OSI MODEL The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model ...

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OSI MODEL

The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) was a product of the Open Systems
Interconnection effort at the International Organization for Standardization. It is a way of sub
-
dividing a communications system into smaller parts called layer
s. Similar communication
functions are grouped into logical layers. A layer provides services to its upper layer while
receiving services from the layer below.

Alongside this The ISO developed a set of protocols that fit within this model. Since then, oth
er
models such as the 5 layer TCP/IP model were developed, however the OSI model is still used
to map and categories protocols because of its concise and clear way of representing network
functions.


OSI divides telecommunication into seven layers. The la
yers are in two groups. The upper four
layers are used whenever a message passes from or to a user. The lower three layers are used
when any message passes through the host computer. Messages intended for this computer pass
to the upper layers. Messages de
stined for some other host are not passed up to the upper layers
but are forwarded to another host. The seven layers are:


Layer 7: The Application Layer ...

The Application Layer is the OSI layer closest to the end
user, which means that both the OSI appl
ication layer and the user interact directly with the
software application. This layer interacts with software applications that implement a
communicating component. Application layer functions typically include identifying
communication partners, determin
ing resource availability, and synchronizing communication.
When identifying communication partners, the application layer determines the identity and
availability of communication partners for an application with data to transmit. When
determining resourc
e availability, the application layer must decide whether sufficient network
or the requested communication exists. In synchronizing communication, all communication
between applications requires cooperation that is managed by the application layer
This is
the
layer at which communication partners are identified, quality of service is identified, user
authentication and privacy are considered, and any constraints on data syntax are identified.
(This layer is not the application itself, although some applicat
ions may perform application
layer functions.)


Layer
6:
The
Presentation Layer ...

The Presentation Layer establishes context between
Application Layer entities. This layer provides independence from data representation (e.g.,
encryption) by translating b
etween application and network formats. The presentation layer
transforms data into the form that the application accepts. This is a layer, usually part of an
operating system, that converts incoming and outgoing data from one presentation format to
anothe
r (for example, from a text stream into a popup window with the newly arrived text).
Sometimes called the syntax layer.


Layer
5:
The
Session Layer ...

The Session Layer controls the dialogues (connections)
between computers. It establishes, manages and te
rminates the connections between the local
and remote application. It provides for full
-
duplex, half
-
duplex, or simplex operation, and
establishes check pointing, adjournment, termination, and restart procedures. The OSI model
made this layer responsible f
or graceful close of sessions. This layer sets up, coordinates, and
terminates conversations, exchanges, and dialogs between the applications at each end. It deals
with session and connection coordination.


Layer
4:
The
Transport Layer ...

The Transport La
yer provides transparent transfer of data
between end users, providing reliable data transfer services to the upper layers. The Transport
Layer controls the reliability of a given link through flow control, segmentation/desegmentation
, and error control.
This layer manages the end
-
to
-
end control (for example, determining
whether all packets have arrived) and error
-
checking. It ensures complete data transfer.


Layer
3:
The
Network Layer ...

The Network Layer provides the functional and procedural
means of t
ransferring variable length data sequences from a source host on one network to a
destination host on a different network, while maintaining the quality of service requested by
the Transport Layer (in contrast to the data link layer which connects hosts wi
thin the same
network). The Network Layer performs network routing functions, and might also perform
fragmentation and reassembly, and report delivery errors. This layer handles the routing of the
data (sending it in the right direction to the right destin
ation on outgoing transmissions and
receiving incoming transmissions at the packet level). The network layer does routing and
forwarding.


Layer
2:
The
Data
-
Link Layer ...

The Data Link Layer provides the functional and procedural
means to transfer data be
tween network entities and to detect and possibly correct errors that
may occur in the Physical Layer. This layer provides synchronization for the physical level and
does bit
-
stuffing for strings of 1's in excess of 5. It furnishes transmission protocol kn
owledge
and management.


Layer
1:
The
Physical Layer ...

The Physical Layer of the OSI model is responsible for bit
-
level transmission between network nodes. The Physical Layer defines items such as: connector
types, cable types, voltages, and pin
-
outs. Th
is layer conveys the bit stream through the network
at the electrical and mechanical level. It provides the hardware means of sending and receiving
data on a carrier.

The major functions and services performed by the Physical Layer are:



Establishment and t
ermination of a connection to a communications medium.



Participation in the process whereby the communication resources are effectively shared
among multiple users. For example, contention resolution and flow control.



Modulation or conversion between the r
epresentation of digital data in user equipment
and the corresponding signals transmitted over a communications channel. These are
signals operating over the physical cabling (such as copper and optical fiber) or over a
radio link.




Protocols used in eac
h layer:

7. Application Layer

NNTP ∙ SIP ∙ SSI ∙ DNS ∙ FTP ∙ Gopher ∙ HTTP ∙ NFS ∙ NTP ∙ SMPP ∙ SMTP ∙ SNMP
∙ Telnet ∙ DHCP ∙ Netconf ∙ RTP ∙ (more)

6. Presentation Layer

MIME ∙

XDR ∙

TLS ∙

SSL

5. Session Layer

Named
Pipes ∙

NetBIOS ∙

SAP ∙

L2TP ∙

PPTP ∙

SPDY

4. Transport Layer

TCP ∙

UDP ∙

SCTP ∙

DCCP ∙

SPX

3. Network Layer

IP (IPv4, IPv6
) ∙

ICMP ∙

IPSec ∙

IGMP ∙

IPX ∙

AppleTalk

2. Data Link Layer

ATM ∙ SDLC ∙ HDLC ∙ ARP ∙ CSLIP ∙ SLIP ∙ GFP ∙ PLIP ∙ IEEE 802.3 ∙ Frame Relay ∙
ITU
-
T G.hn DLL ∙ PPP ∙ X.25 ∙ Network Switch ∙

1. Physical Layer

EIA/TIA
-
232 ∙ EIA/TIA
-
449 ∙ ITU
-
T V
-
Series ∙ I.430 ∙ I.431 ∙ POTS ∙ PDH ∙
SONET/SDH ∙ PON ∙ OTN ∙ DSL ∙ IEEE 802.3 ∙ IEEE 802.11 ∙ IEEE 802.15 ∙ IEEE
802.16 ∙ IEEE 1394 ∙ ITU
-
T G.hn PHY ∙ USB ∙ Bluetooth ∙ Hubs







Comparison with TCP/IP:


SIMILARITIES

The main similarities between the two models include the following:




They share similar architecture.
-

Both of the models share a similar
architecture. This can be ill
ustrated by the fact that both of them are
constructed with layers.




They share a common application layer.
-

Both of the models share a common
"application layer". However in practice this layer includes different services
depending upon each model.




Both

models have comparable transport and network layers.
-

This can be
illustrated by the fact that whatever functions are performed between the
presentation and network layer of the OSI model similar functions are
performed at the Transport layer of the TCP/I
P model.




Knowledge of both models is required by networking professionals.
-

According to article obtained from the internet networking professionals
"need to know both models".




Both models assume that packets are switched. Basically this means that
indi
vidual packets may take differing paths in order to reach the same
destination.





DIFFERENCES

The main differences between the two models are as follows:




TCP/IP Protocols are considered to be standards around which the internet has
developed. The OSI
model however is a "generic, protocol
-

independent
standard."




TCP/IP combines the presentation and session layer issues into its application
layer.




TCP/IP combines the OSI data link and physical layers into the network
access layer.



TCP/IP appears to be

a simpler model and this is mainly due to the fact that it
has fewer layers.




TCP/IP is considered to be a more credible model
-

This is mainly due to the
fact because TCP/IP protocols are the standards around which the internet was
developed therefore it
mainly gains creditability due to this reason. Where as
in contrast networks are not usually built around the OSI model as it is merely
used as a guidance tool.




The OSI model consists of 7 architectural layers whereas the TCP/IP only has
4 layers.


TCP/I
P MODEL

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the basic
communication language or protocol of the Internet. It can also be used as a
communications protocol in a private network (either an intranet or an extranet).
When you are set up

with direct access to the Internet, your computer is provided
with a copy of the TCP/IP program just as every other computer that you may send
messages to or get information from also has a copy of TCP/IP.

TCP/IP is a two
-
layer program. The higher layer,
Transmission Control Protocol,
manages the assembling of a message or file into smaller packets that are
transmitted over the Internet and received by a TCP layer that reassembles the
packets into the original message. The lower layer, Internet Protocol, h
andles the
address part of each packet so that it gets to the right destination. Each gateway
computer on the network checks this address to see where to forward the message.
Even though some packets from the same message are routed differently than
others
, they'll be reassembled at the destination.

TCP/IP uses the client/server model of communication in which a computer user (a
client) requests and is provided a service (such as sending a Web page) by another
computer (a server) in the network. TCP/IP comm
unication is primarily point
-
to
-
point, meaning each communication is from one point (or host computer) in the
network to another point or host computer. TCP/IP and the higher
-
level applications
that use it are collectively said to be "stateless" because ea
ch client request is
considered a new request unrelated to any previous one (unlike ordinary phone
conversations that require a dedicated connection for the call duration). Being
stateless frees network paths so that everyone can use them continuously. (No
te that
the TCP layer itself is not stateless as far as any one message is concerned. Its
connection remains in place until all packets in a message have been received.)

Protocols related to TCP/IP include the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), which is
used in
stead of TCP for special purposes. Other protocols are used by network host
computers for exchanging router information. These include the Internet Control
Message Protocol (ICMP), the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP), the Exterior
Gateway Protocol (EGP), a
nd the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).







The following is a description of each layer in the TCP/IP networking model
starting from the lowest level.

Link Layer

The Link Layer (or Network Access Layer) is the networking scope of the local
network conne
ction to which a host is attached. This regime is called the link in
Internet literature. This is the lowest component layer of the Internet protocols, as
TCP/IP is designed to be hardware independent. As a result TCP/IP is able to be
implemented on top of

virtually any hardware networking technology.

The Link Layer is used to move packets between the Internet Layer interfaces of
two different hosts on the same link. The processes of transmitting and receiving
packets on a given link can be controlled both
in the software device driver for the
network card, as well as on firmware or specialized chipsets. These will perform
data link functions such as adding a packet header to prepare it for transmission,
then actually transmit the frame over a physical mediu
m. The TCP/IP model
includes specifications of translating the network addressing methods used in the
Internet Protocol to data link addressing, such as Media Access Control (MAC),
however all other aspects below that level are implicitly assumed to exist
in the
Link Layer, but are not explicitly defined.

This is also the layer where packets may be selected to be sent over a virtual private
network or other networking tunnel. In this scenario, the Link Layer data may be
considered application data which tra
verses another instantiation of the IP stack for
transmission or reception over another IP connection. Such a connection, or virtual
link, may be established with a transport protocol or even an application scope
protocol that serves as a tunnel in the Lin
k Layer of the protocol stack. Thus, the
TCP/IP model does not dictate a strict hierarchical encapsulation sequence.

Internet Layer

The Internet Layer solves the problem of sending packets across one or more
networks. Internetworking requires sending data
from the source network to the
destination network. This process is called routing
.

In the Internet Protocol Suite, the Internet Protocol performs two basic functions:



Host addressing and identification:

This is accomplished with a

hierarchical
addressing
system.



Packet routing:

This is the basic task of getting packets of data (datagrams)
from source to destination by sending them to the next network node (router)
closer to the final destination.

Transport Layer

The Transport Layer's responsibilities inclu
de end
-
to
-
end message transfer
capabilities independent of the underlying network, along with error control,
segmentation, flow control, congestion control, and application addressing (port
numbers). End to end message transmission or connecting applicatio
ns at the
transport layer can be categorized as either connection
-
oriented, implemented in
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), or connectionless, implemented in User
Datagram Protocol (UDP).

The Transport Layer can be thought of as a transport mechanism,
e.g., a vehicle
with the responsibility to make sure that its contents (passengers/goods) reach their
destination safely and soundly, unless another protocol layer is responsible for safe
delivery.

The Transport Layer provides this service of connecting ap
plications through the
use of service ports. Since IP provides only a best effort delivery, the Transport
Layer is the first layer of the TCP/IP stack to offer reliability. IP can run over a
reliable data link protocol such as the High
-
Level Data Link Cont
rol (HDLC).
Protocols above transport, such as RPC, also can provide reliability.

T
he Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a connection
-
oriented protocol that
addresses numerous reliability issues to provide a reliable byte stream:



data arrives in
-
order



data has minimal error (i.e. correctness)



duplicate data is discarded



lost/discarded packets are resent



includes traffic congestion control


User Datagram Protocol

is a connectionless datagram protocol. Like IP, it is a best
effort, "unreliable" protocol.
Reliability is addressed through error detection using a
weak checksum algorithm. UDP is typically used for applications such as streaming
media (audio, video, Voice over IP etc) where on
-
time arrival is more important
than reliability, or for simple query
/response applications like DNS lookups, where
the overhead of setting up a reliable connection is disproportionately large. Real
-
time Transport Protocol (RTP) is a datagram protocol that is designed for real
-
time
data such as streaming audio and video.



TC
P and UDP are used to carry an assortment of higher
-
level applications.
The appropriate transport protocol is chosen based on the higher
-
layer
protocol application. For example, the File Transfer Protocol expects a
reliable connection, but the Network File

System (NFS) assumes that the
subordinate Remote Procedure Call protocol, not transport, will guarantee
reliable transfer. Other applications, such as VoIP, can tolerate some loss of
packets, but not the reordering or delay that could be caused by
retrans
mission.


COMPARISON BETWEEN TCP & UDP
:




Application Layer

The Application Layer refers to the higher
-
level protocols used by most
applications for network communication. Examples of application layer protocols
include the File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
and the Simple

Mail Transfer Protocol
(SMTP).
Data coded according to application layer protocols are then encapsulated
into one or (occasionally) more transport layer protocols (such as the Transmission
Control Protocol (TCP) or User Datagram Protocol (UDP
)), which in turn use lower
layer protocols to effect actual data transfer.

Application Layer protocols generally treat the transport layer (and lower) protocols
as "black boxes" which provide a stable network connection across which to
communicate, althou
gh the applications are usually aware of key qualities of the
transport layer connection such as the end point IP addresses and port numbers. As
noted above, layers are not necessarily clearly defined in the Internet protocol suite.
Application layer proto
cols are most often associated w
ith client

server
applications.


OSI and TCP/IP layering differences



The three top layers in the OSI model

the Application Layer, the
Presentation Layer and the Session Layer

are not distinguished separately in
the TCP/IP m
odel where it is just the Application Layer.



The Session Layer roughly corresponds to the Telnet virtual terminal
functionality

which is part of text based protocols such as the HTTP and
SMTP TCP/IP model Application Layer protocols. It also corresponds t
o TCP
and UDP port numbering, which is considered as part of the transport layer in
the TCP/IP model. Some functions that would have been performed by an OSI
presentation layer are realized at the Internet application layer using the
MIME standard, which i
s used in application layer protocols such as HTTP
and SMTP.



Since the IETF protocol development effort is not concerned with strict
layering, some of its protocols may not appear to fit cleanly into the OSI
model.