A Taxonomy of Software

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1

A Taxonomy of Software

2

eBusiness/eCommerce Applications & Services

(Electronic marketplaces, Supply chain management,

Enterprise resource planning, customer relationship management)






Network

(IP, Wireless, Next Generation Networks)









Management

and Support


.
Planning

. Organizing

. Staffing

. Security

. Performance

. Availability








Middleware

(
Web, Client
-
server support, mobile computing middleware,

CORBA, Workflows, EDI, XML
-
trade, Legacy gateways)





Computing Platforms

(Computer Hardware, Operating Systems,

Database Managers, Utilities)


IT Infrastructure

(Distributed
Computing)

Business Processes

eBusiness
Strategies and
Applications

Framework for Discussion

3

Software Overview

AD
AIM
BI Tools
Collaboration S/W
DBMS
Datawarehouse Tools
NSM Software
Security Software
Infrastructure software
CRM
ERP
SCM
PPM
Enterprise Application Software
Software Segmentation
(Gartner Definitions)
Infrastructure Software Definitions


The focus of infrastructure software is to increase the
performance of IT resources. In this category, we gather
software primarily for use by IT professionals. These definitions
are how Gartner Dataquest views the market as of August 2003

Enterprise Application Software Definitions


The focus for application software is to increase the performance
of business or personal resources. It enables users to leverage the
power of computers toward achievement of their business,
professional or personal objectives or goals. These definitions are
how Gartner Dataquest views the market as of August 2003

4

Infrastructure Software Overview

Requirements management
BPA
Database Design
OOA&D
Language Oriented Dev Environments
ISE
Trad (client/server) AD tools
BRE
BPM
Automated Testing
SCCM
Other AD Software
Application Development
(AD)
Adaptor Suites
APS
Application Servers
Integration Suites
MOM
ORB
Enterprise Portal Server
TPM
Other Middleware
Application Integration & Middleware
(AIM or EAI)
Infrastructure Software
AD Software


The AD software market is comprised of tools that
represent each phase of the software development life
cycle (planning, design, construction, automated software
quality and operation life cycle).

Application Integration and Middleware


AIM is defined as the system software or runtime
infrastructure used to provide intra
-

and inter
-
application
communications. Intra
-
application middleware is used for
the construction of individual multitiered applications. Inter
-
application middleware is used for communication between
individually designed applications

5

Infrastructure Software Overview Continued

Lots of varied tools
Database Management Systems
Data Mining Tools
Data Quality Tools
ETL Tools
Data Warehouse Tools
Lots of varied tools
Network & Systems Management Software
Lots of varied tools
Security Software
BI Platforms
EBIS
Other BI Software
Business Intelligence Tools
Email & Calendaring
Real Time Collaboration
Team Support
Collaboration Software & Knowledge Management
Infrastructure Software
Continued
6

Business application architecture

7

Business application architecture

CRM
ERP
SCM
PPM
Enterprise Application Software
Software Segmentation
(Gartner Definitions)
8

Customer Relationship Management

Sales

Cross
-
Sell

Up
-
Sell

TeleSales

Store Front

and Field

Service

Marketing and

Fulfillment

Customer

Service and

Support

Retention

and Loyalty

Programs

Customer

Contact Management

9

Enterprise Application Software
Overview

Customer Relationship Management



Gartner Dataquest believes that CRM technologies should enable greater customer insight, increased customer
access, more effective customer interactions and integration throughout all customer channels and back
-
office
enterprise functions.


CRM is a business strategy whose outcome optimises profitability, revenue and customer satisfaction by
organising around customer segments, fostering customer
-
satisfying behaviours and implementing customer
-
centric processes.


The CRM software sector, part of the enterprise software market, provides functionality to enterprises in three
segments:
sales, marketing
, and
customer service and support
.

10

Enterprise Application Software
Overview

Customer Relationship Management


Sales


Direct sales

(field sales/inside sales)


Direct sales builds on the attributes of technology, functionality and value of order management s
ystems
(OMSs) and extends the definition to include functionality for sales execution and sales operations..


Sell
-
side commerce


E
-
commerce sell
-
side



B2B and business
-
to
-
consumer (B2C) enterprise software applications offer manufacturers and
retailers the ability to sell, service and market their products to customers through the Web and channel partners..


Partner sales



The sales
-
focused partner relationship management (PRM) applications designed to improve an enterprise's ability to market,
sell and service end customers through channel partners..


Retail sales



The additional collection of sales applications required for a retail environment. It includes point
-
of
-
sales (POS) applicati
ons for
recording sales transaction, usually a cash register and merchandising software.


Other/specialised



This is the disparate selection of specialist vendors and technologies associated with sales force automation. It includes

aspects such as proposal generation, content management, sales portals and guided selling.


11

Enterprise Application Software
Overview

Customer Relationship Management


Marketing


Customer management



These are applications that allow prospecting and lead generation, lead
management, segmentation, campaign management, multi
-
channel interaction, event driven management, e
-
marketing, loyalty management, privacy management and dialogue management.


Resource management



These are applications that allow strategic planning and budgeting, program
management, creative development and distribution, content management, media planning and execution,
events coordination and resource measurement.


Data and analytics



This is an application providing data preparation, data quality management,
measurement and reporting, predictive modeling, profitability and optimization.


Demand network management (including partner marketing
)


These are applications providing content
distribution, trade promotion and partner lead management. This is a component of PRM.


Brand and product management



These are applications that provide for trade promotion, product
development management and market research

12

Enterprise Application Software
Overview

Customer Relationship Management


Customer Service and Support



Contact center customer service software


designed to allow employees or agents of a company to support
the clients directly, usually within a call or contact center, typically non
-
product support focused on service
that is business related (such as dissatisfaction, problems with shipment and billing).


Contact center technical support software


designed to allow employees or agents of a company to support
the clients directly, usually within a call or contact center, typically focused on clients' product usage,
implementation and problem resolution.


Customer self service and support



A blend of customer
-
initiated interaction technologies that are
designed to allow customer to service themselves. It includes electronic records management systems
(ERMS), chat and knowledge bases.


Field service management software



Applications that are designed within a CRM environment that
enable agents to diagnose problems categorically, identify resource and dispatch it to client with proper tools
or materials required for the specific problem. It includes field service workforce management and intelligent
device management (IDM).

13

Enterprise Application Software
Overview

Customer Relationship Management


Customer Service and Support



Contact center performance management



It includes workforce management software, e
-
learning and
quality assurance (QA). This is a call and contact center application enabling the management of
communication queues, agent schedules, monitoring call flow and traffic. It is designed to automate the
workforce management, and increase efficiencies by reducing waste and streamlining work paths to the
workforce.


Partner customer support software



Service
-
focused PRM applications designed to improve an
enterprise's ability to market, sell and service end customers through channel partners. Key components
include entitlement management, order management, service
-
level management and material reverse
logistics.


Contact center infrastructure



Software and hardware designed to run a contact/call center. This includes
automatic call distributors (ACDs), integrated voice response unit (IVRU), computer telephony integration
(CTI), universal communications or universal queue management, integrating multiple channels for a
call/contact center (integrating ACD/IVRU/CTI/chat/ERMS)..

14

Enterprise Application Software
Overview

Supply Chain Management


At a high level, SCM software is segmented into


planning,


execution and


sourcing and procurement components.

Planning

typically deals with activities such as developing demand forecasts, establishing relations
with suppliers, planning and scheduling manufacturing operations, and developing metrics to ensure
efficient and cost
-
effective operations.

Execution

functions manage the processes and activities to ensure completion of the plans, including
creating purchase orders, taking customer orders, updating inventory, managing movement of products
in the warehouse, and delivering goods to the customer.

Sourcing and procurement

functions manage the automation and of corporate sourcing and
purchasing

15

Supply Chain Management

Schedule

Make

Deliver

Transportation

Planning

Demand

Planning

Order

Commitment

Advance

Scheduling

Manufacturing

Planning

Distribution

Planning

Internetworked Supply Chain Management

Supply

Chain

Life Cycle

SCM

Functional

Processes

SCM

Integrated

Solution

Commit

16

Enterprise Application Software
Overview

Supply Chain Execution


supply chain execution (SCE) is a framework of execution
-
oriented applications that enable the
efficient procurement and supply of goods, services and information across enterprise boundaries to
meet customer
-
specific demand.


SCE suites have evolved consolidating supply chain execution components



warehouse management systems (WMSs),


transportation management systems (TMSs),


order management systems and supply chain inventory visibility (SCIV)


to provide a single
solution to manage the outbound logistics process

17

Enterprise Application Software
Overview

Warehouse Management Systems


WMS are applications that manage the operation of a warehouse or distribution center.


Functionality includes receiving, put
-
away, inventory management, cycle counting, task interleaving,
wave planning, order allocation, order picking, replenishment, packing, shipping, labor management
and automated material
-
handling equipment interfaces. Using radio frequency (RF) technology in
conjunction with bar codes provides the foundation of WMS, delivering accurate information in real
time.

Transportation Management Systems

TMS are systems used to manage all freight activities across the enterprise. Functions include
planning and procuring freight movements, freight rating and shipping across all modes, route and
carrier selection, management of freight, visibility, and freight payment and audit

18

Enterprise Application Software
Overview

Supply Chain Planning


supply chain planning (SCP) applications are designed to provide forward
-
looking options for future
time horizons. SCM applications coordinate assets to optimize the delivery of goods and services, and
information from supplier to customer, balancing supply and demand. A SCP application suite sits on
top of a transactional system to provide planning, what
-
if scenario analysis capabilities and real
-
time
demand commitments.


Typical modules include


network planning,


capacity planning,


demand planning,


manufacturing planning and scheduling, and


distribution and deployment planning

19

Enterprise Application Software
Overview

Supply Chain
-

Sourcing
and Procurement



Sourcing and procurement applications are used to support the automation and management of
corporate sourcing and purchasing (or procurement) of direct and indirect goods, suppliers, and
content (for example, product catalogs, parts databases and supplier directories).


Sourcing software is used to help companies understand and improve the terms and conditions of
trade to understand enterprise spending. It aids in creating an optimal set of suppliers, establishing the
terms of trade to balance cost, quality and risk.


Strategic sourcing applications include


requests for proposal (RFPs)/requests for quotation (RFQs)


bid management, and


supplier analysis and optimization.


Strategic sourcing applications are also evolving into the practice of managing longer
-
term
purchasing activity and supplier relationships. Sourcing applications will have the capability to
interface with procurement systems


for example, in spot buying/spot sourcing environments


20

Enterprise Application Software
Overview

Supply Chain
-

Sourcing

and
Procurement


Procurement applications automate purchasing for direct and indirect goods and services. These
applications are designed to help companies reduce costs by automating and streamlining the
purchasing process, connecting buyers and sellers and controlling corporate spending. Functionality
includes, but is not limited to, purchase order processing, master blanket release, receipt and advance
-
ship notice, settlements and rebates, invoice payment, catalogs, requisition management, project
costing, encumbrance (public sector), and invoicing.


Procurement is tremendously complicated. There are broad sets of activities common to procurement.
Such activities include supplier connectivity, needs specification (such as those expressed by a
production plan, materials forecast, work order material plan or catalog items in a shopping cart) and
invoice and payment processing. Often procurement relies on sourcing and in some categories (for
example, capital goods, spot
-
buys and certain types of services), diminishing the validity of
distinctions between sourcing and procurement. Procurement and sourcing are in many ways co
-
dependent.


21

Enterprise Application Software
Overview

Supply Chain
-

Sourcing

and
Procurement



Marketplaces (e
-
marketplace)

are Web
-
enabled trading communities that aggregate buyers and
sellers to enable transactions, collaboration and content. Marketplace software can also include
strategic sourcing, contract negotiation, legacy integration and Web
-
based order management
functionality. Marketplaces offer market intelligence to buyers and sellers. Buyers are in a better
position to understand their buying behaviors and, thus, gain control over their procurement processes.
Suppliers are able to collaborate more effectively with other partners in the supply chain to reduce
inventory, obtain greater visibility of supply chain constraints and lower processing costs.


Content management

addresses the problem of how to take unstructured product content and create
and manage structured data. This segment includes solutions in data cleansing, parts databases and
supplier directories. It also provides functionality that includes catalog conversion, parametric
matching engines, dynamic content aggregation, automated integration to back
-
end databases, online
content updating and multiple language translation

22

Enterprise Resource Planning

Sales

Distribution,

Order

Management

Accounting

and Finance

Production

Planning

Human

Resources

Integrated

Logistics

Customer/

Employee

23

Enterprise Application Software
Overview

Enterprise Resource Planning



ERP is application strategy focused on a several distinct enterprise application suite (EAS) markets. In
general, ERP involves software packages that automate and support the processes of the administrative,
production, inventory and product development aspects of an enterprise. ERP is considered the back
-
office
application set and is defined as manufacturing, HRMS and financial management systems (FMS).

Manufacturing

The functionality that comprises this segment includes, but is not limited to
,


manufacturing execution,


master production scheduling,


material requirements planning (including regenerative manufacturing resource planning [MRP]),


inventory control,


bills of material/routing (including engineering change control), capacity requirements planning (including
input/output control,


finite scheduling and infinite scheduling), and


quality tracking/control.

24

Manufacturing Information Systems

Engineering

Systems


CAD


CAE


Computer
-

Aided

Process

Planning

Manufacturing

Execution

Systems


Shop Floor


Scheduling


Machine Control


Process Control


Robotic Control

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Manufacturing

Resource

Planning


Production

Forecasting


Production

Scheduling


Quality Control

Remote

Worker

Supplier

Extranet

Intranet

25

Enterprise Application Software
Overview

Project Portfolio Management


PPM applications provide a set of integrated functions designed to streamline outward functions and
inward processes of project
-
intensive departments, industries and organizations.

They address a majority of the nine processes defined by the Project Management Institute's Project
Management Book of Knowledge (PMBoK):


project scope management,


time management (including scheduling),


cost management,


resource management,


quality management,


project communications management,


project risk management and


project procurement management
.


integration of these processes
.

26

Enterprise Application Software
Overview

Project Portfolio Management


PPM applications optimize project delivery by providing, at a minimum, integrated functionality to support project
planning, tracking, resource assignment and portfolio reporting. Features often address the following functional
areas:


Scope management



Preliminary scope planning, including project definitions, timelines, size and
deliverables


Time management



Manages deliverable activity timelines, schedules and deadlines for projects, tasks,
assignments, scope and goals


Resource management



Allocates resources using a repository of resource profiles (of skills and other
attributes), identifies skill shortages and includes resource loading and leveling capability (direct or via third
-
party tool integration)


Cost management



Estimates and tracks resource and material costs and obtains approval for actual
project expenses associated with billing, chargebacks, travel, project materials, or purchase of necessary
equipment


Procurement management



Supports procuring of external resources and project related goods

27

Enterprise Application Software
Overview

Project Portfolio Management

continued


Communication management



Data distribution (discussions, e
-
mail and chat) and project intelligence
gathering so participants can collaborate, maintain, manage, and share current or previous project knowledge


Risk management



Tracks individual projects' problems, issues and schedule risks, and provides a macro
view of multiple projects' risks to weigh with cost and value in portfolio analysis


Quality management



Uses corporate or industry standards (for example, project models, templates,
project knowledge, workflows and process metrics) to ensure quality, consistency and efficiency of executed
projects and their deliverables


Integration management



Gathers project data from above segments to store, report and forecast project
progress, manage pipelines and conduct portfolio analysis

28

Emerging Enterprise Application
Software


ERP II and Enterprise Application Suite


Mobile and Wireless Packaged Applications Software


Product Life Cycle Management


Smart Enterprise Suites.


Supplier Relationship Management


Web Services Software


Business Process Management


Business Activity Monitoring


Business Rules Engine (BRE)


Collaborative Commerce


29

Emerging Enterprise Application
Software

ERP II and Enterprise Application Suite


The emerging next generation of ERP strategy is called ERP II by Gartner Dataquest.


ERP II is an application and deployment strategy that expands out from ERP functions to
achieve integration of an enterprise's key domain
-
specific, internal and external collaborative,
operational and financial processes


Mobile and Wireless Packaged Applications Software




The terms mobile application and wireless application are bandied about in the trade press, often
used interchangeably, and can refer to simple stand
-
alone software or to internetworked processes
of great complexity.


Mobile and wireless applications can mean anything from a menuing system on a smartphone, a
calendar or a tic
-
tac
-
toe game on a PDA to Internet/corporate e
-
mail connectivity up to a sales
force automation order
-
entry system that updates back
-
end databases over a wireless link

30

Emerging Enterprise Application
Software

Product Life Cycle Management


At its highest definitional level, product life cycle management (PLM) is a process for guiding
products from idea through retirement to deliver the most business value to an enterprise and its
trading partners.


PLM employs product information and business analysis to support product portfolio strategy,
product life cycle planning, management of activities, and execution of those activities through
each phase in a product's life.


The applications that support the business activities enabled through PLM includes product
ideation, design, engineering, manufacturing process management, product data management,
and product portfolio management


Smart Enterprise Suites

Smart enterprise suites include a significant combination of technologies, such as content
management, team support, a portal framework and information retrieval. They may also include
expertise location and management, community technology, process management, and multichannel
access

31

Emerging Enterprise Application
Software

Supplier Relationship Management


Confusion and varying opinion on what exactly SRM is and what it should encompass.


There are a plethora of software applications that support SRM initiatives but, to date, no true SRM
applications.


SRM is a logical extension of SCM.


SRM is the latest of a series of innovations within SCM and represents an incremental development. As
such, SRM is a subset of SCM. SRM represents an evolutionary extension of SCM, driven by the need for
enterprises to create a more comprehensive life cycle view of suppliers' operational contribution to the top
and bottom lines. Consequently, SRM is an extension of, and builds on, SCM technologies and practices.


Web Services Software


Deploying Web services
-
enabled software will be an evolutionary process, not a revolutionary one.


While the majority of software vendors have committed to supporting Web services software standards
within their established product lines, it will take more than four years to evolve these immature standards,
build up skills, and plan, build and test for new versions of software that gradually incorporate these
standards.


Web services standards will be deployed through multiple markets, such as integration suites, AD tools and
some enterprise application segments

32

Emerging Enterprise Application
Software

Business Process Management



Business process management (BPM) is a general term describing a set of services and tools that provide for
explicit process management (that is, process analysis, definition, execution, monitoring and administration),
including support for human and application
-
level interaction.


BPM has emerged from many sources


workflow, applications, collaborative tools, integration brokers,
Web integration servers, application servers, development tools, rules engines and commerce offerings.


BPM leverages tools to analyze and model processes, using a graphical process designer targeted for
business analysts that extract process flow and architect new business process flows.


A runtime execution engine (underlying state machine) executes the defined process flow, stepping through
the defined process flow. As the process flow is executed, applications (that is, legacy, packaged, external
business
-
to
-
business [B2B] and Web services) may be invoked, as will tasks that humans have to complete.
The runtime environment maintains the status (state) of each process instance.


As the many instances of multiple process types execute, they can be monitored (that is, process
performance, degree of completion and out
-
of
-
bounds conditions) and administered (that is, for process
termination and load balancing or rerouting).


Post
-
completion analysis is also possible, as the state data is archived for BI potential

33

Emerging Enterprise Application
Software

Business Activity Monitoring



BAM is neither a market nor a product.


It is a concept, such as quality or knowledge management, and it is not new.


BAM solutions focus on cross
-
business processes rather than divisional
-
, departmental
-

or
technology
-
specific processes. T


he scope of integration in BAM solutions expands far beyond the four walls of a plant or a
division, and real time is not necessarily nanoseconds but rather is determined by the
requirements of the business process.


It brings the near real
-
time world of the BI operational data store together with NSM(Network
Services Management) monitoring and BPM through integration brokers and shared messaging

34

Emerging Enterprise Application
Software

Business Rules Engine

(BRE)


Business rule change has been a constant companion of systems development since the inception
of IT, but a growing number of factors has led to the increase of change necessary to remain
competitive in business.


This increase in the frequency of change is leading to new approaches to alter the business rules
embedded in business process flows, applications and even in the enterprise architecture.


Enterprises are more pressed to become adaptable and apply the knowledge captured in rule sets
to outflank competitors and respond to changing business environments.


They can no longer wait for professional programmers to change applications written in
traditional programming languages.


Business users want to change rules without going through a long
-
running change process that
is, at best, measured in days and, at worst, measured in weeks and months.


Therefore, rules engines allow even end users to make dynamic "real time" changes to their
applications in an abstracted level of language

35

Emerging Enterprise Application
Software

Collaborative Commerce


Collaborative commerce (c
-
commerce) involves the collaborative, electronically enabled
business interactions among an enterprise's internal personnel, business partners and customers
throughout a trading community.


The trading community can be an industry, industry segment, supply chain or supply chain
segment.


For some enterprises, c
-
commerce is already a fact of business life, but how can they measure it?


It is not yet quantifiable with any consistency. It is not a class of software and it is difficult even
to define

36

Business application architecture

37

eBusiness/eCommerce Applications & Services

(Electronic marketplaces, Supply chain management,

Enterprise resource planning, customer relationship management)






Network

(IP, Wireless, Next Generation Networks)









Management

and Support


.
Planning

. Organizing

. Staffing

. Security

. Performance

. Availability








Middleware

(
Web, Client
-
server support, mobile computing middleware,

CORBA, Workflows, EDI, XML
-
trade, Legacy gateways)





Computing Platforms

(Computer Hardware, Operating Systems,

Database Managers, Utilities)


IT Infrastructure

(Distributed
Computing)

Business Processes

eBusiness
Strategies and
Applications

Framework for Discussion