BSAA C1-3 Biotechnology

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22 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 16 μέρες)

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BSAA CD

Unit C

Animal Science

Problem Area 1

Animal Genetics and
Biotechnology

Biotechnology

Lesson 3

What is Biotechnology?


Ask the students what “bio” means: “life” Then
ask the students what “technology” means:
“advancements made to make things better,” or
“applying science to solve problems”.


Have the students put their two definitions
together. They will come up with responses like,
“making advancements in life,” or “solving life’s
problems through the use of science.”


Now lead into a discussion on some products
developed through biotechnology that are
helping to advance our lives and make them
better. Ex. BST, Round
-
up Ready Soybeans,
and Golden Rice.

Picture by: europa.eu.int/com





Learning Objectives


Identify the major areas of
biotechnology in animal science.


Explain various molecular
biotechnology methods.



Discuss applications of molecular
biotechnology.



Discuss applications of organismic
biotechnology


Terms


Animal
biotechnology


Biotechnology


Embryo transfer


Genetic
engineering


Gene transfer


Microinjection


Molecular
biotechnology



Organismic
biotechnology


Particle injection


Plasmids


Recombinant
DNA


Superovulation


Transgene


Transgenic
animal


Identify the major areas of
biotechnology in animal science
.


Biotechnology
is the
management of biological
systems for the benefit of people
and their environment.


Biotechnology is also viewed as
the application of science in food
and fiber production.

Identify the major areas of
biotechnology in animal science
.


Biotechnology has been used for
hundreds of years.


Using yeast to make bread and bacteria
to make cheese are everyday examples
of biotechnology.


Animal biotechnology
is the
application of biotechnology
methods to improve animals.


Two major areas of


biotechnology in animal science.



Molecular biotechnology
-

changing
the structure and parts of cells to
change the organism.


It begins with the atom.


Molecular biotechnology often
changes the physical appearance of
an organism.


In some cases, undesirable traits may
develop along with those that are
desired.

Two major areas of


biotechnology in animal science.



Organismic biotechnology
-

deals
with intact or complete organisms.


The genetic makeup of the
organism is not artificially changed.


This is the most widely used type of
biotechnology.

Explain various molecular
biotechnology methods
.


The number of molecular
biotechnological methods has
increased.


The result of this work has improved
animal production.


Three of the most common methods
are:


Genetic Engineering



Recombinant DNA



Transgenic Animals


Genetic Engineering


Genetic Engineering
is a form of
biotechnology in which genetic information
is changed to make a new product.


Through this process, sections of the DNA
strand are cut out and new sections are
inserted.


Gene transfer
is the moving of a gene
from one organism to another.


Genetic engineering is a means of
complementing traditional breeding
programs.

Recombinant DNA


Recombinant DNA
is gene slicing.


Genes are cut out of a DNA strand with a
restriction enzyme that works like a scalpel.


They are then inserted into circular DNA
molecules in bacteria plasmids.


Plasmids
are circular pieces of DNA found
outside the nucleus in bacteria.


The plasmid is inserted into the cell that is
to be altered.


This allows the DNA of two different
organisms to be combined.

Recombinant DNA


This is a very complicated and
complex procedure.


Most cells die in the process.


Many surviving cells do not have the
new DNA present in the nucleus.

Transgenic Animals



A
transgenic animal
is an animal
that has incorporated a foreign gene
into its cells.


This animal can pass to its offspring
this
transgene
, or altered gene.


All of the cells within the transgenic
animal contain this transgene.

Some common transgenic


methods are:



Both methods have low success rates:


Microinjection

This is the most common
method used.


Injecting DNA into a cell using a fine diameter
glass needle and a microscope constitutes
microinjection.


Particle injection
is using a
microprojectile unit to shoot tiny particles
coated with DNA into cells.


Microprojectile units are sometimes called
particle guns.

Discuss applications of
molecular biotechnology


There have been several major
improvements discovered through the
use of molecular biotechnology.


They can be broken down into three
categories:


Human health



Food production



Livestock production


Molecular Biotechnology


Human Health:


Animals are being used to study several
different types of diseases found in
humans.



Insulin was once extracted from the
pancreas of slaughtered cattle and hogs.


This extraction process was very
expensive.


Sometimes the insulin from the animals
caused allergic reactions to the diabetics
who used it.

Molecular Biotechnology


Human Health:


Through molecular
biotechnology,insulin is now produced
artificially in laboratories.


This artificial insulin is of higher quality
and less expensive to produce.

Molecular Biotechnology


Food Production:


Increasing the levels of beta casein
in milk decreases the time required
for rennet coagulation and whey
expulsion in making cheese.


This lowers total processing time and
cost.

Molecular Biotechnology


Food Production:


Also through biotechnology, the fat
content in milk can be reduced to
make fat
-
free cheese and ice cream.


If a substance known as kappa casein is
increased 5 percent in milk, it makes it
more stable and easier to ship.


These are only a few examples of
food products that have been
developed through biotechnology.

Molecular Biotechnology


Livestock Production:


The use of biotechnology has
increased:



Growth rate


Efficiency


Disease resistance in livestock


This has made livestock production
cost decline and aids in the supply
of a low cost food supply.

What are some applications of
organismic biotechnology?



Most animal management practices
done in livestock production are
organismic biotechnology.


Three examples of this area of
biotechnology are:


Greater fertility



Increased production



Enhancing animal nutrition


Organismic Biotechnology


Greater Fertility:
Increasing the
reproductive capacity of top
animals is important to producers.

Organismic Biotechnology


Greater Fertility:


Two methods to increase the
reproductive capacity of animals
are:


Superovulation
is getting a female
to release more than the usual
number of eggs during a single
estrous cycle.


Hormones are injected to assure
more eggs.

Superovulation
picture by: www.inrp.fr/html

Organismic Biotechnology


Greater Fertility:


Second method to increase the
reproductive capacity of animals is:


Embryo transfer
is taking an
embryo from its mother and
implanting it in another female.


The embryo completes
development in the recipient.


Embryo Transfer
picture by: www.karavet.gil.com

Organismic Biotechnology


Increased production:


Three methods used to
increase production are:


Milk hormones


Meat hormones


Growth implants

Organismic Biotechnology


Increased production:


Milk hormones

Injections of milk
hormones cause the cow’s
mammary system to become more
productive.


The most common milk hormone is
bovine somatotropin (bST).



Since bST is a naturally occurring
hormone, it has been widely accepted in
the dairy industry.

Organismic Biotechnology


Increased production:


Meat hormones

Injections of meat
hormones causes the animal to
produce more muscle cells resulting
in larger and leaner cuts of valuable
meat.

Organismic Biotechnology


Increased production:


Growth implants

Growth implants
are small pellets placed under the
skin.


They promote growth by making the
animal more feed efficient.

Organismic Biotechnology


Enhancing animal nutrition

The
greatest results of biotechnology have
been seen in animal nutrition.


Some of the enhancements are:


Digestibility testing


Controlled Feeding


Organismic Biotechnology


Enhancing animal nutrition:


Digestibility testing

Tests are
made by getting samples from the
digestive systems of animals after
they have eaten.



This information is used to improve
feed use and animal growth.

Organismic Biotechnology


Enhancing animal nutrition:


Controlled feeding

Computer chips
can be put in a monitor around the
animal’s neck, ear tag or under the
skin.



A computerized feeding station will read
the chip and regulate the amount of feed
the animal receives.


Daily feed intake by the animal is used to
aid in the detection of health problems.

Review/Summary



What are the two major areas of
biotechnology?


What are the three major categories
of molecular biotechnology?
Describe each.


What are the major categories of
organismic biotechnology? Describe
each.