BSAA C1-3 Biotechnology


22 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Unit C

Animal Science

Problem Area 1

Animal Genetics and


Lesson 3

What is Biotechnology?

Ask the students what “bio” means: “life” Then
ask the students what “technology” means:
“advancements made to make things better,” or
“applying science to solve problems”.

Have the students put their two definitions
together. They will come up with responses like,
“making advancements in life,” or “solving life’s
problems through the use of science.”

Now lead into a discussion on some products
developed through biotechnology that are
helping to advance our lives and make them
better. Ex. BST, Round
up Ready Soybeans,
and Golden Rice.

Picture by:

Learning Objectives

Identify the major areas of
biotechnology in animal science.

Explain various molecular
biotechnology methods.

Discuss applications of molecular

Discuss applications of organismic




Embryo transfer


Gene transfer




Particle injection






Identify the major areas of
biotechnology in animal science

is the
management of biological
systems for the benefit of people
and their environment.

Biotechnology is also viewed as
the application of science in food
and fiber production.

Identify the major areas of
biotechnology in animal science

Biotechnology has been used for
hundreds of years.

Using yeast to make bread and bacteria
to make cheese are everyday examples
of biotechnology.

Animal biotechnology
is the
application of biotechnology
methods to improve animals.

Two major areas of

biotechnology in animal science.

Molecular biotechnology

the structure and parts of cells to
change the organism.

It begins with the atom.

Molecular biotechnology often
changes the physical appearance of
an organism.

In some cases, undesirable traits may
develop along with those that are

Two major areas of

biotechnology in animal science.

Organismic biotechnology

with intact or complete organisms.

The genetic makeup of the
organism is not artificially changed.

This is the most widely used type of

Explain various molecular
biotechnology methods

The number of molecular
biotechnological methods has

The result of this work has improved
animal production.

Three of the most common methods

Genetic Engineering

Recombinant DNA

Transgenic Animals

Genetic Engineering

Genetic Engineering
is a form of
biotechnology in which genetic information
is changed to make a new product.

Through this process, sections of the DNA
strand are cut out and new sections are

Gene transfer
is the moving of a gene
from one organism to another.

Genetic engineering is a means of
complementing traditional breeding

Recombinant DNA

Recombinant DNA
is gene slicing.

Genes are cut out of a DNA strand with a
restriction enzyme that works like a scalpel.

They are then inserted into circular DNA
molecules in bacteria plasmids.

are circular pieces of DNA found
outside the nucleus in bacteria.

The plasmid is inserted into the cell that is
to be altered.

This allows the DNA of two different
organisms to be combined.

Recombinant DNA

This is a very complicated and
complex procedure.

Most cells die in the process.

Many surviving cells do not have the
new DNA present in the nucleus.

Transgenic Animals

transgenic animal
is an animal
that has incorporated a foreign gene
into its cells.

This animal can pass to its offspring
, or altered gene.

All of the cells within the transgenic
animal contain this transgene.

Some common transgenic

methods are:

Both methods have low success rates:


This is the most common
method used.

Injecting DNA into a cell using a fine diameter
glass needle and a microscope constitutes

Particle injection
is using a
microprojectile unit to shoot tiny particles
coated with DNA into cells.

Microprojectile units are sometimes called
particle guns.

Discuss applications of
molecular biotechnology

There have been several major
improvements discovered through the
use of molecular biotechnology.

They can be broken down into three

Human health

Food production

Livestock production

Molecular Biotechnology

Human Health:

Animals are being used to study several
different types of diseases found in

Insulin was once extracted from the
pancreas of slaughtered cattle and hogs.

This extraction process was very

Sometimes the insulin from the animals
caused allergic reactions to the diabetics
who used it.

Molecular Biotechnology

Human Health:

Through molecular
biotechnology,insulin is now produced
artificially in laboratories.

This artificial insulin is of higher quality
and less expensive to produce.

Molecular Biotechnology

Food Production:

Increasing the levels of beta casein
in milk decreases the time required
for rennet coagulation and whey
expulsion in making cheese.

This lowers total processing time and

Molecular Biotechnology

Food Production:

Also through biotechnology, the fat
content in milk can be reduced to
make fat
free cheese and ice cream.

If a substance known as kappa casein is
increased 5 percent in milk, it makes it
more stable and easier to ship.

These are only a few examples of
food products that have been
developed through biotechnology.

Molecular Biotechnology

Livestock Production:

The use of biotechnology has

Growth rate


Disease resistance in livestock

This has made livestock production
cost decline and aids in the supply
of a low cost food supply.

What are some applications of
organismic biotechnology?

Most animal management practices
done in livestock production are
organismic biotechnology.

Three examples of this area of
biotechnology are:

Greater fertility

Increased production

Enhancing animal nutrition

Organismic Biotechnology

Greater Fertility:
Increasing the
reproductive capacity of top
animals is important to producers.

Organismic Biotechnology

Greater Fertility:

Two methods to increase the
reproductive capacity of animals

is getting a female
to release more than the usual
number of eggs during a single
estrous cycle.

Hormones are injected to assure
more eggs.

picture by:

Organismic Biotechnology

Greater Fertility:

Second method to increase the
reproductive capacity of animals is:

Embryo transfer
is taking an
embryo from its mother and
implanting it in another female.

The embryo completes
development in the recipient.

Embryo Transfer
picture by:

Organismic Biotechnology

Increased production:

Three methods used to
increase production are:

Milk hormones

Meat hormones

Growth implants

Organismic Biotechnology

Increased production:

Milk hormones

Injections of milk
hormones cause the cow’s
mammary system to become more

The most common milk hormone is
bovine somatotropin (bST).

Since bST is a naturally occurring
hormone, it has been widely accepted in
the dairy industry.

Organismic Biotechnology

Increased production:

Meat hormones

Injections of meat
hormones causes the animal to
produce more muscle cells resulting
in larger and leaner cuts of valuable

Organismic Biotechnology

Increased production:

Growth implants

Growth implants
are small pellets placed under the

They promote growth by making the
animal more feed efficient.

Organismic Biotechnology

Enhancing animal nutrition

greatest results of biotechnology have
been seen in animal nutrition.

Some of the enhancements are:

Digestibility testing

Controlled Feeding

Organismic Biotechnology

Enhancing animal nutrition:

Digestibility testing

Tests are
made by getting samples from the
digestive systems of animals after
they have eaten.

This information is used to improve
feed use and animal growth.

Organismic Biotechnology

Enhancing animal nutrition:

Controlled feeding

Computer chips
can be put in a monitor around the
animal’s neck, ear tag or under the

A computerized feeding station will read
the chip and regulate the amount of feed
the animal receives.

Daily feed intake by the animal is used to
aid in the detection of health problems.


What are the two major areas of

What are the three major categories
of molecular biotechnology?
Describe each.

What are the major categories of
organismic biotechnology? Describe