Handling Operating System (BCA 6)

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SUBJECT: ‘
Handling Operating System


(
BCA


6)
Page
1

of
38

Prepared By:
-

Vaishnoo Maa Computers, SCO 145, Chotti Baradari, Patiala.

Ph. 0175
-
2205100, 2215100

Note:

This question
-
bank contains three sections.

Section
-
A contains 1 mark Multiple Choice Objective type questions.

Section
-
B contains 5 marks subjective questions.

Section
-
A contains 10 marks subjective questions.

Section


A








1 Marks Que
stions

1)

Round robin scheduling is essentially the preemptive version of ________.

1 FIFO 2 Shortest job first 3 Shortes remaining
4 Longest time first

Ans ) 1

2)


A page fault occurs


1) when the page is not in the memory 2) when the page is in the
memory

3) when the process enters the blocked state 4 when the process is in the ready state

. Ans ) 1


3)
Which of the following will determine your choice of systems software for your computer ?

1) Is the applications software you want to use compati
ble with it ? 2) Is it expensive ?

3) Is it compatible with your hardware ? 4) Both 1 and 3


Ans ) 4


4)
Let S and Q be two semaphores initialized to 1, where P0 and P1 processes the following
statements wait(S);wait(Q);
---
; signal(S);signal(Q) and w
ait(Q); wait(S);
---
;signal(Q);signal(S);
respectively. The above situation depicts a _________ .

1) Semaphore 2) Deadlock 3) Signal 4) Interrupt


Ans ) 2


5)
What is a shell ?

1) It is a hardware component 2) It is a command interpreter

3) It is a p
art in compiler 4) It is a tool in CPU scheduling


Ans ) 2


6
) In the blocked state

1) the processes waiting for I/O are found 2) the process which is running is found

3) the processes waiting for the processor are found 4) none of the above


Ans ) 1


7)
What is the memory from 1K
-

640K called ?

1) Extended Memory

2) Normal Memory

3) Low Memory

4) Conventional Memory


Ans ) 4


8
) Virtual memory is __________.

1) An extremely large main memory 2) An extremely large secondary memory

3) An illusion of extremely large main memory 4) A type of memory used in super computers.


Ans ) 3


9)
The process related to process control, file management, device management, information
about system and communication that is requested by any higher

level language can be performed
by __________.


1) Editors


2) Compilers

3) System Call


4) Caching


Ans ) 3


10) Multiprogramming systems ________.

1) Are easier to develop than single programming systems 2) Execute each job faster

3) Execute mor
e jobs in the same time 4) Are used only on large main frame computers


Ans ) 3


1
1) Which is not the state of the process ?

1) Blocked


2) Running

3) Ready


4) Privileged


Ans ) 4

SUBJECT: ‘
Handling Operating System


(
BCA


6)
Page
2

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38

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Vaishnoo Maa Computers, SCO 145, Chotti Baradari, Patiala.

Ph. 0175
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12) The solution to Critical Section Problem is : Mutual Exclusio
n, Progress and Bounded Waiting.

1) The statement is false


2) The statement is true.

3) The statement is contradictory.

4) None of the above


Ans ) 2


13) The problem of thrashing is effected scientifically by ________.

1 Program structure


2 Prog
ram size

3 Primary storage size

4 None of the above


Ans ) 1


14) The state of a process after it encounters an I/O instruction is __________.

1 Ready


2 Blocked/Waiting

3 Idle



4 Running


Ans ) 2


15) The number of processes completed per unit
time is known as __________.

1 Output


2 Throughput

3 Efficiency


4 Capacity


Ans ) 2


16) _________ is the situation in which a process is waiting on another process,which is also
waiting on another process ... which is waiting on the first process.

None of the processes
involved in this circular wait are making progress.

1 Deadlock


2 Starvation

3 Dormant

4 None of the above


Ans ) 1


17) Which of the following file name extension suggests that the file is Backup copy of another file
?

1 TXT



2 COM

3 BAS


4 BAK


Ans ) 4


18)
Which technique was introduced because a single job could not keep both the CPU and the I/O
devices busy?

1 Time
-
sharing


2 SPOOLing

3 Preemptive scheduling

4 Multiprogramming


Ans ) 4


19)
A critical region

1

is a piece of code which only one process executes at a time

2 is a region prone to deadlock

3 is a piece of code which only a finite number of processes execute

4 is found only in Windows NT operation system


Ans ) 1


20
) The mechanism that bring a
page into memory only when it is needed is called _____________

1 Segmentation


2 Fragmentation

3 Demand Paging


4 Page Replacement


Ans ) 3


21)
PCB stand for

1 Program Control Block


2 Process Control Block

3 Process Communication Block

4 None

of the above


Ans ) 2


22)
FIFO scheduling is _______
_.

1 Preemptive Scheduling


2 Non Preemptive Scheduling

3 Deadline Scheduling


4 Fair share scheduling


Ans ) 2


23)
Switching the CPU to another Process requires to save state of the old proces
s and loading
new process state is called as __________.

1 Process Blocking


2 Context Switch

SUBJECT: ‘
Handling Operating System


(
BCA


6)
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3 Time Sharing


4 None of the above


Ans ) 2


24) Which directory implementation is used in most Operating System?

1 Single level directory structure

2 Tw
o level directory structure

3 Tree directory structure


4 Acyclic directory structure


Ans ) 3


25) A thread

1 is a lightweight process where the context switching is low

2 is a lightweight process where the context swithching is high

3 is used to s
peed up paging

4 none of the above


Ans ) 1


26) A tree sturctured file directory system

1 allows easy storage and retrieval of file names

2 is a much debated unecessary feature

3 is not essential when we have millions of files

4 none of the above


Ans ) 1


27) The high paging activity is called ________.

1 Inter process communication


2 Thrashing

3 Context Switch




4 None of the above


Ans ) 2


28) The Hardware mechanism that enables a device to notify the CPU is called __________.

1 Pol
ling



2 Interrupt

3 System Call


4 None of the above


Ans ) 2


29) In the running state

1 only the process which has control of the processor is found

2 all the processes waiting for I/O to be completed are found

3 all the processes waiting for th
e processor are found

4 none of the above


Ans ) 1


30) Which of the following is crucial time while accessing data on the disk?

1 Seek time


2 Rotational time

3 Transmission time

4 Waiting time


Ans ) 1


31) Process State is a part of

1 Process
Control block


2 Inode

3 File Allocation Table


4 None of the above


Ans ) 1


32) Who is called a supervisor of computer acitvity ?

1 CPU



2 Operating system

3 Control unit


4 Application Program


Ans ) 2


33) Virtual memory is __________.

1 A
n extremely large main memory

2 An extremely large secondary memory

3 An illusion of extremely large main memory

4 A type of memory used in super computers.


Ans ) 3


34) The kernel keeps track of the state of each task by using a data structure calle
d __

1 Process control block


2 User control block

3 Memory control block


4 None of the above


Ans ) 1

SUBJECT: ‘
Handling Operating System


(
BCA


6)
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38

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Vaishnoo Maa Computers, SCO 145, Chotti Baradari, Patiala.

Ph. 0175
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35) Which of the following disk scheduling techniques has a drawback of starvation ?

1 SCAN


2 SSTF

3 FCFS


4 LIFO


Ans ) 2


36) A binary s
emaphore


1 has the values one or zero


2 is essential to binary computers

3 is used only for synchronisation

4 is used only for mutual exclusion


Ans ) 1


37) _________ page replacement algorithm suffers from Belady's anamoly.

1 LRU



2 MRU

3 FIFO




4 LIFO


Ans ) 3


38) _________ is a high speed cache used to hold recently referenced page table entries a part of
paged virtual memory


1 Translation Lookaside buffer


2 Inverse page table

3 Segmented page table



4 All the above

. Ans ) 1


39)

_________ does the job of allocating a process to the processor.

1 Long term scheduler


2 Short term scheduler

3 Medium term scheduler

4 Dispatcher

. Ans ) 4


40) In interactive environments such as time
-
sharing systems, the primary requirement is t
o provide
reasonably good response time and in general, to share system resources equitably. In such
situations, the scheduling algorithm that is most popularly applied is ________.

1 Shortest Remaining Time Next (SRTN) Scheduling

2 Priority Based Preemp
tive Scheduling

3 Round Robin Scheduling

4 None of the above

. Ans ) 3


41) In the multi
-
programming environment, the main memory consisting of _________ number of
process.

1 Greater than 100


2 Only one

3 Greater than 50



4 More than one

. Ans )

4


42) In a multithreaded environment _______.

1 Each thread is allocated with new memory from main memory.

2 Main thread terminates after the termination of child threads.

3 Every process can have only one thread.

4 None of the above

. Ans ) 2


43
) Which of the following statement is not true?

1 Multiprogramming implies multitasking

2 Multi
-
user does not imply multiprocessing

3 Multitasking does not imply multiprocessing

4 Multithreading implies multi
-
user

. Ans ) 4


44) In one of the deadloc
k prevention methods, impose a total ordering of all resource types, and
require that each process requests resources in an increasing order of enumeration. This voilates
the _______________ condition of deadlock

1 Mutual exclusion


2 Hold and Wait

3 Ci
rcular Wait



4 No Preemption

. Ans ) 3


45) In the ___________ method of data transfer, the participation of the processor is eliminated
during data transfer.

SUBJECT: ‘
Handling Operating System


(
BCA


6)
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5

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1 Buffering



2 Caching

3 Direct Memory Access


4 Indirect Memory Access

. Ans ) 3


46)

A thread is a __________ process .

1 Heavy Weight


2 Mutliprocess

3 Inter Thread


4 Light wieght

. Ans ) 4


47) CPU Scheduling is the basis of _________ operating system

1 Batch




2 Real time

3 Multiprogramming


4 Monoprogramming

. Ans ) 3


4
8) Which directory implementation is used in most Operating System?

1 Single level directory structure


2 Two level directory structure

3 Tree directory structure



4 Acyclic directory structure

. Ans ) 3


49) Saving the state of the old process and
loading the saved state of the new process is called
________.

1 Context Switch


2 State

3 Multi programming

4 None of the above

. Ans ) 1


50) The term " Operating System " means ________.

1 A set of programs which controls computer working

2 The
way a computer operator works

3 Conversion of high
-
level language in to machine level language

4 The way a floppy disk drive operates

. Ans ) 1


51) Resource locking ________.

1 Allows multiple tasks to simultaneously use resource

2 Forces only one t
ask to use any resource at any time

3 Can easily cause a dead lock condition

4 Is not used for disk drives

. Ans ) 2


52) A thread

1 is a lightweight process where the context switching is low

2 is a lightweight process where the context swithching i
s high

3 is used to speed up paging

4 none of the above

. Ans ) 1



53) In the running state

1 only the process which has control of the processor is found

2 all the processes waiting for I/O to be completed are found

3 all the processes waiting for

the processor are found

4 none of the above

. Ans ) 1


54) The Purpose of Co
-
operating Process is __________.

1 Information Sharing


2 Convenience

3 Computation Speed
-
Up


4 All of the above

. Ans ) 4


55) The kernel of the operating system remain
s in the primary memory because ________.

1 It is mostly called (used)



2 It manages all interrupt calls

3 It controls all operations in process

4 It is low level

. Ans ) 1



SUBJECT: ‘
Handling Operating System


(
BCA


6)
Page
6

of
38

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Vaishnoo Maa Computers, SCO 145, Chotti Baradari, Patiala.

Ph. 0175
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56) Multiprogramming systems ________.

1 Are easier to develop than singl
e programming systems

2 Execute each job faster

3 Execute more jobs in the same time

4 Are used only on large main frame computers

. Ans ) 3



57) Multiprocessing ________.

1 Make the operating system simpler

2 Allows multiple processes to run simul
taneously

3 Is completely understood by all major computer vendors

4 Allows the same computer to have the multiple processors

. Ans ) 4


58) Which is not the state of the process ?

1 Blocked


2 Running

3 Ready


4 Privileged

. Ans ) 4


59) A set o
f resources' allocations such that the system can allocate resources to each process in some
order, and still avoid a deadlock is called ________.

1 Unsafe state

2 Safe state

3 Starvation

4 Greeedy allocation

. Ans ) 2


60) The principle of locality
of reference justifies the use of ________.

1 Virtual Memory


2 Interrupts

3 Main memory

4 Cache memory

. Ans ) 4


61) What is the first step in performing an operating system upgrade ?

1 Partition the drive


2 Format the drive

3 Backup critical
data


4 Backup old operating system

. Ans ) 3


62) The technique, for sharing the time of a computer among several jobs, which switches jobs so
rapidly such that each job appears to have the computer to itself, is called ________.

1 Time Sharing


2 Ti
me out

3 Time domain


4 Multitasking

. Ans ) 1



63) When two or more processes attempt to access the same resource a _________ occurs.

1 Critical section


2 Fight

3 Communication problem

4 Race condition

. Ans ) 4


64) Which technique was introdu
ced because a single job could not keep both the CPU and the I/O
devices busy?

1 Time
-
sharing


2 SPOOLing

3 Preemptive scheduling

4 Multiprogramming

. Ans ) 4


65) The degree of Multiprogramming is controlled by

1 CPU Scheduler


2 Context Switching


3 Long
-
term Scheduler

4 Medium term Scheduler

. Ans ) 3


66) The time taken to bring the desired track/cylinder under the head is _________.

1 Seek time



2 Latency time

3 Transfer time


4 Read time

. Ans ) 1


SUBJECT: ‘
Handling Operating System


(
BCA


6)
Page
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67) Replace the page that will not
be used for the longest period of time. This principle is adopted by

____________.

1 FIFO Page replacement algorithm

2 Optimal Page replacement algorithm

3 Round robin scheduling algorithm

4 SCAN scheduling algorithm

. Ans ) 3


68) The operating syst
em of a computer serves as a software interface between the user and the
________.

1 Hardware



2 Peripheral

3 Memory



4 Screen

. Ans ) 1


69) Super computers typically employ _______.

1 Real time Operating system

2 Multiprocessors OS

3 desktop O
S




4 None of the above

. Ans ) 2


70) A process that is based on IPC mechanism which executes on different systems and can
communicate with other processes using message based communication, is called ________.

1 Local Procedure Call


2 Inter Proces
s Communication

3 Remote Procedure Call


4 Remote Machine Invocation

. Ans ) 3



71) Round robin scheduling is essentially the preemptive version of ________.

1 FIFO



2 Shortest job first

3 Shortes remaining


4 Longest time first

. Ans ) 1


72)
A page fault occurs

1 when the page is not in the memory


2 when the page is in the memory

3 when the process enters the blocked state


4 when the process is in the ready state

. Ans ) 1



73) What is a shell ?

1 It is a hardware component



2 It is

a command interpreter

3 It is a part in compiler



4 It is a tool in CPU scheduling

. Ans ) 2



74) In the blocked state

1 the processes waiting for I/O are found

2 the process which is running is found

3 the processes waiting for the processor are

found

4 none of the above

. Ans ) 1



75) Virtual memory is __________.

1 An extremely large main memory



2 An extremely large secondary memory

3 An illusion of extremely large main memory

4 A type of memory used in super computers.

. Ans ) 3



76) Multiprogramming systems ________.

1 Are easier to develop than single programming systems

2 Execute each job faster

3 Execute more jobs in the same time

4 Are used only on large main frame computers

. Ans ) 3


77) Which is not the state of the p
rocess ?

1 Blocked



2 Running

SUBJECT: ‘
Handling Operating System


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BCA


6)
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3 Ready



4 Privileged

. Ans ) 4



78) The state of a process after it encounters an I/O instruction is __________.

1 Ready


2 Blocked/Waiting

3 Idle



4 Running

. Ans ) 2


79) The number of processes completed per

unit time is known as __________.

1 Output



2 Throughput

3 Efficiency



4 Capacity

. Ans ) 2



80) Which of the following file name extension suggests that the file is Backup copy of another file ?

1 TXT




2 COM

3 BAS




4 BAK

. Ans ) 4


81)

The mechanism that bring a page into memory only when it is needed is called _____________

1 Segmentation


2 Fragmentation

3 Demand Paging


4 Page Replacement

. Ans ) 3


82) PCB stand for

1 Program Control Block


2 Process Control Block

3 Process
Communication Block

4 None of the above

. Ans ) 2



83) The collection of processes on the disk that is waiting to be brought into memory for execution
forms the

___________

1 Ready queue


2 Device queue

3 Input queue



4 Priority queue

Ans ) 3


84
) Which is not an Operating System ?

1 Windows 95


2 MS
-
DOS

3 Windows 3.1


4 Windows 2000

Ans ) 3


85) The operating system manages ________.

1 Memory




2 Processor

3 Disk and I/O devices


4 All of the above

Ans ) 4


86) It is not the layer of

the Operating system.

1 Kernel



2 Shell

3 Application program

4 Critcal Section

Ans ) 4


87) Who is called a supervisor of computer acitvity ?

1 CPU



2 Operating system

3 Control unit


4 Application Program

Ans ) 2



88) Which scheduler cont
rols the degree of multiprogramming?

1 Short term scheduler

2 Long term scheduler

3 Middle term scheduler

4 None of the above

Ans ) 2



SUBJECT: ‘
Handling Operating System


(
BCA


6)
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9

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38

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Vaishnoo Maa Computers, SCO 145, Chotti Baradari, Patiala.

Ph. 0175
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89) What is the name of the software which can be legally compiled and often used for free?

1 Shareware program


2 Public domain program

3 Firmware program


4 Mind Ware

Ans ) 2


90) The problem of fragmentation arises in ________.

1 Static storage allocation



2 Stack allocation storage

3 Stack allocation with dynamic binding

4 Heap allocation

Ans ) 4




9
1) The section of code which accesses shared variables is called as __________.

1 Critical section


2 Block

3 Procedure



4 Semaphore

Ans ) 1



92) In memory management , a technique called as paging, physical memory is broken into fixed
-
sized
blocks

called ___________.

1 Pages



2 Frames

3 Blocks



4 Segments

Ans ) 2



93) The operating system of a computer serves as a software interface between the user and the
________.

1 Hardware



2 Peripheral

3 Memory



4 Screen

Ans ) 1



94) What is

a shell ?

1 It is a hardware component


2 It is a command interpreter

3 It is a part in compiler


4 It is a tool in CPU scheduling

Ans ) 2



95) Process State is a part of

1 Process Control block


2 Inode

3 File Allocation Table


4 None of the a
bove

Ans ) 1


96) Virtual Memory is commonly implemented by __________.

1 Segmentation


2 Swapping

3 Demand Paging


4 None of the above

Ans ) 3



97) Paging _________.

1 solves the memory fragmentation problem

2 allows modular programming

3 allo
ws structured programming

4 avoids deadlock

Ans ) 1


98) Number of CPU registers in a system depends on ____________.

1 Operating system


2 Computer Architecture

3 Computer Organization

4 None of the above

Ans ) 2




99) Unix Operating System is a
n __________.

1 Time Sharing Operating System


2 Multi
-
User Operating System

3 Multi
-
tasking Operating System


4 All the Above

SUBJECT: ‘
Handling Operating System


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BCA


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Ans ) 4



100) Distributed OS works on the ________ principle.

1 File Foundation


2 Single system image

3 Multi system i
mage


4 Networking image

Ans ) 2


101) Which file system does DOS typically use ?

1 FAT16


2 FAT32

3 NTFS


4 WNFS

Ans ) 1


102) The program is known as _________ which interacts with the inner part of called kernel.

1 Compiler


2 Device Driver

3 Protocol


4 Shell

Ans ) 4



103) Which file system does Windows 95 typically use ?

1 FAT16


2 FAT32

3 NTFS


4 LMFS

Ans ) 2


104) Identify the odd thing in the services of operating system.

1 Accounting




2 Protection

3 Error detection and co
rrection

4 Dead lock handling

Ans ) 3



105) Which of the following is not advantage of multiprogramming?

1 Increased throughput



2 Shorter response time

3 Decreased operating system overhead

4 Ability to assign priorities to jobs

Ans ) 3


106) W
hich of the following is contained in Process Control Block (PCB)?

1 Process Number


2 List of Open files

3 Memory Limits


4 All of the Above

Ans ) 4


107)


The part of machine level instruction, which tells the central processor what has to be done,

is

1 Operation code 2 Address

3

Locator 4 Flip
-
Flop

5

None of the above


Answer 1

108)


A system program that combines the separately compiled modules of a program into a form
suitable for
execution

1.Assembler 2 linking loader

3.

cross compiler 4.load and go

Answer 3


109)

Process is

1 program in High level language kept on disk 2 Contents of mai
n memory

3

a program in execution 4 a job in secondary memory


Answer 2


110)

Addressing structure

1. defines the fundamental method of determining effective operand addresses

2.

are variations in

the use of fundamental addressing structures, or some associated actions which are related
to addressing.

3.

performs indicated operations on two fast registers of the machine and leave the result in one of the
registers.

4. all of the above

Answer A

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111)

The Memory Buffer Register (MBR)

1 is a hardware memory device which denotes the location of the current instruction being executed.

2

is a group of electrical circuits (hardware), that performs the intent of instructions fetched from memory.

3 conta
ins the address of the memory location that is to be read from or stored into.

4

contains a copy of the designated memory location specified by the MAR after a "read" or the new contents
of the memory prior to a "write".

Answer 4


112)

The strategy of all
owing processes that are logically runnable to be temporarily suspended is
called

1 preemptive scheduling 2 non preemptive scheduling

3

shortest job first 4 first come first served

Answer 1


113)

The Storage
-
to
-
Storage instructions

1 have both their operands in the main store.

2

which perform an operation on a register operand and an operand which is located in the main store,
generally leaving the result in the register, expect in the case of stor
e operation when it is also written into the
specified storage location.

3

which perform indicated operations on two fast registers of the machine and have the result in one of the
registers

4

all of the above

Answer 1


114)


The LRU algorithm

1 pages ou
t pages that have been used recently

2

pages out pages that have not been used recently

3

pages out pages that have been least used recently

4

pages out the first page in a given area


Answer 3


115)

Which of the following systems software does the job of

merging the records from two files into
one?

1 Security software 2 Utility program

3 Networking software 4 Documentation system

Answer 2


116) Translator for low level programming language were termed as

1 Assembler

2 Compiler

3 Linker 4 Loader

Ans: 1


117) Shell is the exclusive feature of


1 UNIX 2 DOS

3) System software 4 Application software

Ans: 1




















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Handling Operating System


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LONG ANSWER QUESTIO
NS (5 MARKS)


Q1.

Explain the various features of Windows NT Server.

Ans.

Windows NT server is a complex operating system, which is designed for providing file, print, and
application services to clients. Windows NT server uses the NDIS 3.0 standard for su
pporting various transport
protocols. Windows NT enables two important file systems, one is called NTFS and other is called FAT. The
various features of Windows NT server are:

1.

Extensibility:

Extensibility is achieved by adding new subsystems and their feat
ures to the existing
operating system without affecting the other subsystems.

2.

Portability:

Windows NT operating system can be easily shifted from one hardware platform to another
platform.

3.

Security:

To ensure system security, Windows NT server utilizes a s
trong security model, which
passes through all levels of the operating system.

4.

Compatibility:

The compatibility feature of Windows NT allows it to run applications that are written for
other operating systems. Compatibility can be obtained by creating a nu
mber of individual environment
subsystems.

5.

Scalability:
This feature of Windows NT server allows it to use multiple processors that operate in a
single system. Scalability in Windows NT server is obtained by using symmetric Multiprocessing.

6.

Reliability:

Wi
ndows NT Server is a reliable and robust operating system. It ensures reliability by
providing a separate memory address space to each subsystem and application.

7.

Fault tolerance:

The Windows NT Server has numerous characteristic features, which enable
diff
erent levels of fault tolerance. Examples of such features are Windows NT File System, disk sector sparing,
disk mirroring and disk stripping with parity.

8.

High performance client
-
server platform:

The Windows NT Server is designed for providing a
strong ope
rating system platform that can scale from the simple file and print services network to the largest
enterprise network enabling file and print services to numerous users.

9.

Built
-
in backup:

The Windows NT server provides a fully featured graphical tape back
up utility
called NT backup, which helps in avoiding data loss. This utility allows you to provide single backup set for
multiple tapes.


Q2.

Write Steps to Install Novell Netware.

Ans.

To install Novell Netware, you first need to meet hardware and softwar
e requirements of Netware
operating system. You need to insert NetWare Installation CD
-
I in CD drive to start the installation process of
NetWare. The NetWare Installation wizard starts. The following steps need to be performed to install NetWare
on a comp
uter

1.

Accept the default settings on regional settings screen and click continue to display the license
agreement.

2.

Press the F10 key to accept the license agreement and display the ‘Welcome to the NetWare server
installation’ screen in which you can select
custom install or express install.

3.

Select Express install and accept the default settings and select the continue option to display the
‘prepare boot partition’ screen in which you configure boot partition.

4.

Select the modify option to display the screen in

which you can enter the size of the boot partition.

5.

Enter 2039.5 in the ‘Size in MB’ text box in the ‘Enter new DOS Partition size’ (in MB) section.

6.

Select the continue option to display the size of DOS partitions and available free space in the disk.

7.

Sel
ect the continue option to display the ‘Select the Settings for the server’ screen in which you can edit
the server settings.

8.

Accept the default settings and select the continue option to copy the driver files from STARTUP to
NWSERVER that are the folders
created in the C drive to store all the driver files.

9.

After completion of copying process of driver files form the STARTUP folder to the NWSERVER folder,
a screen appears, which displays Platform support module and Hot plug Support Module and storage adapt
ers.

10.

Accept the default settings and click the continue option to display additional drivers detected for
NetWare server.

11.

Press F10 key to display various storage devices and network boards and their corresponding drivers in
the Netware server screen.

12.

Sele
ct the Continue option to display the “NetWare Installation


NSS Management Utility” screen in
which the default settings for SYS Volume are displayed that includes device name, storage space and sys
volume size.

13.

Accept the default settings and press the
Enter key to display the “Choose a Pattern” window
containing the “please select the desired pattern to install” list in which you can select a type of NetWare server
such as Pre
-
Migration Server and Basic NetWare File Server.

14.

Accept the default settings a
nd click next to display the ‘Components’ window in which you can select
various components such as iPrint and MySQL in the ‘Please select the components to install’ list.

15.

Click Next to display the ‘Advanced window containing the Config.sys section in whic
h you can modify
the configuration of the Config.sys file.

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16.

Accept the default settings and click next to display the ‘Encryption’ window in which you select the
location of the license directory using browse button.

17.

Click the browse button to display the B
rowser window in which you can expand the R node to display
various sub nodes such as License and Install.

18.

Select the License sub node and click OK to open the ‘Protocols’ window containing the Protocols
section in which you can enter the values in differe
nt fields such as IP Address and Subnet Mask.

19.

Click next to display the ‘Time Zone’ window in which you can select the appropriate time zone from the
‘Time Zone’ list.

20.

Select the ‘Create a new eDirectory tree’ option in the ‘Select your desired eDirectory
installation type’
section.

21.

Click next to display a window for creating a new tree in which you can add values in the given text
boxes such as ‘Tree Name’, ‘Context for server object’ to create a new eDirectory tree.

22.

Enter Tree1 in the ‘Tree Name’ text box

and O=Lab in the “Context for Server Object’ text box. Enter a
password in the ‘Password’ text box and re
-
enter the password in the ‘Retype Password’ text box.

23.

Click Next to display the eDirectory Summary window, which shows the values you have entered in

the
previous text boxes.

24.

Click next to display the ‘Licenses’ window in which you can set the path for license file in the ‘License
Location’ text box.

25.

Accept the default settings and Click Next to display the ‘iFolder Server Options’ window, which
displa
ys various server options such as ‘LDAP Host name or IP’ and ‘User Database Path’ in the iFolder Server
Options section.

26.

Accept the default settings and click Next to display the ‘Installation Complete’ window, which
displays that to complete installation
of Netware, remove CD and restart the computer.


Q3.

Differentiate between Novell NetWare and Windows NT.

Ans.


Novell NetWare

Windows NT

Novell Netware is the oldest Network Operating
system.

Windows NT is the latest Network Operating
System.

The File s
ystem used by Novell is NetWare File
System (NWFS)

Windows NT uses NTFS and FAT file systems.

It has less GUI support.

GUI of Windows NT is better than Novell.

The minimum hardware requirement for the
installation of Novell Netware is less as
compared to

Windows NT.

Windows NT requires more hardware because
of more GUI based platform.

Novell is based on IPX/SPX.

Windows NT uses TCP/IP protocol suite.


Q4.

How to create a new user in Novell Netware?

Ans.

Creating a new user using ConsoleOne:

To create a
new user in NetWare using ConsoleOne, the
following steps are performed:

1.

Start the ConsoleOne application.

2.

In the ConsoleOne window expand the Entire Network by clicking the round icon next to My World
icon and search the tree that you want to access.

3.

Clic
k the tree icon, which will ask you to login.

4.

Login as Admin, by entering the username as Admin and the respective password.

5.

To add a new user either click the New User icon on the ConsoleOne toolbar or select File
-
>New
-
>User, to open the New User dialog b
ox.

6.

Enter the name of the user in the textbox on the side of the label ‘Name’ and surname in the
textbox on the side of the label ‘Surname’ and the click OK button.

7.

In the ‘Set Password’ window, enter the password and click OK button.


Q5.

Explain the diff
erence between local group and global group in Windows NT?

Ans.


Local Group

Global Group

Local groups are less powerful as compared to
global groups.

Global groups are more powerful.

Local group members cannot access resources
of other domains.

Global g
roup’s members can be allowed to
access the resources of other domains by
forming trust relationships between the
different domains.

Local groups support local users and local
groups.

Global groups do not support local users and
local groups.

Local group
s can assign permission to
resources.

Global groups cannot assign permission to
resources.

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A local group created on a Windows NT
workgroup workstation is available only on the
workstation on which it is created

Global groups can be accessed globally on an
y
workstation.



Q6.

Differentiate between Domain and Workgroup.

Ans.

Computers on a network can be part of a workgroup or a domain. The main difference between
workgroups and domains is how resources on the network are managed. Computers on home networks

are
usually part of a workgroup, and computers on workplace networks are usually part of a domain.

In a workgroup:



All computers are peers; no computer has control over another computer.



Each computer has a set of user accounts. To use any computer in the

workgroup, you must have
an account on that computer.



There are typically no more than ten to twenty computers.



All computers must be on the same local network or subnet.


In a domain:



One or more computers are servers. Network administrators use servers
to control the security and
permissions for all computers on the domain. This makes it easy to make changes because the changes are
automatically made to all computers.



If you have a user account on the domain, you can log on to any computer on the domain
without
needing an account on that computer.



There can be hundreds or thousands of computers.



The computers can be on different local networks.


Q7.

Explain file system of Novel NetWare?

Ans.

File System in Novel Netware:
Novel NetWare uses NetWare File Sy
stem (NWFS). NWFS is a
file
system

based on a heavily modified version of
FAT
. It was used i
n the
Novell NetWare

operating system
. It is
the default and only file system for all volumes in

versions 2.x through 4.x, and the default and only file system
for the SYS volume continuing through version 5.x. Novell developed two varieties of NWFS:

1.

16
-
bit NWFS 286, used in NetWare 2.x

2.

32
-
bit NWFS 386, used in NetWare 3.x through NetWare 6.x.

Novell Storage Services

(NSS, released in 1998) superseded the NWFS format
.


16
-
bit NWFS could handle volumes of up to 256 MB whereas 32
-
bit NWFS could handle volumes

up to
1 TB.

Q8.

How to delete a user account in Windows NT?

Ans.

Steps to delete a user account in Windows NT:

1.

Click the Start button (usually located on the bottom left
-
hand corner of your screen).


This will bring
up a menu.

2.

Click on Settings.


This wil
l bring up a submenu.

3.

Click on Control Panel.


This will open the Control Panel window.

4.

Click on Users and passwords.

5.

T
he Users and Passwords window will open, showing a list of all user accounts on the computer.









6.

Click on t
he account you would like to delete.


This will highlight the account name.

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7.

Click on the Remove button.


A warning will appear, asking you to confirm that the account should
be deleted.

8.

If you want to delete the account, click on the Yes button.


(If you d
ecide you don't want to delete
the account, click on the No button.)


Q9.

How to rename administrator account in Windows NT?

Ans.

Steps to rename administrator account in Windows NT:

1.

Right
-
click the "My Computer" icon on the desktop.

2.

Click "Manage" from th
e menu that appears.

3.

Click the plus sign to the left of "Local Users and Groups".

4.

Click the "Users" folder to display a list of user accounts in the right frame.

5.

Locate the account named "Administrator" in the right frame and right
-
click the account name.

6.

Choose "Rename" from the pop
-
up menu and type a new name in the box beside the Administrator
icon.

7.

If you have not been using a password to log on to Your Windows NT 4.0 or 2000 computer, right
click on the newly renamed Administrator account name and choo
se "Set Password" from the menu.

8.

Enter a strong password in the dialog box that appears.


Q10.

What do you know about Windows NT registry? Explain.

Ans.

Windows NT Registry:
In Windows NT, configuration information is centrally stored in a single
database
called the registry. The registry replaces the .ini, .sys, and .com configuration files used in Windows
for MS
-
DOS and Microsoft LAN Manager.

Registry Structure

The registry is a database organized in an hierarchical structure. The registry is comprised o
f sub trees and
their keys, hives, and value entries. A key

can also contain additional sub keys.


Registry Hierarchy

The registry sub trees are divided into per
-
computer and per
-
user databases. The per
-
computer information
includes information about hardw
are and software installed on the specific computer. The per
-
user information
includes the information in user profiles, such as desktop settings, individual preferences for certain software,
and personal printer and network settings.


The sub trees in the Windows NT registry


The following table identifies and defines the registry sub trees.

Root key name

Description

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE

Contains information about the local computer system, including hardware and
operating system data such as bus type, system memory, device drivers, and
startup control data.

HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT

Contains object linking and em
bedding (OLE) and file
-
class association data
(equivalent to the registry in Windows for MS
-
DOS).

HKEY_CURRENT_USER

Contains the user profile for the user who is currently logged on, including
environment variables, desktop settings, network connections,
printers, and
application preferences.

HKEY_USERS

Contains all actively loaded user profiles, including HKEY_CURRENT_USER,
which always refers to a child of HKEY_USERS, and the default profile. Users who
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Root key name

Description

are accessing a server remotely do not have profil
es under this key on the server;
their profiles are loaded into the registry on their own computers.

HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG

Contains information about the hardware profile used by the local computer system
at startup. This information is used to configure se
ttings such as the device drivers
to load and the display resolution to use.

Each root key name begins with HKEY_ to indicate to software developers that this is a handle that can be
used by a program. A handle is a value used to uniquely identify a resou
rce so that a program can access it.


Q11.

Discuss file system of Windows NT.

Ans.

Windows NT file System:

Unlike many other operating systems, NT does not have a particular must
-
be
-
resident file system, and several NT file systems can be active at the sa
me time.

NTFS:

NTFS is the preferred file system for Windows NT because it allows for the use of all NT's security
features. A system, however, can use all three of the available file systems at the same time. Of course, only
the NTFS partitions will have
the advantages.

NTFS represents an evolution from the HPFS file system used by OS/2. A major part of the security model that
NT offers is based on the NTFS file system. While shared directories can be set up on an NT server regardless
of the file system u
sed, it is only with NTFS that individual files can be assigned permissions. These rights,
which also include rights to a directory, can be assigned permissions whether or not they are shared. Every
attribute of the NTFS is kept as a file.

File descriptio
ns on an NTFS volume are stored in a master file table (MFT), which is also a file. Besides the
several records that contain data about the MFT itself, the MFT contains a record for each file and directory,
and a log file. A mirror of the MFT is also kept,

as well as pointers to the MFT and its mirror, which are stored in
the boot sector of the disk. A copy of the boot sector is stored in the logical center of the disk. With this many
copies of the MFT, data recovery becomes even easier. That is why NTFS is

known as a "recoverable file
system.

When a partition is formatted as NTFS, numerous system files are created that keep track of certain attributes
of that partition
.


Q12.

What do you mean by configuring remote access server? Explain.

Ans.

Configuring R
AS Server on Windows NT:

RAS must have at least one of TCP/IP, NWLink, or
NetBEUI installed as a transport protocol. A different transport protocol may be selected to support each
modem or RAS device.

1.

Set up one or more of the following service types.

o

Us
e the modem applet in the control panel to install modems and configure them to use
specific COM ports.

o

If using ISDN, it may connect straight into a serial port, or use a NT
-
1 network termination
device. This can be on a separate card or may be on your n
etwork card. If the NT
-
1 is used, the RAS server
treats the ISDN connection like a network card. The control panel network applet adapters tab is used to install
this as though installing a network card. The ISDN adapter must be configured to use the appro
priate ISDN
protocol. The main ones are:



N11



AT&T 5ESS



Northern Telcom DMS
-
100

Set ISDN SPIDs (Service profile IDs) to two for maximum speed and use two telephone numbers. The SPID is
a prefix and suffix along with the normal 10 digit phone number. Set

the connection to be multipoint to use each
channel.

o

To install X.25, the RAS setup dialog box is usedX.25 PAD button

2.

If RAS service is not installed use the Network applet, services tab in the control panel to install it
from your CDROM. Select "Remote

Access Service".

3.

Configure the RAS network protocols
-

The RAS server will use the PPP data link protocol rather
than a protocol like ethernet. It may use PPP or SLIP to dial out.

1.

Different modems or RAS devices may be configured to use different networ
k/transport protocols. For
example one may use TCP/IP, while another uses NetBEUI. To set the protocol, use the control panel's
Network applet, services tab. Any combination of TCP/IP, NWLink, or NetBEUI may be used.

2.

Set up each transport protocol and sel
ect whether clients can access the entire network or not.


Configuration is done using the control panel network applet services tab. Select "Remote Access
Service" and properties. Highlight the port to use and click on the network button. A Network Config
uration
dialog box will appear with the following options:

o

Dial Out Protocols with selections of NetBEUI, TCP/IP, and IPX. The configure buttons next to
the checkboxes allows each protocol to be configured including the ability to use the protocol for dia
ling out.

o

Server Settings with:



Allow remote clients running:



NetBEUI



TCP/IP
-

Options for IP addresses include:

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Use DHCP to assign remote TCP/IP client addresses



Use static address pool
-

Used when DHCP is not available on the
network and IP address

are still desired



Allow remote clients to request a predetermined IP address
-

Used
when DHCP is not available on the network and RAS clients have a unique IP address assigned. IP address
cannot be assigned based on user account.



IPX



Encyption Settings

with:



Allow any authentication including clear text.



Require encrypted authentication.



Require Microsoft encrypted authentication with an additional checkbox,
"Require data encryption".



Enable Multilink checkbox


Q13.

How do you set up a shareable fi
le from the Remote Computer?

Ans.

Setting up a Shareable file on Remote Computer:

If the server is named NTSERVER1 and you want
the directory to be on the D: drive, you can bring up the administrative share by going to Start
-
>Run and typing
\
\
NTSERVER1
\
D$.

Once the drive is open, choose File
-
>New
-
>Folder, and name the new folder PUBLIC.

Now you can share the new directory. Follow these steps:

1.

Go to Start
-
>Programs
-
>Administrative Tools
-
>Server Manager.

2.

Select the target computer, and choose Computer
-
>Shar
ed Directories.

3.

Click New Share, and type the name of the share and the path (for example, D:
\
Public).

4.

Select Permissions, and adjust them accordingly because the default is Full Control for the group
Everyone.


Q14.

Can we integrate Window NT and Netware
in our network? If yes, write the different protocols
required to do this.

Ans.

Yes, we can integrate Window NT and Netware in our network. Windows NT Server 4.0 includes
several technologies that let it readily integrate with Novell NetWare networks. Thes
e technologies address
interoperability at the network, data, and management layers.

Network

NWLink:

Windows NT Server includes NWLink (IPX/SPX Compatible Transport Protocol). NWLink lets you add
a Windows NT Server to a NetWare 2.x/3.x and 4.x (in bindery

emulation mode) network without requiring
modifications to other servers or clients. NWLink lets NetWare clients access applications

such as Microsoft
Exchange, SQL Server™, or other software

running on a Windows NT Server
-
based machine. The Microsoft
imp
lementations of the IPX/SPX and Novell NetBIOS
-
compatible protocols can coexist with other protocols on
the same network adapter card. That means you can have several networks running independently on the
same network hardware connection. NWLink supports W
indows Sockets, Novell NetBIOS, and Named Pipes
protocols.

Client Services for NetWare
: Microsoft Windows NT Workstation 4.0 includes Client Services for NetWare
(CSNW). This lets Windows NT Workstation
-
based clients access files and print resources on Nov
ell NetWare
4.x servers.

File and Print Services for NetWare

(FPNW):

Included in the Microsoft Services for NetWare Add
-
on Pack,
FPNW lets users log on to a machine running Windows NT Server and have their interface look the same as if
they had logged on t
o a NetWare 3.x Server. FPNW

which runs as part of the NWLink IPX/SPX
-
compatible
service

enables Windows NT Server to emulate a NetWare file and print server, providing file and print
resources using the same dialogs as NetWare servers. The Windows NT Serv
er file and print services can be
managed with NetWare tools, eliminating the need for retraining. Plus, using FPNW does not require changes
to NetWare clients. For example, a client program that uses NetWare protocols and naming conventions needs
no redir
ection or translation.

Gateway Service for NetWare

(GSNW):
Included with Windows NT Server, GSNW lets Windows NT Server
act as a gateway to a NetWare network, allowing you access to all the resources on a NetWare server.
Windows NT Workstation
-
based clien
ts can access NetWare resources using TCP/IP, the native network
communication protocol for Windows NT. In addition, GSNW allows Windows NT Server
-
based network clients
to access files on a NetWare server without requiring a NetWare client redirector on an

IPX/SPX protocol stack
(such as NWLink). These efficiencies reduce the administrative load for each client and improve network
performance.


Q15.

What is the role of protocols in Windows NT?

Ans.

Role of Protocols:

Protocols are required for communication

between server and client computers and
also between different operating systems. If Windows NT server wants to share data with a NetWare machine,
there is a need of protocol. Protocol is necessary at each level of communication. Since Windows NT Server
w
orks with numerous protocols, network administrators can choose the protocols they need to support the
connectivity and services they require. This array of choices also makes it easier for administrators to minimize
the number of different protocols they
must support and manage. For example, some administrators would
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prefer to manage only one protocol. From a functionality perspective, an administrator might choose IPX/SPX
as the sole protocol around which to build a local, non
-
routed network. If the admin
istrator has a larger, wide
-
area network to manage, TCP/IP might be the protocol of choice
. Protocols are also required to configure
server to perform different roles. Protocols are required so that server can act as:

1.

File Server

2.

Printer Server

3.

Chat Server

4.

Mail Server

5.

Active Directory Server

6.

News Server


Q16.

Explain the Installation of Windows NT Server.

Ans.

Steps to Install Windows NT Server:

1.

Boot the computer with a DOS floppy that has at least FDISK, FORMAT, and CD
-
Rom support.
Use FDISK to create a 2G
b partition on the fixed disk and set the partition active. When exiting FDISK the
computer will reboot to save partition information.

2.

After restarting, Format C: Insert Windows NT 4.0 Server CD
-
Rom and type "D:
\
i386
\
winnt /b". This
starts the Installation

process.

3.

Press enter at the Windows NT setup screen. After files have copied you will be asked if you want
to reboot. Press Enter. After reboot. Windows NT setup screen Press enter. Press enter. Page down, page
down. Press F8 to accept the license agreeme
nt.

4.

When setup lists the computer information press enter to accept it. Choose the highlighted partition
and press enter. Convert the partition to NTFS and press enter.

5.

Press "C" to convert the file system. Verify the path to install files (D:
\
WINNT) and p
ress enter. Let
the system do its, oh so exhaustive examination of your computer. Press enter.

6.

Remove all disks and press enter to restart. Insert Windows NT 4.0 Server CD
-
Rom and click [OK]
when prompted. Click [Next] at Windows NT Server version 4.0 setu
p.

7.

At the name and organization window, enter what you want. Be Imaginative. Click [Next]. Enter the
CD key (040
-
0048126) and click [Next]. Select "Per server" and increase to 10 connections. Click [Next].

8.

Enter "NT2" for Computer name (Net BIOS name) and
specify the Server type "PDC" and click
[Next]. Enter the administrator account password and confirm, then click [Next]. Select "no" when asked if you
would like to create an emergency repair disk. Click [Next].

9.

Select components you wish to install. Click

[Next]. When the Windows NT setup screen appears
again, click [Next]. Select "Wired to the network" When asked for a connection option and click [Next]. Uncheck
the "Install the Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS)" and click [Next].

10.

When asked for

NIC drivers, insert driver disk #1 in floppy A: and click [Have Disk]. Select "3com
Fast Etherlink/ Etherlink XL PCI Bus Master NIC (3C905B
-
TX) and click [OK].

11.

Select the Protocols to be installed (NetBEUI, IPX/SPX, TCP/IP) and click [Next]. Insert disk #
2
when prompted and click [OK]. Select "No" when asked if a DHCP server will be used.

12.

When the TCP/IP properties window appears provide the following:

a. IP address = 172.16.102.3

b. Subnet Mask = 255.255.254.0

c. Default gateway = 172.16.102.1

(NOTE YOUR
IP ADDRESS MAY BE DIFFERENT THAN WHAT IS SHOWN HERE)

13.

Click [OK]. Click [Next] to start the network. Enter the domain (TM2) and click [Next]. Click [Finish]

14.

Select time zone and date and click [OK]. Click [OK] to accept display adapter. Click [OK] to save
s
ettings. Click [OK]

15.

When the "Installation Complete" screen appears. Remove all disks and click [Restart Computer].


Q17.

What is Remote Access Service (RAS)? Explain.

Ans.

Remote Access Service:

Remote access is the ability to get access to a computer or
a network from a
remote distance. In corporations, people at branch offices, telecommuters, and people who are traveling may
need access to the corporation's network. Home users get access to the Internet through remote access to an
Internet service provid
er (
ISP
).

Dial
-
up connection through desktop, notebook, or handheld computer
modem

over regular telephone lines is a
common method of remote access. Remote access is also possible using a dedicated line between a computer
or a remote local area network and the "central" or main corporate local area network. A dedicate
d line is more
expensive and less flexible but offers faster data rates. Integrated Services Digital Network (
ISDN
) is a common
method of remote access from bra
nch offices since it combines dial
-
up with faster data rates.
Wireless
,
cable
modem
, and Digital Subscriber Line (
DSL
) technologies offer other possibilities for remote access.

A remote access server is the computer and associated software that

is set up to handle users seeking access
to network remotely. Sometimes called a communication server, a remote access server usually includes or is
associated with a
firewall

server to ensure security and a
router

that can forward the remote access request to
another part of the corporate network. A remote access server may inc
lude or work with a modem pool
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manager so that a small group of modems can be shared among a large number of intermittently present
remote access users. A remote access server may also be used as part of a virtual private network (
VPN
).


Q18.

Write a procedure to create a Network Boot Disk using the Window NT client Administrator.

Ans.

If you have an NT workstation you may skip to
"Network Client Administrator Execution"
. Windows
2000 does not include an equivalent tool, however you may use the Windows NT version of the tool on a
Windows 2000 system by performing the following steps:



1.

Cr
eate a folder called C:
\
Ncadmin.

2.

Create a subfolder called C:
\
Ncadmin
\
Clients

3.

Copy the following files from the I386 folder on the Windows NT Server 4.0 CD
-
ROM to the folder
you created:




Ncadmin.cn_




Ncadmin.ex_



Ncadmin.hl_

4.

At a command prompt, chan
ge to the C:
\
Ncadmin folder, and then type the following command:

"expand
-
r ncadmin.*

5.

Double
-
click Ncadmin.exe to launch the utility.

6.

Once launched, select the Make Network Installation Startup Disk from the menu and press the
Continue button to begin.

7.

Yo
u are requested to provide a path to the client installation files. Enter C:
\
Ncadmin
\
Clients as the
path if you followed the steps above (or the appropriate directory if running from an existing NT Server
installation), select the Share Files radio button
and press OK.


This will share the "C:
\
Ncadmin
\
Clients" folder
as clients, which you may feel to remove after your network boot disk has been created.


8.

The next dialog prompts you to choose what type of floppy, network client, and network card driver
you w
ish to create the boot disk for. Choose Network Client v3.0 for MS
-
DOS and Windows as your network
client. Select your network card from the list and press OK to continue.

9.

The next dialog will prompt you for startup disk configuration information including

Computer Name,
User Name (must be unique on the network), Domain, and Protocol and (if necessary) IP information. Select
TCP/IP Protocol from the protocol dropdown list, it may appear that there is only one item to select
-

look closely
and you should see
a very small scroll bar in the dropdown list (push the down arrow to see TCP/IP Protocol).

10.

Next the boot disk itself will actually be created. You will need to provide a blank, formatted system
disk (bootable) for the files to be placed on. Windows NT/2000

cannot do this for you, as there is no DOS
equivalent operating system present to place on the floppy. Go to a DOS or Windows 9x machine and format
the disk with the /s option to create the blank, formatted system disk. This should NOT be a Windows NT
for
matted diskette.


Q19.

What is MAC address? How do you find your MAC address?

Ans.

MAC Address
: A Media Access Control address (MAC address) is a
unique identifier

assigned

to
network interfaces

for communications on the physical network segment. MAC addresses are used for
numerous network technologies and most
IEEE 802

network technologies including
Ethernet
.


MAC addresses are most often assigned by the manufacturer of a network interface card (NIC) and are stored
i
n its hardware, the card's read
-
only memory, or some other firmware mechanism. If assigned by the
manufacturer, a MAC address usually encodes the manufacturer's registered identification number and may be
referred to as the burned
-
in address. It may also b
e known as an Ethernet hardware address (EHA), hardware
address or physical address. A
network node

may have multiple NICs and will then have one unique MAC
address per NIC.

Finding
MAC address of a Machine:

To find the MAC address of a machine, follow the following steps:

1.

Click Start
-
>Run

2.

Type cmd and press Enter

3.

On dos prompt, type ipconfig/all, and press enter

4.

This command will display the MAC addresses of all the Ethernet cards a
ttached to the PC.


Q20.

How can you grant access rights to users in Novell NetWare?

Ans
.

Setting up a Novell eDirectory user account involves creating a User object and setting properties to
control login and the user’s network computing environment. You
can use a template object to facilitate these
tasks.

You can create login scripts to cause users to be connected automatically to the files, printers, and other
network resources they need when they log in. If several users use the same resources, you can
put the login
script commands in container and profile login scripts.



Setting Up a User's Network Computing Environment

1.

Right
-
click the User or Template object that you want to set up the network computing environment
for > click Properties.

Use a Templa
te object if you haven't created the User object yet.

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2.

On the General tab, select the Environment page.

3.

Fill in the property page.

Click Help for details.

4.

Click OK.


Setting Up Extra Login Security for a User

1.

Right
-
click the User or Template object that yo
u want to set up login security for > click Properties.

Use a Template object if you haven't created the User object yet.

2.

On the Restrictions tab, fill in the property pages you want.

Click Help for details on any page.

Page

Use to

Password
Restrictions

Set up a login password.

Address
Restrictions

Restrict the locations the user can log in from.

Time Restrictions

Restrict the times when the user can be logged in. If the user will log in remotely, see
Section
3.4, Login Time Restrictions for Remote Users
.

Login Restrictions

o

Limit the number of concurrent login sessions.

o

Set a login expiration and lockout date.

3.

Click OK.

4.

To set up intruder detection for all the User obje
cts in a container:

1.

Right
-
click the container > click Properties.

2.

On the General tab, select the Intruder Detection page.

3.

Fill in the property page.

Click Help for details.

4.

Click OK.


Setting Up an Accounting of a User's NetWare Server Usage

1.

Right
-
click t
he User or Template object that you want to set up the accounting for > click Properties.

Use a Template object if you haven't created the User object yet.

2.

On the Restrictions tab, select the Account Balance page.

3.

Fill in the property page.

4.

Click OK.

5.

Use
NetWare Administrator to set up one or more NetWare servers to charge for network services.


Q21.

Describe workgroups and domain Controller in Novell Netware.

Ans.

Workgroups:

For convenience and security the network can be divided into
workgroups
, each
c
ontaining one or more NetWare servers. A workgroup consists of a number of users who require the same
access to certain information. Rather than making a file or directory available to any user on the network, you
can make it available to the members of a
workgroup only. Every user has an
account

in each workgroup of
which they are a member. You connect to a
workgroup
, NetWare servers and/or a NetWare Directory Services
tree by
logging in
. This involves typing your account's
username

and, if necessary, your

password.

Each workgroup has a user called SUPERVISOR who has
workgroup administrator privileges
. Other users can
be given workgroup administrator privileges as well, allowing them to create new user accounts and
workgroups and perform other administrativ
e functions.

A NetWare server has an
owner

who can change the server's settings. Anyone else to whom the owner has
granted the right (such as the SUPERVISOR) can also do this. Server settings include the rights of all or
specific users to access each share
d resource belonging to that server.

Domain Controller:
The Primary Domain Controller on NetWare® functionality provides the capability to make
a Novell® CIFS server a Windows NT 4 style Primary Domain Controller (PDC) in a network running the
Microsoft CI
FS protocol. While acting as a PDC, a Novell CIFS server will replace and become the Primary
Domain Controller in a CIFS network. There are three main advantages of this new feature:



Instead of having to create separate Microsoft domain and eDirectory user

accounts (as was
previously the case), user accounts now need to be created only once in eDirectory.



The other CIFS workstations and CIFS servers in the network will function as if they were part of an
NT4 domain.



All CIFS clients will authenticate to a N
ovell CIFS server using eDirectory.

Q22

What are the various modes of Windows NT? Explain.

Ans.

Windows NT operates in two different modes:

1.

User Mode

2.

Kernel Mode


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1. User Mode:

The user mode is made up of subsystems which can pass I/O requests to the appro
priate kernel
mode drivers via the I/O manager (which exists in kernel mode) Two subsystems make up the user mode layer
of Windows NT: the Environment subsystem and the Integral subsystem.

The environment subsystem was designed to run applications written
for many different types of operating
systems. None of the environment subsystems can directly access hardware, and must request access to
memory resources through the Virtual Memory Manager that runs in kernel mode. Also, applications run at a
lower prior
ity than kernel mode processes.

2. Kernel Mode:

Windows NT
kernel mode

has full access to the hardware and system resources of the
computer and runs code in a protected memory area. I
t controls access to scheduling, thread prioritization,
memory management and the interaction with hardware. The kernel mode stops user mode services and
applications from accessing critical areas of the operating system that they should not have access to
; user
mode processes must ask the kernel mode to perform such operations on their behalf.


Q23.

How can you manage user accounts in Windows NT?

Ans.

User Account:
A user account is used to represent an individual in the domain. Domain is the
fundamental b
uilding block of the Windows NT server. A domain is a logical grouping of network resources
including, server, printers, groups and user accounts. A user account consists of an account name, a password
and a unique identifier.


Types of User Accounts

1.

Local

user accounts

2.

Domain User accounts

3.

Built
-
in accounts


1.

Local user Accounts:
Local user accounts are stored in the local database of a computer and are
primarily used to administer a computer or to allow several people to share a single computer, which is n
ot a
member of the domain. Each user account is unique to the local computer, therefore, any type of account
maintenance activities such as changing passwords and user names are performed multiple times. Local user
accounts are created and administered usi
ng the local users snap
-
in tool. The local users snap
-
in tool can be
added to any custom Microsoft Management Console.

2.

Domain User Accounts:

Domain user accounts allow central administration of network resources.
A user with a domain account can logon to a
ny computer in the domain if the users are not specifically
restricted from the computer. The domain user account is used throughout the network and managed on a
domain controller.

3.

Built
-
in Accounts:
By default, several accounts are created with the instal
lation of Windows NT
server. The Windows NT server has two built
-
in accounts, one is called the administrator account and the other
is called the guest account.


Creating a User Account

You need to perform the following steps to create a user account:

1.

Sele
ct Start
-
> Programs
-
>Administrative Tools
-
> User Manager for Domains to open the ‘User
Manager’ window.

2.

Select User


New User to create a new user account.

3.

Enter user name such as Anurag in the ‘Username’ text box and full name of the user in the ‘Ful
l
Name’ text box.

4.

Enter description in the ‘Description’ text box to specify the type of user account.

5.

Enter Password in the ‘Password’ text box to specify the password of the user.

6.

Enter same password in the ‘Confirm Password’ text box to confirm the pass
word of the user.

7.

Click the ‘Add’ button to apply the settings.



Q24.

How Policies can be managed in Windows NT?

Ans.

Policies:

Policies are used for defining the legitimate actions and settings for users and computers in
domain. The following are the bui
lt
-
in user rights in Windows NT Server:

1.

System Policy

2.

Account Policy

3.

User
-
right Policy

4.

Audit Policy


1.

System Policy:

It is an aggregate of user and computer settings, which manages the working
environment of a user. System policies find application in aggre
gating a user profile with a computer profile. The
system policy is kept in a file called NTConfig.pol, located in the Netlogon folder of the Primary Domain
Controller (PDC). The system policy gives a means to ensure a uniform and consistent policy for all

users.

2.

Account Policy:

The account policy specifies a method to handle passwords for all use accounts.
It manages the global log on parameters. An account policy can be used in conjunction with system policy to
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provide full control over the login behavior
. To administer account policy you need to perform the following
steps:

a.

Open the User Manager Window.

b.

Select Policies

Account to display the ‘Account Policy’ dialog box.

The account policy dialog box has the following fields:

1.

Maximum Password age

2.

Password

uniqueness

3.

Minimum Password age

4.

Minimum Password Length

5.

Reset Count after

6.

No Account Lockout

7.

Account Lockout

3.

User Right Policy:
The Windows NT Server operating system is responsible for defining user
rights for the built
-
in groups. User rights are differe
nt from permissions, which are used for denoting usage
policies for network resource like a directory or a file. You can administer the user right policy by selecting
Policies


User Right in the ‘User Manager’ Window.

4.

Audit Policy:

The audit policy permits

you to keep track of the tasks carried out by the users by
forming security log entries. The audit policy can be used to determine the categories of security events that
have been saved in the security log. Each domain has identical audit policy. To admin
ister the audit policy, you
need to select Policies


Audit in the ‘User Manager’ window.


Q25.

How can you install RAS components of Windows NT?

Ans.

Remote Access Service (RAS):

You need to install and configure RAS in Windows NT Server for
allowing your
computer to connect to network computers. For installing RAS, you need the administrative
privileges, you also need to check the availability of some specific hardware requirements, which are needed
for installing RAS. The basic hardware requirements are:

1.

A Network Adapter Card (NAC), which has a certified Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS)
driver.

2.

One or more modems having hardware compatibility and one available COM port.

3.

A multiport adapter card that helps in working with multiple remote conne
ctions.

4.

An X.25 start card, in case you are using X.25 network.

5.

An ISDN card or modem when you are using an ISDN line.

To install RAS, you need to perform the following tasks:

1.

Select Start


Settings


Control Panel to display the Control Panel window.

2.

Clic
k the Network icon available in the ‘Control Panel’ to open the network dialog box. By default,
the Identification tab is selected in the Network dialog box.

3.

Click the Services tab to display the Service tabbed page of the Network dialog box, which
specifi
es various network services such as Gateway Service for Netware, NetBIOS Interface and Microsoft
Internet Information Server 2.0.

4.

Click the Add button for displaying the select Network Service dialog box, which holds the different
network services and als
o allows you to add new network services.

5.

Select the Remote Access Service option from the Network Service list and click OK. This prompts
for the path to the distribution files.

6.

Type the path and click OK for copying the RAS files onto your computer and t
o display the Add
RAS Device, which contains a list of all ports accessible to Windows NT for RAS.

7.

Select the port that you need to use for RAS and click OK to display the Remote Access Setup
dialog box.

8.

Select the port in the ‘Remote Access Setup’ dialog
box and click the Configure button to open the
Configure Port Usage dialog box. The various options available in the ‘Port Usage’ section of the Configure Port
Usage dialog box are:

a.

Dial out only:

It specifies that your computer system can only be an RAS c
lient.

b.

Receive Calls only:

It specifies that your computer system can only be an RAS server.

c.

Dial out and Receive calls:

It specifies that your computer system can be both client and
server.

9.

Select the option of your choice from the ‘Port Usage’ section an
d click OK to display the ‘Remote
Access Setup’ dialog box.

10.

Click the Network button on the ‘Remote Access Setup’ dialog box to open the ‘Network
Configuration’ dialog box, which allows you to configure network
-
wide settings of RAS.

11.

Click the Continue butt
on on the Remote Access Setup dialog box after setting the network
configuration to open the RAS Server TCP/IP configuration dialog box.

12.

Select the appropriate configuration and click OK to display the Network dialog box.

13.

Click OK to close the Network dial
og box and restart your computer system to apply the changes
made to RAS.


Q26.

How disk resources can be managed in Windows NT Server?

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Ans.

Managing Disk Resources:

A user can perform disk related tasks such as creating partitions and
formatting disk usin
g the disk administrator utility provided by ‘Windows NT Server’. Disk Administrator helps to
manage disk resources by displaying all the drives of the system with their types and capacity. Windows NT
has a utility named ‘Disk Administrator’ to manage and
understand partitioning the disk resources.


Using Disk Administrator:

To use the disk administrator

1.

Select Start


Programs


Administrator Tool


Disk Administrator to display the disk
configuration view of the Disk Administrator.

2.

Select Options


Disk Dis
play to control the size of the disk.

3.

Accept the default settings and select Options


Region Display to show the relationship among
partitions of the disk and control logical drive display.

4.

Select the Size regions based on equal size option and click the
OK button to apply the changes.

5.

Select Options


Customize Toolbar to customize the toolbar of ‘Disk Administrator’.

6.

Select a button such as ‘Separator’ from the available buttons list to add a button to the ‘Disk
Administrator’ toolbar.

7.

Click the ‘Add’ but
ton to add the ‘Separator’ button to the Toolbar buttons list.


Q27.

How can you add and remove Windows NT components?

Ans.


Windows NT components can be added or removed by following steps

1.

Click Start


Settings


Control Panel

2.

Click on Add or remove prog
ram icon.

3.

Add or remove programs window will open up. Click on Add/remove windows components icon
present on the left hand side of the window.

4.

After clicking on ‘Add/remove windows components’ a new window will open up.

5.

This window will display all the com
ponents currently installed in the system and other components,
which can be installed.

6.

Select the component by checking the check box.

7.

Click on ‘OK’ button and insert Windows NT Server CD to install the respective components.

8.

If you want to uninstall any
component then uncheck the check box for the respective component
and click OK.

9.

It will uninstall the components from the computer.



Q28.

Explain the Client
-
Server computing.

Ans.

Client
-
Server Computing:

The client

server model of computing is a
distributed application

that
partitions tasks or workloads between the providers of a resource or service, called
servers
, and service
requesters, called
clients
.
[1]

Often clients and servers

communicate over a
computer network

on separate
hardware, but both client and server may reside in the same system. A server machine is a host that is running
one or more se
rver programs which share their resources with clients. A client does not share any of its
resources, but requests a server's content or service function. Clients therefore initiate communication sessions
with servers, which await incoming requests.

The cl
ient

server characteristic describes the relationship of cooperating programs in an application. The server
component provides a function or service to one or many clients, which initiate requests for such services.

Functions such as email exchange, web ac
cess and database access, are built on the client

server model.
Users accessing banking services from their computer use a web browser client to send a request to a web
server at a bank. That program may in turn forward the request to its own database clie
nt program that sends a
request to a database server at another bank computer to retrieve the account information. The balance is
returned to the bank database client, which in turn serves it back to the web browser client displaying the
results to the use
r. The client

server model has become one of the central ideas of
network computing
. Many
business applications being written today use the client

server model. So do the I
nternet's main application
protocols, such as
HTTP
,
SMTP
,
Telnet
, and
DNS
.

The interaction between client and server is often described using
sequence diagrams
. Seque
nce diagrams are
standardized in the
Unified Modeling Language
.

Specific types of clients include
web browsers
,
email clients
, and
online chat

clients.

Specific types of servers include
web servers
,
ftp servers
,
application s
ervers
,
database servers
,
name servers
,
mail servers
,
file servers
,
print servers
, and
terminal servers
. Most
web services

are also types of servers.

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Q29.

Difference between NT4.0 vs 95/98

Ans

There are so many differences between window NT v
s 95/98 like :A number of advantages are
associated using the NTFS which included automatic backup of master files tables and security.


Window NT

1)

Window NT we can’t open or access
the=win=kT=operating= system=without=any=
passwordK
=

=
there=as=winOk=profession
al=use=
cATNSKcATPO= and=kTcp=file=system=
=

=

But=win=kT=provide= both=encrypt=and=
compression
=

=
kT=provide= pearching=option
=

=
ft=can=control=file=folder=and=program=
=

=
tindow=kT=provide= Active=directory=
concept=to=create=domainK
=

=
ft=providing= much=greater=stabilityK
=

=
tindow=kT=is=fully=plug=and=play
=
=
=
=
=
Window 95/98

1)

Security:
-

win95/98 we have password
protection against the system and files but that is not
sufficient because we can start the win95/98 without
any password with the escape and cancel button

2)

File System
:
-
Win95/98 use a fat and fat32
file system which store 2GB file in a database in the
boot sector of hard disk.

3)


95/98 doesn’t provide compression and
encryptingK
=

=
there=as=9RL9U=provide= find=optionK
=

=
But it doesn’t provide folder and program.
=

=
there=as=9RL9U=
doesn’t provide this
conceptK
=

=
ft=is=not=stableK
=

=
But=window=9RL9U=is=not=fully=plug=and=playK
=
=
=
=
=
Q30.


What is operating system also define basic concept

Ans


What is operating system


Operating system is a large collection of software that manages resour
ces


of the computer such as memory,


Processor, file system and I/O devices. It acts as a interface between the user and the hardware of the
computer


system.

Basic concept of operating
system An operating system is a set of instructions stored on a
storage device
such as hard disk, compact disk read only memory or floppy disk. When you switch on a computer, the power
on routine and a set of power on routine activities is performed. These powers on routine activities verify the
devices attached to the

CPU, such as keyboard, hard disk floppy disk, CD ROM and printers for their proper
functioning. The instruction for these powers on routine activities is stored in the ROM.

ROM
The read only memory as the name may suggest contains information that can on
ly be read. you can’t
write on this type of memory. It is non
-
volatile or permanent in nature. It is basically used to store permanent
programs such as program for the functioning of the monitor. It stores data even when the power is switched
off. However
ROM stores only a few kilobytes.

RAM
The random access memory is a read write memory i.e. information can be read as well as written into
this type of memory. It is volatile in nature, i.e., the information it contains is lost as soon as the system is shut

down unless 'saved' for further usage by users. It is basically used to store programs and data during the
computer’s operation.


Q31 How to install network service

Ans
Installing a network service

You might need to be logged on as an administrator or a
member of the Administrators group in order to
perform some tasks.

Network services provide features such as file and printer sharing. For example, the File and printer Sharing for
Microsoft Networks service allows other computers to access resources on yo
ur computer using a Microsoft
network. The procedure below describes how to add a network service to your computer.

To add a network service to your computer

1.

Open Network
ms
-
its:C:WINDOWSHelpEXEC=,control.exe,netconnections CHM=ntshared.chm
FILE=alt_url_windows_component.htm::/

Connection.

2.

Under
LAN or High
-
Speed Internet
, click
Local Area Connection
.

3.

On the
File

menu, click
Properties
.

4.

In the
Local Area Connection Properties

dialog box, click
Install
.

5.

In the
Select Network Component Type

dialog box, click
Service
, and then click
Add
.

6.

In the
Select Network Service

dialog box, click the service you want to
install
, and then click
OK
.



To open Network Connections, click
Start
, click
Control Panel
, and then double
-
click Network

Connections
.



For information about using Network Connections, click
the
Help

menu in Network Connections.


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Long questions (10 marks)


Q 1 Explain file system

Ans
FAT

FAT started being used with DOS and there are now three different versions of the File Allocation
Table file system
-

FAT12, FAT16 and FAT 32. The number
s used in these versions designate the number of
bits used to identify a cluster.

FAT12:

The earliest version the file system, FAT12 allows a partition to contain up to 4096 (212)clusters. Since
it supports clusters of one to sixteen sectors, the maximum
partition size is 32MB. Windows 2000 uses FAT12
for floppy disks and for partitions of 16MB or smaller.

FAT16:

FAT16 provides a sixteen
-
fold expansion in the number of clusters it identifies, supporting volumes
containing 65,536 (216)clusters. It also exp
ands the maximum cluster size to 128 sectors (64KB) and maximum
volume size to 4GB.

FAT32:

To address the need for even larger storage capacity, Microsoft introduced FAT32 with Windows 95
OS. Following the pattern of the earlier versions of the file syste
m, it uses 32 bits to designate a cluster.
However the last four bits are reserved. Each volume, therefore, can contain up to nearly 270 million
(228)clusters which theoretically translates into a 8 Terabyte volume comprised of 32KB clusters. In practice,
however, while Windows NT will manage larger volumes created in other operating systems, it limits the size of
new FAT32 volumes to 32GB since the file system becomes quite inefficient beyond that size. If you do want to
create a larger volume, you can dua
l boot the system into either Windows 95 or 98, establish the volume using
that OS, and then manage the volume using Windows NT.

The above types of FAT file system have key architectural elements in common. Several sections actually
comprise a FAT volume,

starting with the boot sector. Following this up are the file allocation table and, for
protection, a duplicate file allocation table. Next comes the root directory and finally any other directories and
files of the volume. FAT32 also stores a duplicate c
opy of the boot sector for added reliability.

The FAT boot sector starts with three bytes containing a jump instruction telling the CPU that the next several
bytes are not executable. After that is an eight byte OEM ID which identifies the operating syste
m that formatted
the volume. Next comes the BIOS Parameter Block, which lists the parameters of the volume. These include
such items as the number of bytes per sector, sectors per cluster, number of reserved sectors, number of file
allocation table copies
(generally two), number of possible entries in the root directory and number of sectors in
the volume.

Each cluster in the volume has an entry in the file allocation table which indicates whether the cluster is bad,
whether it contains a file and, if so,
if that is the last cluster for that file. If the cluster contains a file which is
continued in another cluster, the file allocation table entry will contain the number of that cluster. If the entire
cluster is contained in a single cluster, or if that clu
ster is the final one for a file spanning multiple clusters, the
entry will contain the value "0xfff" indicating that it is the last cluster.

In FAT12 and FAT16, the root directory or root folder contains 512 entries, each one being 32 bytes. FAT32
permit
s an unlimited number of entries in the root directory, and that directory can be located anywhere on a
hard disk. Each entry begins with the file name in 8.3 format. Following this is the attribute byte which contains
six binary flags indicating whether t
he file has been archived, if the entry is a directory or a file, if it is read
-
only,
whether it is a hidden file, if it is a system file and if it is a volume label.

Next come eleven bytes telling when the file was created, last accessed and last modifie
d. After that are two
bytes identifying the location of the first cluster in the file (The locations of the rest of the clusters are stored in
the file allocation.) The entry finishes a four byte number giving the size of the file in bytes, yielding a maxi
mum
file size of 4GB (232).

This root directory structure only natively supports file names using the 8.3 format. For long file names it uses a
truncated version of the file name (e.g., FILENA~1.EXE) for the main entry and assigns additional lines in
dire
ctory to list the long names using Unicode. Since FAT12 and FAT16 have a limit to the size of the root
directory, this will reduce the total number of files or directories that can be listed in the root. This is not a
problem with FAT32, however, since it
doesn't have this directory
-
size limitation.

NTFS

While each of the FAT versions represents an incremental improvement over its predecessor, NTFS takes a
completely different approach to the way that data is organized. It grew out of Microsoft's desire to

increase its
share of the corporate marketplace. FAT was a very simple system which worked for PCs, but it lacked the
management and security features needed to compete with UNIX in a high
-
end, networked environment. The
first attempt at a newer file syst
em was the High Performance File System (HPFS) introduced with OS/2
Version 1.2. When the IBM/Microsoft partnership that created OS/2 fell apart, and Microsoft decided to create
Windows NT, it incorporated some of the features of HPFS into its New Technolo
gy File System (NTFS).

NTFS is the native file system for Windows NT 4.0, 2000 and XP operating systems. While these O/S can
operate with FAT, many of their features only work with NTFS, so NTFS should be used whenever possible.
Fortunately, if you have o
ne or more FAT partitions running on one of these operating systems, it is a simple
matter to convert them to NTFS without losing any data.

NTFS, a log
-
based file system, addresses FAT's reliability and recoverability problems. Theoretically this
system w
ould allow access to 16 exabytes (16 billion GB) which far exceeds current storage needs. For now,
Windows 2000 limits volumes to 128 Terabytes, but later operating systems could take advantage of even
larger storage capacities. Like FAT, it sets a default

cluster size depending on the size of the partition,
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assigning a size of 4KB for anything over 2GB. Also like FAT, administrators can override the defaults and use
drop
-
down box to specify sizes up to 64KB.

An NTFS partition is divided into four sectors:

the Partition Boot sector, Master File Table, Filesystem Data and
a backup copy of the Master File Table. The partition boot sector consists of two sections and occupies the first
sixteen sectors. The first section holds the BIOS parameter block containin
g information on the layout of the
volume and the structure of the file system similar to what is laid out above for FAT. The boot code to load
Windows NT/2000/XP resides in the second section.

NTFS considers two types of attributes
-

resident and non
-
res
ident
-

that can be used to describe a record.
Resident attributes are ones that fit within the MFT, while non
-
resident attributes are ones too large to fit in the
MFT record.


Q2 Explain feature of NTFS

Ans
Additional NTFS Features

In addition to suppor
ting larger volumes than FAT, NTFS contains other
features that make it better for corporate operations:



Reliability. A drawback to using FAT is that if a computer goes down, it can be difficult to repair the file
system. To make speed recovery, NTFS main
tains a log of every transaction that affects the file system. These
actions are logged before they are performed. Then, when there is a problem, any incomplete transactions can
be completed or changes can be rolled back.



Mount Points
-

All Windows versio
ns assign a different drive letter to each partition or volume on a disk,
which limits the number of accessible volumes to the 26 letters of the alphabet. Mount Points let the
administrator attach other partitions to an empty directory within an already mo
unted NTFS volume. Rather than
being limited to NTFS volumes, these additional volumes can also be using FAT16, FAT32, CDFS or UDF
which expands the functionality of this feature.



Access Control
-

The Security Descriptor function provides hierarchal acces
s control for each file or
directory in an NTFS volume. It is important to understand that the security features built into Windows
NT/2000/XP only work with NTFS. If you use FAT, you lose all security functionality and place the organization
at risk.



Dis
k Quotas
-

NTFS permits assigning of storage quotas on a per
-
user basis. It does this by tracking
the Security ID (SID) of anyone who creates a file or directory. When the limit is exceeded, the system sends a
"Disk Full" error report and logs it in the Ev
ent Log.



Encryption
-

When the computer is running Windows 2000, NTFS includes Microsoft's Encrypting File
System (EFS) which automatically encrypts and decrypts files without user intervention. This is particularly
useful for remote users, since laptops
are frequently lost or stolen and one can't rely on users to remember to
encrypt their files.


These and other features are not available with FAT.

Optical Disk Formats

In addition to the magnetic disk formats, Windows 2000 also supports two different
o
ptical file formats
-

CDFS and UDF.

CD
-
ROM File System (CDFS) is based on ISO 9660, a read
-
only file system standard written by an industry
group called High Sierra. The group got that name from its initial meeting in 1985 at Del Webb's High Sierra
Hotel
and Casino at Lake Tahoe, Nevada, where company representatives began cooperation on developing
an non
-
proprietary file system format for CD
-
ROM. The initial standard was called by the name of the group,
High Sierra, but the International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) requested that an international version
of the standard be released and this was formalized as ISO 9660
--
Volume and File Structure of CD
-
ROM for
Information Interchange. MacIntosh, DOS, Windows, UNIX and Linux all support the standard

which calls for
2048
-
byte physical sectors.

In CDFS Level 1, like MS
-
DOS, follows the 8.3 file name format. Directories are limited to eight
-
character
names and eight nested levels. Levels 2 and 3 permit longer file and directory names, up to thirty
-
two
characters, and allow use of lower case letters.

Microsoft developed an extension to ISO 9660, called Joliet, which is supported in Windows
95/98/2000/Me/NT4.0/.NET. as well as Mac and Linux. Joliet allows the use of Unicode characters in filenames
of up
to 64 characters.

Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a later standard created in 1995 by the Optical Storage Technology Association
and defined in ISO 13346. It permits 255 character names with a maximum path length of 1023 characters and
can be used with CD
-
ROMs, CD
-
Rs, CD
-
RW and DVD
-
ROMs. While ISO 9660 calls for data to be written
continuously to the disk, UDF utilizes packet writing. Windows 98 and later versions of Windows support the
UDF format, although only for reading, not writing, files. To write to
CDs or DVDs requires additional software.

Partitioning Strategies

With earlier file systems, partitioning was a means of avoiding the inherent size limits.
If one is still using a version of FAT on a large disk, this can still pose a problem, and partitio
ning is a way of
addressing that. With NTFS supporting huge multi
-
disk volume that is no longer a consideration. There are,
however, other reasons to partition. These include:

Multiple OS Support
:

This can include supporting multiple versions of Windows,
or adding a boot partition for
Linux or another OS.

Separating the OS from the Data Files
:

Putting these two in separate partitions can make it easier to
administer. By limiting access to the drive containing the OS to those with administrative privileges
, while letting
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the users save and access the data files can eliminate the problems connected with users accessing files they
shouldn't.

Optimizing Cluster Sizes
:

Having the right sized clusters for the type of files can improve overall performance.
When
you have some both large and small files residing on the same partition it is hard to find a correct size
cluster that optimizes performance. A large database or graphics file, for example, could benefit from using
64KB clusters since that would mean fewer

read/write operations and less fragmentation. A bunch of text files,
on the other hand would do better with small clusters since they would waste most of the space in a large file.
Putting these in separate partitions, with appropriate cluster sizes, woul
d boost system performance for both
types of operations.




Q
3.


Classification of computer explain any four

Ans
-
Classification of operating system

All operating system consist of similar component and perform almost similar function. But the method and
procedures for performing these function are different. Operating system are classified into many parts.



Single user operating system



Multi user operating system



Batch user operating system



Multiprogramming operating system



Multitasking operating system



P
arallel operating system



Distributed system



Real time operating system



Single user operating system

Single user
-
: Single user mean single user access a computer at a time. These computer have single process
and execute single program. The resources such a
s CPU and I/O devices are constantly available to the user
in a single user operating system for operating the system.


Multi user operating system
-
:
It allow various users to access the different resources of a computer
simultaneously. The access is pro
vided using a network that consists of various personal computers attached to
a mainframe computer. These computer send and receive information to a multi user mainframe computer.
Therefore the mainframe computer acts as a server and the other computer act

as client for that server. Unix
and Linux is truly multi user operating system.

The advantage of using multi user operating system is that it facilitates the sharing of data and information
among different users. Hardware resources such as printers and m
odems are also shared using the multi user
operating system.


Batch processing operating system
The batch processing operating system places then users jobs on an
input queue and these jobs are stored as a batch. The batch monitor executes these batch at a

definite interval
of time. The batch monitor accepts the command for initializing, processing and terminating a batch. These jobs
are executed through interaction with the hardware and the operating system gives the output back to different
users. The bat
ch processing user intervention during the processing of jobs.

It has high turn around time. The turn time taken between submitting the job and getting the output, which
includes the information related to the job included in a batch. The turn around time

is reduced using high
speed storage access devices such as magnetic disk. The batch monitor executes the batches based on the
process of job scheduling that sequences different jobs on FCFS

Multiprogramming
-
:
Multiprogramming allows multiple users to ex
ecute multiple programs using a single CPU.
The multiprogramming operating system executes different processes concurrently using a time multiplexed
CPU. By implementing the concept of CPU slicing between them. CPU slicing enables operating system to
execu
te multiple jobs concurrently. The CPU switching between the programs is so fast that the response time
for users is fraction seconds. The operating system uses an interactive computer system that provides shared
access to different resource.

Multitasking

operating system
-
:
Multitasking have the ability to handle a number of tasks or job
simultaneously. Multitasking operating system also called time sharing system with the multiprogramming
feature. Time sharing system contains multiple user terminals that
are connected to the same system to work
simultaneously.


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Q
4


Installation step of window NT


Ans


1.

Insert your Windows NT 4.0 CD and Disk 1 of your 3 NT Wo
rkstation setup
disks

2.

Once this is done boot up system.

2)

The following "Hardware Configuration" will appear and Windows NT will detect your hardware
configuration.

3)

Soon you will be prompted to Insert NT setup disk, does this and hit enter.

4)

Now the "Welcome
to Setup"


menu will appear, press "ENTER" to start Install.

5)

You will be now prompted to search for mass storage devices (CD
-
Rom in most cases), press enter to
continue or "S" if you have a SCSI device.

6)

Now insert disk 3 of your Win NT Workstation setup.

7)

W
indows has found a CD
-
Rom. Press enter to continue. If you have SCSI devices you will have to hit
"S" to specify.

8)

Now the NT License agreement, Click on page down until you get to the bottom

9)

Now the "Components" menu. The standard setting that NT now picks

should be ok,


make changes if
needed else hit "ENTER" to


continue.

10)

Win NT has now detected your hard drive. This, if it has been setup before will have to be deleted if you
are looking to install a Fresh operating system. Press "D" to delete the partiti
on that is highlighted.

11)

You are now given your


last chance to not delete a


partition. To continue Press "ENTER"

12)

Now the partition menu appears, Press C to create a partition..

13)

You will now be asked size of Hard drive, default is Max space on your hard dr
ive.

14)

As we are going to use FAT16 you will set up the drive to any size below 2048mb. Click enter when
happy with size.

15)

The partition is setup. We recommend that you leave any remaining space until later, when in windows,
otherwise you can setup the remain
ing space by following the steps we just did for the main drive.

16)

You will now be asked how you wish the drive to be formatted, we recommend FAT for most users, for
more security use NTFS.

17)

Setup will now format your Hard drive partition

18)

You will now be aske
d where you wish NT to be installed, unless doing a parallel install leave the
default and hit "ENTER"

19)

Setup will then copy files

20)

Part of setup is now complete. You will now remove any CD's in the drives and "ENTER" to reboot your
system

21)

Click enter to con
tinue from the startup menu.

22)

You will now be prompted for the NT CD again, please insert and when


drive is ready click "OK"

23)

NT will copy more files....

24)

Then when the "Windows NT Setup" screen appears click "NEXT" to continue....

25)

Now your setup options, fo
r normal users select typical and for laptop users select portable, then click
next

26)

Now fill in your name and organization, click on next to continue...

27)

Now enter your certificate of Authenticity, click enter to continue

28)

And now enter the name by which you

wish the computer to be known, click on enter to continue...

29)

And now the all important Admin password, enter it and then enter it again to confirm it, make sure you
don't forget it or you'll not get into windows. Or you could leave it blank, then you will

not need it for entering
windows then click ok.


30)


Windows NT will now prompt you to make Emergency Repair Disk. It is up to you if you wish to create
these, make your selection and click next.

31)

The "NT Network" menu shall appear, we recommend you select "d
o not connect" option and hit
next,

you are best setting up networks when NT is installed.

32)

Now select your time zone, click apply and close when finished.

33)

Now your display adapter, don't install until you get into windows, so click on "OK" and then "OK" ag
ain.

34)

NT will then continue to copy files and finally completed, click on "RESTART COMPUTER" to continue,
remove any CD.




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Q
5


What is register explain its keys

Ans
Registry:

Registry is the operating system
database on each Windows NT
-
based computer, which contains
information that is needed for network management and other devices of the computer. When we make any
changes to the operating system the registry settings gets changed automatically. It is actuall
y a database used
by the operating system to manage the computer efficiently and stores information regarding different users and
different devices.

Or

Registry is a database that contains all the information regarding configuration setting on your system
. Every
thing from user account application and any kind of document they create to properties setting modems and
other Hardware. These entries are update automatically by win NT operating system. When they receive a
request from one of the control penal.


Step to open the register

1.Click start menu go to run


2. Then write regedit Enter

3.Registry will invoke with the following given option in the left penal of the register will see the sub tree.

HKEY_CLASSES _ROOT

Contain information on file associati
on data.


HKEY_CURRENT_USER

Contains information about the user currently logged.

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE

Stores information about the user current available on your computer as well as device drivers setting along
with network and hardware profiles.

HKFY_US
ER

Store information about users and their preferences along with network and desktop setting.

HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG

Contains information about the currently active hardware configuration

Q
6


What do you mean by local group and global group?

Ans Local Group
:

A local group is local to the security system in which it is created. A local group created on a
Windows NT workgroup workstation is available only on the workstation on which it is created. A local group on
a Windows NT workstation can contain user acco
unts created on the workstation, users and global groups from
Operating

System

Keyboard

Mouse


Hard disk

Application

Monitor


Printer

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the workstation's domain and users and groups from domains trusted by the workstation's domain.

Global Group:

Global groups contain user accounts from one domain grouped together as one group na
me. A
global group cannot contain another global group or a local group. The default global groups on an Advanced
Server are the Domain Admins and the Domain Users groups. A Windows NT workstation does not define any
default global groups. However, because

a global group can be a member of a local group, a local group
defined on a Windows NT workstation can contain a global group from the domain. A local group can also
contain a global group from another domain by passing through trust relationships. Local
groups cannot
traverse trust relationships.


Q
7.


What is remote access

Ans
With Remote Desktop on Windows

NT, you can have access to a Windows session that is running on your
computer when you are at another computer. This means, for example, that you can

connect to your work
computer from home and have access to all of your applications, files, and network resources as though you
were in front of your computer at work. You can leave programs running at work and when you get home, you
can see your desktop
at work displayed on your home computer, with the same programs running.

When you connect to your computer at work, Remote Desktop automatically locks that computer so no one else
can access your applications and files while you are gone. When you come ba
ck to your computer at work, you
can unlock it by typing CTRL+ALT+DEL.

Remote Desktop also allows more than one user to have active sessions on a single computer. This means that
multiple users can leave their applications running and preserve the state of

their Windows session even while
others are logged on.

With Fast User Switching, you can easily switch from one user to another on the same computer. For example,
suppose you are working at home and have logged on to the computer at your office to update
an expense
report. While you are working, a family member needs to use your home computer to check for an important
email message. You can disconnect Remote Desktop, allow the other user to log on and check mail, and then
reconnect to the computer at your
office, where you see the expense report exactly as you left it. Fast User
Switching works on standalone computers and computers that are members of workgroups.

Remote Desktop enables a variety of scenarios, including:



Working at home
-

Access work in prog
ress on your office computer from home, including full access to
all local and access devices.



Collaborating
-

Bring your desktop to a colleague's office to debug some code, update a Microsoft
PowerPoint slide presentation, or proofread a document.



Shari
ng a console
-

Allow multiple users to maintain separate program and configuration sessions on a
single computer, such as at a teller station or a sales desk.

To use Remote Desktop, you need the following:



A computer running Windows

NT ("Remote " computer
) with a connection to a Local Area Network or
the Internet.



A second computer ("home" computer) with access to the Local Area Network via network connection,
modem, or Virtual Private Network (VPN) connection. This computer must have Remote Desktop Conne
ction,
formerly
called

the Terminal Services client, installed.



Appropriate user accounts and permissions.

Q
8.


Classification of computer define any five

Ans
-
:
Classification of operating system



All operating system consist of similar component and perf
orm almost similar function. But the method
and procedures for performing these functions are different. Operating systems are classified into many parts.



Single user operating system



Multi user operating system



Batch user operating system



Multiprogrammin
g operating system



Multitasking operating system



Parallel operating system



Distributed system



Real time operating system

Single user operating system



Single user mean single user access a computer at a time. These computer have single process and
execute
single program. The resources such as CPU and I/O device are constantly available to the user in a
single user operating system for operating the system.


Multi user operating system



It allows various users to access the different resources of a compute
r simultaneously. The access is
provided using a network that consists of various personal computers attached to a mainframe computer.
These computers send and receive information to a multi user mainframe computer. Therefore the mainframe
computer acts as

a server and the other computer act as client for that server. Unix and Linux is truly multi user
operating system.

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The advantage of using multi user operating system is that it facilitates the sharing of data and information
among different users. Hardw
are resources such as printers and modems are also shared using the multi user
operating system
.


Batch processing operating system

The batch processing operating system places then users jobs on an input queue and these jobs are stored as
a batch. The ba
tch monitor executes these batches at a definite interval of time. The batch monitor accepts the
command for initializing, processing and terminating a batch. These jobs are executed through interaction with
the hardware and the operating system gives the
output back to different users. The batch processing user
intervention during the processing of jobs.




It has high turn around time. The turn time taken between submitting the job and getting the output, which
includes the information related to the job i
ncluded in a batch. The turn around time is reduced using high
-
speed storage access devices such as magnetic disk. The batch monitor executes the batches based on the
process of job scheduling that sequences different jobs on FCFS



Multiprogramming

Multi
programming allows multiple users to execute multiple programs using a single CPU. The
multiprogramming operating system executes different processes concurrently using a time multiplexed CPU.
By implementing the concept of CPU slicing between them. CPU sl
icing enables operating system to execute
multiple jobs concurrently. The CPU switching between the programs is so fast that the response time for users
is fraction seconds. The operating system uses an interactive computer system that provides shared acce
ss to
different resource.


Multitasking operating system

Multitasking have the ability to handle a number of tasks or job simultaneously. Multitasking operating system
also called time sharing system with the multiprogramming feature. Time
-
sharing system
contains multiple user
terminals that are connected to the same system to work simultaneously.



Q
9.

How to install printer

Ans
To install new or updated printer drivers

You must be logged on as an administrator or a member of the Administrators group in

order to complete this
procedure. If your computer is connected to a network, network policy settings might also prevent you from
completing this procedure.

Open printers and fax.

1.

Right
-
click the printer for which you want to change drivers, and then cl
ick
Properties
.

2.

On the
Advanced

tab, click
New Driver

to install a new or updated version of the
ms
-
its:C:WINDOWSHelpHELP=glossary.hlp TOPIC=GLS_PRINTER_DRI
VER::/

printer driver using the Add Printer
Driver Wizard.

3.

Click
Next
, and then do one of the following:

o

Click the appropriate printer manufacturer and printer model if the new or updated driver is on
the list.

o

Click
Have Disk

if the printer driver is
not included in the list or if you have received a new or
updated driver on CD or diskette from the printer manufacturer, type the path where the driver is located, and
then click
OK
.

4.

Click
Next
, and then follow the instructions on the screen to finish in
stalling the printer driver.




To open Printers and Faxes, click
Start
, click
Control Panel
, and then double
-
click
Printers and
Faxes
.



You can also open printer properties in Printers and Faxes by clicking a printer, and then clicking
Set
printer properti
es

under
Tasks

on the left side of the window. This option is available only if folders are set to
look like a Web page and a printer is selected. For more information, click
Related Topics
.



When using NT, you may be able to install new or updated printer

drivers when logged on as a member
of the Power Users group, depending on the components required by the printer driver.



If the printer driver you want to use already exists on the
print server
, you can install it by selecting it
from the
Driver

list.

Q1
0.

Export Quota settings to another volume

Ans
Open My Computer.

1.

Right
-
click the volume from which you want to export quota settings, and then click
Prope
rties
.

2.

In the
Properties

dialog box, click the Quota tab.

3.

On the Quota properties page, click the Quota tab, make sure the
Enable quota management
check
box is selected, and then click Quota
Entries
.

4.

Click the user quota records you want to export.

5.

On
the quota menu, click
Export
.

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6.

In the
Export Quota Settings

dialog box, specify a destination folder, type in a file name for the saved
settings, and then click
Save
.




To open My Computer, click
Start
, and then click
My Computer
.



If the volume is not for
matted with the
NTFS file system
, or if you are not a member of the
Administrators

group, the Quota tab is not displayed in the volume's
Properties

dialog box.



Alternatively, you can open two instances of the Quota Entries window: one for the source disk volume
from which you want to

export quota records, and one for the destination volume into which you are exporting
the quota records. Then you can drag quota records from the source volume's Quota Entries window to the
destination volume's Quota Entries window.



For entries that alre
ady exist on the destination volume, the settings transferred are the user's disk
space limit and quota warning level values. If the entries do not exist, new entries are created.



Disk quota settings are saved in a file format that is exclusive to the Dis
k Quotas utility and that is used
only for importing and exporting quota settings from one volume to another. The
Export Quota Settings

dialog
box does not reveal the file name extension for the settings file, even if the folder that contains it shows file

name extensions for all files.



You can drag a selected quota setting to a folder where an export file is automatically created

Q1
1
.

Discuss the evolution of operating system. How many types of operating systems are there?

Ans.


1) Simple batch system:
It

has a single processor, runs a single programming at a time and interacts with single user at a time. To
speed up processing, jobs with similar needs were batched together and were run through the computer as a
group. Thus the programmers would leave the
ir programs into batches with similar requirements and, as the
computer became available, would run each batch. The output from each job would be sent back to the
appropriate programmers.



2) Batch processing system:
.

In batch processing programs, data an
d system commands are submitted to computer in the form of a job. It
takes several jobs in a queue and automatically keeps executing one job to next job in the queue. There may
be little or no interaction between the user and executing program. The batch m
onitor does all the functions of
the batch processing system. Batch monitor are permanently stored on the lower part of the memory and the
rest part of memory is left for the execution of current job.

3) Multiprogramming operating system:

When more than on
e program is executing in the system then it is called multiprogramming. The operating
system that supports more than one program to execute simultaneously is called multiprogramming operating
system.

Multitasking or multiprogramming operating system suppo
rts concurrent execution of two or more programs (at
the same time). Multiprogramming increases CPU utilization by organizing jobs in several ways such that the
CPU always has one job to execute. The idea behind this is
--

As the operating system keeps sev
eral jobs in
the memory at a time, some jobs are kept in the job queue. The operating system picks and executes one of
the jobs. This job may have to wait for some task, then operating system switches to and executes another job.
When that job needs to wai
t, the CPU switches to another job and so on. When first job finishes waiting then it
gets CPU back. Hence there is always some job to execute, so CPU will never sit idle.

4) Time sharing system:

A time
-
shared operating system allows many users to share t
he computer simultaneously. As each process in
the time
-
shared system is very short so only little CPU time is needed for each user. As the system switches
rapidly from one user to another the user thinks that he is the only user working in the system wher
eas actually
many users share the computer.

Time
-
sharing system sets the time for every process. Therefore it requires round robin scheduling. In this
system, every job is allocated a time slice. If time of one job is completed but job is not finished then

this job is
placed at the end of queue of waiting program.

5) Parallel system:

Most systems today are single processor systems, that means they have only one main CPU.A system
containing more than one processor is multiprocessor system.

Such systems have

more than one processor in
close communication, sharing the computer bus, the clock and sometimes memory and peripheral devices.
These systems are referred to as tightly coupled system.

6) Distributed system:

A recent trend in computer system is to distri
bute computation among several processors. In this scheme the
processors do not share memory or clock, instead every processor has its own memory and clock chip.

The processors can communicate with one another through various communication lines. These sys
tems are
usually referred to as loosely coupled systems or distributed systems. The processors in this scheme are
referred to by a number of different names like sites, nodes, computers and so on.
7) Real time system:

Real time operating system is used in
an environment where a large number of events, must be accepted and
processed in a short time. It has well defined fixed time constraints. Processing must be done within he defined
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constraints, or the system will fail. Such application includes telephone s
witching equipment, flight control and
real time simulation.




Q1
2
.

What are the different components of an O.S. Explain each of them briefly.

Ans.


The different components of operating system are :

1)

Process management:

The various activities of this com
ponent are:

a)

creation and deletion of both system and user processes.

b)

Suspension and resumption of processes

c)

The facility of methods for process synchronization

d)

The facility of methods for process communication

e)

The facility of methods for deadlock handling

2)
Memory management:

The various activities of this component are:

a)

Keeps track of which parts of memory are currently being used and by whom

b)

Decides which processes are to be loaded into memory when memory space

becomes available.

c)

Allocates and deallocat
es memory space as required

3)
File management:

The various activities of this component are :

a)

Helps in creation and deletion of files

b)

Helps in creation and deletion of directories

c)

Backup of files on storage media

4)
I/O system management:
This component i
ncludes:

a)

Memory management component including buffering, caching and spooling

b)

Device driver interface

c)

Drivers for specific hardware devices.

5)
Secondary storage management:

The various activities of this component are :


a ) free space management

b ) sto
rage management

c ) disk scheduling

6)
Networking:

A distributed system is a collection of processors that do not share memory or peripheral
devices. Each processor has its own local memory and the processors communicate with each other in various
communic
ation lines such as telephone lines.

Access to a shared resource allows computation speed up, increased data availability and increased reliability.

7)
Protection systems:

If a computer system has multiple users and allows concurrent execution of multiple
processes then the various processes must be protected from one another. For this purpose methods are
provided to ensure that files , memory segments, CPU and other resources can be operated only by those
process that have taken proper authorization from t
he operating system.

8)
Command interpreter system:

It is one of the most important system programs for an operating system. It
is an interface between the user and the operating system. When a new job is started or when a user logs on to
a time
-
shared sys
tem a program that reads and interprets control statement is executed automatically. This
program is known as command line interpreter or shell.


Q1
3
.

Discuss the need of process scheduling & types of schedulers

Ans.

Scheduling is the process of bringing t
he processes to the ready queue and then sending them to the
processor. The processes are residing in the ready queue and are given to the CPU one by one according to
the scheduling algorithm used.

Scheduler

A scheduler is a module of operating system, whi
ch gives the time to each process. It refers to a set of policies
and mechanisms supported by Operating System that controls the order in which the work has to be done. All
computer resources and processes are scheduled before use and executes.

SCHEDULING

TECHNIQUES

/

TYPES

OF

SCHEDULERS

/

LEVELS

OF

SCHEDULING

Basically there are 3 types of scheduler which may co
-
exists in the complex Operating System:

1.Long
-
term schedule


2.Medium
-
term scheduler

3.Short
-
term scheduler


Long
-
Term Scheduler (LTS)

The

job of LTS is to take a process from job queue and place it in the ready queue. It is also known as job
scheduler. It executes much less frequently as short time scheduler because it has to decide which process to
place in the ready queue. As it controls
the degree of multiprogramming. It makes a careful selection of
process, which may be a mix of I/O bound process, and CPU bound process. If all process is I/O bound then all
come in suspended state.

Short
-
Term Scheduler /CPU Scheduler (STS)


The job of STS

is to take a process from ready queue and allocate CPU to them. Ready queue is not necessary
implemented as FIFO queue. It depends on various scheduling algorithm. The ready queue may be
implemented as a FIFO queue, a priority queue, a tree or simply an u
nordered linked list. The short
-
term
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scheduler is also known as CPU scheduler. The short
-
term scheduler selects a new process for the CPU quite
frequently.

Medium Term Scheduler (MTS)

When a process has to wait for some event to occur then Operating System

switches the CPU to other process.
The previous or waiting process is swapped out and the new or ready process is swapped in to the ready
queue.

Medium term scheduler does the process of swapping
-
in and swapping
-
out. Some processes are suspended
and some
processes are brought into memory. The job of swapping out and in is done by M.T.S. This is done
so that the memory may be available for new processes.


Explain process scheduling. What are scheduling queues, schedulers and context switch
Ans. The

objective of multiprogramming is to have some process running at all times, so to maximize CPU
utilization. Time
-

sharing is to switch the CPU among processes so frequently that users can interact with each
program while it is running. A uniprocessor sys
tem can have only one running process. If more processes exist,
the rest must wait until the CPU is free and can be rescheduled.

Scheduling Queues
:
-

As processes enter the system, they are put into a job queue. This queue consists of all
processes in the
system. The processes that are residing in main memory and are ready and waiting to execute
are kept on a list called the ready queue. The list of processes waiting for a particular I/O device called a device
queue.


A new proces
s is put in the ready queue. It waits in the ready queue until it is selected for
execution. Once the process is assigned to the CPU and is executing, one of several events could occur:
-



The process could issue an I/O request, and then be placed in an I/O

queue.



The process could create a new sub process and wait for its termination.

Scheduler

A scheduler is a module of operating system, which gives the time to each process. It refers to a set of policies
and mechanisms supported by Operating System that c
ontrols the order in which the work has to be done. All
computer resources and processes are scheduled before use and executes.

SCHEDULING

TECHNIQUES

/

TYPES

OF

SCHEDULERS

/

LEVELS

OF

SCHEDULING

Basically there are 3 types of scheduler which may co
-
exists
in the complex Operating System:

1.Long
-
term schedule


2.Medium
-
term scheduler

3.Short
-
term scheduler


Long
-
Term Scheduler (LTS)

The job of LTS is to take a process from job queue and place it in the ready queue. It is also known as job
scheduler. I
t executes much less frequently as short time scheduler because it has to decide which process to
place in the ready queue. As it controls the degree of multiprogramming. It makes a careful selection of
process, which may be a mix of I/O bound process, and

CPU bound process. If all process is I/O bound then all
come in suspended state.

Short
-
Term Scheduler /CPU Scheduler (STS)


The job of STS is to take a process from ready queue and allocate CPU to them. Ready queue is not necessary
implemented as FIFO que
ue. It depends on various scheduling algorithm. The ready queue may be
implemented as a FIFO queue, a priority queue, a tree or simply an unordered linked list. The short
-
term
scheduler is also known as CPU scheduler. The short
-
term scheduler selects a new

process for the CPU quite
frequently.

Medium Term Scheduler (MTS)

When a process has to wait for some event to occur then Operating System switches the CPU to other process.
The previous or waiting process is swapped out and the new or ready process is sw
apped in to the ready
queue.

Medium term scheduler does the process of swapping
-
in and swapping
-
out. Some processes are suspended
and some processes are brought into memory. The job of swapping out and in is done by M.T.S. This is done
so that the memory m
ay be available for new processes.


Q1
5

How to install domain controller

Ans Installing a domain controller


Domain provide network users and computers with the
Active Directory

service, which stores and
replicates

directory data and manages user interactions with the domain, including user logon processes, authe
ntication,
and directory searches. Every domain must contain at least one domain controller. You install a domain
controller by installing Active Directory on any
member

or
stand
-
alone

server (except those with restrictive
license agreements).

When you install the first domain controller in your organization
, you are creating the first

domain

(also called
the
root
domain

an
d the first
forest
. You can add additional domain controllers to an existing domain to provide
fault tolerance, improve service availability, and balance the load o
f existing domain controllers.

You can also install a domain controller to create a new child domain or new domain tree Create a new child
domain when you want a new domain that shares a contiguous
namespace

with one or more domains. This
means that the name of the new domain contains the full name of the
parent

domain.
For example,
sales.microsoft.com would be a child domain of microsoft.com. Create a new domain tree only when you need
a domain whose
Domain

Name System (
DNS)

namespace is not related to the other domains in the forest. This
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means that the name of the new domain tree’s root domain (and all of its children) does not contain the full
name of the parent domain. A forest can contain one or more domain trees.

Before installing a new domain controller, you will need to consider pre
-
NT compatible security levels and
identify the DNS name of the domain. For more information, see
Checklist: Creating

an additional
domain

controller
.

The most commonly performed tasks when installing a domain controller are
creating a new
domain

in a new
forest
,
creating a new child
domain

in an existing
domain

tree
,
creating a new
domain

tree in an existing forest
,
and
adding a
domain

controller to an existing
domain
.

For information about important decisions you need to make when installing a domain controller, see
Using the
Active

Directory Installation Wizard
.

To create a new domain in a new forest

1.

Open the Active directory installation wizard

2.

On the domain

Controller Type

page, click domain

controller for a new
domain, and then click
Next
.

3.

On the
Create New
domain page, click d
omain

in a new forest
, and then click
Next
.

4.

On the
New
domain

Name

page, type the full DNS name for the new domain, and then click
Next
.

5.

On the
NetBIOS
domain

Name

page, verify the NetBIOS name, and then click
Next
.

6.

On the
Database and Log Folders

page,

type the location in which you want to install the database
and log folders, or click
Browse

to choose a location, and then click
Next
.

7.

On the
Shared System Volume

page, type the location in which you want to install the Sysvol folder,
or click
Browse

to

choose a location, and then click
Next
.

8.

On the
DNS Registration Diagnostics

page, verify if an existing DNS server will be authoritative for
this forest or, if necessary, choose to install and configure DNS on this server by clicking
Install and configur
e
the DNS server on this computer, and set this computer to use this DNS server as its preferred DNS
server
, and then click
Next
.

9.

On the
Permissions

page, select one of the following:

o

Permissions compatible with pre
-
NT server operating systems


o

Permissio
ns compatible only with NT or Windows Server

2003 operating systems


10.

Review the
Summary

page, and then click
Next

to begin the installation.

Restart the computer.




Q1
6

User and computer accounts

Ans

Active Directory
user accounts

and
computer accounts

represent a physical entity such as a computer or
person. U
ser accounts can also be used as dedicated
service

accounts for some applications.

User accounts and computer accounts (as well as groups) are also referred to as
security principals
. Security
principals are directory objects that are automatically assigned
security IDs (SIDs)
, which can be used to
access domain resources. A user or computer account is used to:



Authenticate the identity of a user or computer.

A user account enables a user to log on to computers and doma
ins with an identity that can be authenticated by
the domain. For information about authentication, see
Access control in Active Directory
. Each user who logs
on to the network should have hi
s or her own unique user account and password. To maximize security, you
should avoid multiple users sharing one account.



Authorize or deny access to domain resources.

Once the user has been authenticated, the user is authorized or denied access to domain

resources based on
the
explicit permissions

assigned to that user on the resource. For more information, see
Security information
for Active Directory
.



Administer other security principals.

Active Directory creates a foreign security principal object in the local domain to represent each security
principal from a trusted external domain. For
more information about foreign security principals, see
when to
Create an external trust
.



Audit actions performed using the user or computer account.

Auditing can help you monitor accoun
t security. For more information about
auditing
, see
Auditing overview
.

Q
17.

Explain User accounts and it
s types

The users container located in
Active Directory Users and Computers

displays the three built
-
in user accounts:
Administrator, Guest, and
HelpAssistant. These built
-
in user accounts are created automatically when you
create the domain.

Each built
-
in account has a different combination of rights and permissions. The Administrator account has the
most extensive rights and permissions over the

domain, while the Guest account has limited rights and
permissions. The table below describes each default user account on domain controllers running Windows
Server

2003.

Default user account

Description

Administrator account

The
Administrator account

has full control of the domain and can assign user rights and
access control

permissions to domain users as necessary. This account must be used
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only for tasks that require
administrative credentials
. It

is recommended that you set up
this account with a strong password.

The Administrator account is a default member of the
Administrators
,
domain

Admins
,
Enterprise Admins
,
Group Policy Creator Owners
, and
Schema Admins

groups in
Active Directory. The Administrator account
can never be deleted or removed from the
Administrators group, but it can be renamed or disabled. Because the Administrator
account is known to exist on many versions of Windows, renaming or disabling this
account will make it more difficult for malicious
users to try and gain access to it. The
Administrator account is the first account created when you set up a new domain using
the Active Directory Installation Wizard. Important



When the Administrator account is disabled, it can still be used to gain acces
s
to a domain controller using
Safe Mode
.

Guest account

The
G
uest account

is used by people who do not have an actual account in the
domain. A user whose account is disabled (but not deleted) can also use the Guest
account. The Guest account does not require a password.

You can set rights and
permissions

for the Guest account just like any user account.
By default, the Guest account is a member of the built
-
in
Guests

group and the
domain

Guests

global group, which allows a user to log on to a domain. The Guest
account is disabled by default, and

it is recommended that it stay disabled.

HelpAssistant account
(installed with a Remote
Assistance session)

The primary account used to establish a Remote Assistance session. This account
is created automatically when you request a Remote Assistance sess
ion and has
limited access to the computer. The HelpAssistant account is managed by the
Remote Desktop Help Session Manager service and will be automatically deleted if
no Remote Assistance requests are pending..


Q
18.

What are user profiles in Windows NT
? Explain.

Ans.

User Profiles:

A profile is a collection of settings, which are stored in a special type of registry file. The
Windows NT user profiles are used to enable the user’s desktop settings and operating parameters. The user
profiles specify the r
ights of a user for controlling certain types of changes that a user can do to his working
environment. Windows NT Server operating system reads from the registry file the profile of the user and sets
the desktop setting according to the settings that are
stored in registry profile.
There are four types of user
profiles:

1.

Personal Profile:

It allows a user to alter his profile and save the changes for future logon
sessions. The user can change his personal profile from one logon session to another.

2.

Mandatory

Profile:
It allows a user to make changes to his profile and but does not allow the user
to save these changes in his profile for future logon sessions. The administrator can update the mandatory
profile.

3.

Default Profile: If

there is no defined profile fo
r the user then in that case the Windows NT Server
operating system makes use of a default profile for the logon workstation of the user and it is copied and saved
as the personal profile of the user so that they can be used for future logon sessions.

4.

Roam
ing Profile:
It ensures that the users can use specific settings and preferences to access all
the computers of a particular domain. The roaming profile is created when a user accesses multiple computers
in the domain. The roaming profile creates the ntuse
r.dat file and loads the file on the domain computer, which
is accessed by the user. The settings and preferences in the ntuser.dat file are updated when the user logs off
.

Q
19
.

Write a note on configuration protocols and bindings in Windows NT?

Ans.

Conf
iguration Protocols:

Entering Network Setup

1.

Click on the Start button, point to Settings and then click on Control Panel.


The Control Panel
window will appear.

2.

Double click on the Network icon.


The Network Setup Box window will appear.

The Network Setu
p Box has five main panels (or tabs):


When you are done making modifications in the Network Setup Box, click the OK box in the lower right
-
hand
part of the pane
l.


If you made any changes, you will be asked to reboot your machine in order for your changes
to take effect.

Restarting Your Computer for the First Time

If you installed Client Service for NetWare and the NWLink IPX/SPX protocols during this setup, yo
u will be
asked to select a
preferred server

when you log back into your Windows NT machine.


Enter the name of the
NetWare Server that you log into (or NONE) and press the OK button.


If you n
eed to change the preferred
server in the future, use the
CSNW

utility in the Control Panel.

Identification


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Computer Name
-

Thi
s is name of your machine.


Make sure that your computer has a unique
name.


If you aren't sure if the name you have given your computer is unique, contact your systems
administrator.



Domain Name
-

This is the domain your computer belongs to.


If you aren'
t sure what domain your
computer belongs to, contact your systems administrator.

Services


Make sure the following Network Services are installed on your computer.


A list of services currentl
y installed
on your machine is located in the Network Services box.



Client Service for NetWare


(if access to a NetWare server is necessary)



Computer Browser



Microsoft TCP/IP Printing



NetBIOS Interface



Network Monitor Agent


(only for Windows NT Servers)



RPC Configuration



Server



SNMP Service



Workstation

Adding a Network Service



Click the Add button.


A list of Network Services will appear.



Click the service you want to install and click OK.


You may be prompted to insert the Windows NT
Server or Workstati
on CD
-
ROM in to the CD
-
ROM drive.

Some Network Services need to be configured in order for them to work properly.



Protocols

A list of protocols currently installed on your machine is located in the Network Protocols box.


Make sure that
ONLY NWLink IPX/
SPX Compatible Transport, NWLink NetBIOS and TCP/IP Protocol are installed.


The
settings for each protocol is discussed below.


To view and modify the setting for a particular protocol, click on it
and then click the Properties button.

TCP/IP Protocol

1.

C
lick on the IP Address tab at the top of the window.


Make sure the Obtain an IP address from a
DHCP Server box is checked.

2.

Click on the DNS tab at the top of the window.


Aside from the Host Name box, which should have
the name of your machine, all other
boxes should be empty.

3.

Click on the WINS Address tab at the top of the window.


Click on the Enable LMHOSTS Lookup
box. Make sure the the Primary WINS Server and Secondary WINS Server boxes are empty.

4.

For NT 4.0 Servers ONLY:


Click on the DHCP Relay tab a
t the top of the window.


Make sure the
Second Threshold and Maximum Hop fields are set to 4.

5.

Click on the Routing tab at the top of the window.


Make sure the Enable IP Forwarding Box is NOT
checked.

6.

Click on the OK button at the bottom of the window to r
eturn to the Network Setup window.

Bindings


By clicking on the Bindings tab, Windows NT will rebuild the machines Bindings database.


When complete, you
should see a list of Network Services.


Go into each service (click on the plus sign to the left of th
e computer
icon) and make sure that ONLY the WINS Client (TCP/IP) protocol is being used.


The only exception to this is
with the Client Service for NetWare binding.


This has to be set to IPX/SPX.


To disable a protocol, click on it
and then click the Dis
able button.


When you are done, click the Close button.