.4.5

Inverters/Converters


Renewable Energy at Long Distance

1.4.5.2

Inverters

-

HVAC

For solar PVs or wind mills installed as a power plant or wind farm that harvest renewable energy to be
transferred to areas that do not have sufficient renewable energy
sources, an inverter solution will be needed to
convert
the generated
DC power to AC to be synchronized with the high voltage transmission line

at 50/60hz

.

1.4.5.3

Converters
-

HVDC

HVDCs have existed and are in the talk again to move electricity in the form of
DC (kv) in long distance. HVDC
offers economic benefits due to the savings on copper (2 wire in DC vs. 3 wire in AC), and simplicity due to the
avoidance of managing 2
-
phase power and power factor correction. A boost convert will be necessary to
increase t
he DC voltage from solar PV to kv level at the sending end, and a buck converter at the receiving end
to down convert the high voltage DC to a lower voltage to be used by the loads. DC
-
DC converters are simpler to
design and require less components than in
verters

IEEE GUIDE FOR
Load Side Smart Grid Interoperability

IEEE Preliminary Draft 0.1

Revision 0.1

Copyright © 2009 IEEE. All
rights reserved


13


1.5

Communication and Networks

1.5.3

Protocols

1.5.3.2

LAN, WAN, HAN, SCADA

1.5.4

Electrical protection and network security (fault isolation, switching and islanding)





Referen
ces:

1
:
US DOE Energy Information Administration:
h
ttp://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/recs/recs2001/enduse2001/enduse2001.html

2:
US DOE Energy Information Administration:
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cbecs/cbecs2003/detailed_tables_2003/detailed_tables_2003.html#enduse03

3:
US DOE Energy Information Administration:
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/efficiency/de
finition.htm

4:
US DOE Energy Information Administration:
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cbecs/lit
-
type.html

[NYISO]

B. Kirby, M. Starke, S. Adhikari, "NYISO Industrial Load Response Opportunitie
s: Resource and Market
Assessment

Task 2 Final Report", Oak Ridge National Laboratory, ORNL/TM
-
2009/147, October 2009.
Available from:
http://certs.lbl.gov/pdf/lbnl
-
2490e.pdf

.

[FERC]

Federal Energy
Regulatory Commission Staff, "Possible Elements of a National Action Plan on Demand
Response
-

A DISCUSSION DRAFT
-
, DOCKET NO. AD09
-
10, October 28, 2009. Available at:
http://www.ferc.gov/EventCalendar/Files/20091028124306
-
AD09
-
10
-
000
-
Discussion.pdf

.

[PGE]

See Demand Response info at:
http://www.pge.com/demandresponse/


[OpenADR]

California Energy Commissio
n, "OPEN AUTOMATED DEMAND RESPONSE COMMUNICATIONS
SPECIFICATION (Version 1.0)", CEC
-
500
-
2009
-
063, April 2009. Available from:
http://drrc.lbl.gov/openadr/pdf/cec
-
500
-
2009
-
063.pdf

.

[SEQ]

Examples of some existing smart energy products for the home
http://sequentric.com/

.