Biotechnology Research Project

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22 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

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Biotechnology Research Project
DNA microarrays and cancer
By: Jessica Bougram
DNA microarrays
In microarray experiments, mRNA from one cell
was made into cDNA and labeled with a red
fluorescent dye. Then, mRNA from another cell
was made into cDNA and labeled with a green
fluorescent dye. The two cDNAs were then
mixed, and hybridized to the same DNA
microarray. The comparative gene expression in
the two samples could be determined by the
ratio of red and green fluorescence in the spot
corresponding to each gene (Nature Education).
1) The purpose of the application
The purpose of DNA microarray testing is to
determine differences between two samples of
mRNA. These differences could predict diseases
such as cancer, and also individualized
treatments for those diseases.
1) Outline of the application
2) Historical Summary
The development of DNA microarrays in the mid-
1990s made it possible to examine the
expression of thousands of genes at once. “Initial
experiments using microarrays focused on
determining which genes were expressed
differently between normal cells and cancerous
cells” (Nature Education).
3) Connections

DNA microarrays exploit the ability of
complementary strands of nucleic acids to base-
pair with each other and bind.” This method,
called hybridization, connects to gene expression
(Nature Education).
4) Summary of the application
Currently, microarrays are used as a tool in
genetic diagnosis allowing doctors to recognize
differences in gene expression. Physicians can
use information from microarrays to determine
the most beneficial treatment methods for
cancer patients (Nature Education).
4) Summary of the application

With new advances, researchers will be able to
infer probable functions of new genes, based on
similarities in expression patterns with those of
known genes.” The use of microarrays may also
allow scientists to determine specific genes
involved in various diseases (Biointelligence).
5) Pros and cons of the application
Pros:
DNA microarrays could serve as a valuable
tool in patient-specific, individualized medical
care. Also, microarray technology could lead
scientists to discovering the basis of all types of
human disease (Nature Education).
Cons:
Besides the difficulty of extracting mRNA
and the cost of this technology, the only other
disadvantage of microarrays is the ethical issues
of employers and insurers requesting this test
(Nature Education).
6) Personal stance
I agree with the use of DNA microarrays. I think
that the pros outweigh the cons, and they can
potentially get rid of the ethical issues of
microarrays, by finding cures for diseases.
7) Funding
To improve this application, I would fund
analysis. For scientists to be able to see
connections to other diseases, they must analyze
the patterns carefully. By funding analysis,
scientists may be able to determine the specific
genes.
8) Works Cited
Hoopes, L. (2008). Genetic diagnosis: DNA
microarrays and cancer. In
Nature Education

Online: Nature Publishing Group. From
http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/gen
etic-diagnosis-dna-microarrays-and-cancer-1017
Microarrays. (2010, September).
Biointelligence
,
From http://biointelligence.
wordpress.com/microarray_research/