MODELING C:N RATIO FOR THE COMPOSTABLE SOLID WASTES

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20 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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1







MODELING C:N RATIO FOR THE COMPOSTABLE SOLID WASTES

USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS



Adem BAYRAM
a*
, Murat KANKAL
a
, Talat Sukru OZSAHIN
a
, Fatih SAKA
b


a
Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Engineering, D
epartment of Civil Engineering,

61080 Trabzon, Turkey

b
Gümüşhane

University, Faculty of Engineering, Departm
ent of Civil Engineering,

29000 Gümüşhane
, Turkey





Cor
responding author. Tel.: +90 462 377 41 73
; fax: +90 4
62 377 26 06


E
-
mail address
: adembayram@gmail.com (A. BAYRAM)







2


Abstract


Organic wastes constitute a major part of municipal solid wastes (MSWs), and they cause to
some unwanted problems both at open dumps, sanitary landfills and incineration plants.
Composting is one element of an integrated solid waste management strategy that can be
applied to mixed collected
MSWs or to separately collected leaves, yard wastes and food
wastes. The most critical environmental factor for composting is the carbon to ni
trogen (C:N)
ratio. In this study, two analysis methods being multi linear regression analysis (LRA) and an
artificial neural network (ANN) analysis were applied to predict C:N ratio of compostable
part of the MSWs. Experimentally determined seven variable
s belonging to the solid waste
samples taken from the MSW open dumping area in Gümüşhane Province, Turkey, were used
for the prediction of C:N ratio in the analyses. Two of these variables were percentages of
food and yard (F&Y), and ash and scoria (A&S) o
btained by the way of sorting process of
Gümüşhane MSWs. Five of these variables were moisture content (MC), fixed carbon (FC)
content, total organic matter (TOM) content, high calorific value (HCV) and pH of
compostable part of the MSWs. There were 52 dat
a for every variable. 42 of the data were
used for training set, and the rest of the data were used for testing set in the ANN analysis. As
the results of analyses, the smallest average relative error value for testing set obtained from
ANN methods was 6.3
76 %, but it was 11.002 % for LRA.

The effects of TOM content, F&Y
percentage and A&S percentage values on the C:N ratio were also investigated by simulating
the ANN model for different values of these variables. It was concluded that ANN analysis
used for

estimation of the C:N ratio provided reasonable results.


Keywords:

Artificial neural network, C:
N ratio, Municipal solid waste, Composting



3


1. Introduction


Municipal solid waste (MSW) is generated and accumulated

as the result of human activities.
The
waste will

cause serious environmental pollution unless a proper

solid waste management
system is applied. One of the

most traditional and popular disposal methods for

MSW,
particularly in developing countries is landfilling.

However, this type of technolo
gy should be
improved

and substituted by other processes due to the limited

land area in some countries
and due to some environmental

problems associated with the landfilling process,

such as gas
em
issions and leachate production
[1]
.


Organic wastes constitute a major part of municipal solid waste. They cause some unwanted
problems both at
open dumps, sanitary landfills and incineration plants. Some
of the problems
at open dumps or sanitary landfills are

leachate, which have polluting p
otential for
groundwater a
nd superficial water sources, generated as a result of degra
dation and
decomposition of organic materials, uncontrolled release of landfill gases, which may cause
serious
health problems when inhaled, such as hydrogen sulfur
(H
2
S)
, carbon dioxide (CO
2
)
and methane (CH
4
). Some of

the problems in incineration are that additional fuel is needed

due to the fact that organic materials have high
moisture content and low calorific value, and
air pollution,
which is caused by some unwanted

gases generated as a r
esult of incineration.
There are solutions for these problems but increase the cost to a great degree. The studies
were started in order to produce economical and environment
-
friendly solutions for these
problems together with
munici
pal solid waste management. In the end, the opinion

of utilizing
organic waste as a soil conditioner or fertilizer
by composting appeared. Composting was
accepted and put
into practice as a solid waste disposal alternative to open
dumping or sanitary
landf
illing
[2]
.


4


Composting is one element of an integrated solid waste management strategy that can be
applied to mixed municip
al solid waste (MSW) or to separately collected leaves,
yard wastes,
and food wastes
[3]
.

It is the biological de
composition of the
biodegradable organic fraction of
MSW under controlled conditions to a state sufficiently

stable for nuisance
-
free storage and
handling and for saf
e use in land applications
[4,5]
.


The most critical environmental

factor for composting is the C:
N ratio. In

general, an i
nitial
C:
N ratio of 30
:
1 is considered ideal. When

the C:
N

ra
tio is greater than 35
:
1, the composting
process slows down
. When the ratio is less than 25
:
1, there can be odor
problems due to
anaerobic conditions, release of ammonia,
and accele
rated decomposition. As the composting
process
proceeds and carbon is lost to the atmosphere, this
ratio narrows. Finished compost
shoul
d have a C:N ratio of 15:1 to 20:1
[6]
.


Carbon is oxidized to produce energy and metabolized to synthesize cellular constituents.
Nitrogen is an important
c
onstituent of protoplasm, proteins, and amino acids. An
organism
can neither grow nor multiply in the absence of
nitrogen in a form that is
accessible to it.
Although microbe
s c
ontinue to be active without having a nitrogen source, th
e activity rapidly
d
windles as cells age and die
[3]
.


Artificial neural networks (ANN
s
) have an inherent ability to learn and recognize highly
nonlinear relationships
[7]
, and then organize dispersed data into a nonlinear model
[8]
.

Thus,
they provide an ideal means to
predict C:N ratio of MSW
.
ANN has been applied in some
areas related to
MSW;
Dong et al. [1]

predicted the heating value of MSW with a feed
forward neural network,
Shu et al. [9]
also predicted energy contents of Taiwan MSW using
multilayer perceptron neural networks
,

and
Xiao et al. [10]

predicted the gasification
characteris
tics of MSW applying ANN. Also,
Jalili and Noori [11]

proposed
an appropriate
model for predicting the weight of waste generation in Mashhad with application of feed
5


forward artificial neural network and
Noori et al. [12]

conducted comparison of neural
network and principal component
-

regression analysis to predict the solid waste generation in
Tehran.


Ito et al. [13]

developed an ANN model to predict the net nitrification potential of the forest
soi
ls using two soil pro
perties, C:
N ratio and the maximum water
-
holding capacity. ANNs
have also been successfully used tools in the fields of water quality prediction and
forecasting.
Moatar et al. [14]

applied ANNs to estimate the daily pH of the Middle Loire
River. FNN models

were identified, validated and tested for the computation of DO
(dissolved oxygen)
[15]
, and DO and BOD (biochemical oxygen demand)
[16]

of river water.


T
his study especially focused on the ANN technique for predicting

C:
N ratio of compostable
part of th
e MSW generated in the city of Gümüşhane

b
ased on the variables being food and
yard percentage, ash and scoria percentage from the MSW components, and moisture content,
fixed carbon content, total organic matter content, high calorific value and pH from th
e
compostable part. The data were experimentally obtained on a weekly basis during March
2004 and February 2005, and the analyses were performed by using these 52 weeks
laboratory data set. It was determined that ANN technique yielded better results by
com
parison with regression analysis. Finally, the network was simulated by using some
unknown data and effects of th
e variables such as A&S and TOM on C:
N ratio.


2. Artificial n
eural network

(ANN)

approach


ANNs are human attempts to simulate and understand
what goes on in nervous system, with
the hope of capturing some of the power of these biological systems. ANNs are inspired by

biological systems with large number of neurons which collectively perform tasks that even
the largest computers have not been ab
le to match.

6



The function of artificial neurons is similar to that of real neurons; they are able to
communicate by sending sig
nals to each other over a large number of biased or weighted
connections. Each of these neurons has an associated transfer funct
ion which describes how
the weighted sum of its input is converted to an
output (
Fig. 1
).


Take in Figure 1


Different

types of
A
NNs have evolved based on the neuron arrangement, their connections
and training paradigm used. Among the various type of
A
NNs, the multi
-
layer perceptron
(MLP) trained with back propagation algorithm has been proved
to be most

useful
in
engineering applications. Back propagation is a systematic method for t
raining multi
-
layer
perceptron.


The multi
-
layer perceptron network comprises an input layer, an output layer and a number of
hidden layers (
Fig. 2
). The presence

of hidden layers allows the network to present and
compute more complicated associations
between patterns
. Basic methodology
of ANNs

consists of
two

processes; network trainin
g and testing.


Take in Figure 2


The connection weights of the ANN are adjusted through the training process, while training
effect is referred to as supervised learning. The training of ANNs usually invol
ves
modifying
connection weights by means of learning rule. The learning process is done by giving weights
and biases computed from a set training data or by adjusting weights according to a certain
condition.
Then
,

other testing data are used to check the

generalization. The initial weights
and biases are commonly assigned randomly. As input data are passed through hidden layers,
sigmoidal activation function is generally used. During the training proce
dure, the data are
7


selected uniformly. A specific pass

is completed when all data sets have been processed.
Generally, several passes are required to attain a desired level of estimation accuracy.
Training actually means for each input pattern and then compares it with the correct output.
The total error base
d on the squared difference between predicted and actual output is
computed for the whole training set. The adjustment of the corrections weights has been
carried out using the standard error back propagation algorithm, which minimizes the total
error (E)
with the gradient decent
method
[17,18]
.


The back
-
propagation algorithm

is given briefly as follows:

Step 0. Initialize weights:

To small random values,

Step 1. Apply a sample:

Apply to the input a sample vector u
k

having desired output vector y
k
,

Step 2.

Forward phase:

Starting from the first hidden layer and propagating towards the
output layer:

Step 2.1. Calculate the activation values

for the units at layer L as:

Step 2.1.1.

If L
-

1 is the input layer



(1)


Step 2.1.2.

If L
-

1 is the hidden layer



(2)


Step 2.2.

Calculate the output values for the units at layer L as:



(3)


8


where

we use i
0

instead of h
L

if it is an output layer, f is an activation function.

Step 3. Output errors:
Calculate
the error terms at the output layer as:



(4)


Step 4. Backward phase:

Propagate error backward to the input layer through each layer L
using the error term



(5)


where

i
0

instead of i
(L+1)

if L + 1 is an output layer;

Step 5.
Weight update:

Update w
eights according to the formula



(6)


where
α

and η are

learning rate and momentum parameter, respectively.

Step 6.

Repeat steps 1

5 until the stop criterion is satisfied, which may be chosen as given
number of epochs or
the total sum squared error (TSSE)



(7)


is sufficiently small
[19]
.

The foregoing algorithm used in this study updates the

weights after
an epoch is presented. Epoch is one cycle through the entire set of training patterns.


3
. Study Area


9


Gümüşhane, located in the Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey, lies between the 38° 45
′ and
40° 12′ eastern longitudes and 39° 45′ and 40°
50′ northern latitudes. Gümüşhane is
characterized by a rugged topography. The area of Gümüşhane is some 6437 km
2

at an
elevation of 1210 m. The lowest and highest elevations in the zoning plan are 1105 m and
1455 m, respectively. The temperature and other climatic conditions of Gümüşhane vary
drastically.
According to temperature and rainfall data, containing 10 yea
rs of record between
1996 and 2005, collected from Turkish State Meteorological Service (TSMS) weather station
in Gümüşhane Province, the average minimum temperature is found to vary from
-
15°C in
February to 9°C in August, and the average maximum temperat
ure is found to vary from 10°C
in January to 37°C in July. Gümüşhane receives a yearly average rainfall of 461 mm.


4
. Materials and methods


4
.1. Sampling and sorting process


The solid waste samples were taken from the MSW open dumping area

(
Fig. 3
)
, Kur
udere
valley in southwest side of Parmaklık hill (1633 m), for a year between March 2004 and
February 2005. Four samples were simultaneously taken in every week, and total two hundred
eight samples were taken in a year. Containers with 0.72 m
3

capacity were used in the
sampling process. In order to obtain a representative sample, 0.288 m
3

of the MSW was
collected. After the MSW was disposed of, the solid waste samples were taken promptly.
However, some materials having big volume, such as car t
ires, old house belongings and also
medical wastes were excluded. The collected samples were transported to an indoor area, the
solid wastes laboratory at Karadeniz Technical University, Gümüşhane Faculty of
Engineering. The samples were then spread out on

a plastic sheet and manually separated into
their components. Sorting process was performed by a team of two people who were
instructed on the sorting requirements. The components were divided into nine categories:
10


food and yard

(F&Y)
, paper and cardboard

(P&C)
, metals, glass, plastics, textiles, ash and
scoria

(A&S)
, diaper and others (wood, bones, battery, construction and demolition wastes,
stone, etc.). Each component was weig
hed and compared with the total
[
20
]
.


Take in Figure 3


4
.2. Sample processi
ng (drying and grinding)


The compostable wastes were made reduced in size by pre
-
breaking and manually
homogenized in a plastic container. A sample of 4
-
5 kg sample was used for roughly
grinding. Four samples with 125 g were taken from roughly grinded hom
ogenized
compostable wastes and dried in a drying oven for 24
-
48 h at 75°C until a constant weight
was obtained
[21]
.

The dried samples being called dry matter (DM) were then placed into
desiccators for cooling and ground to obtain a particle size of less
than 0.2 mm and stored in
desiccators until needed.


4
.3. Analysis


The moisture content
(MC)
of the samples was determined from the decrease in weight.

Total
o
rganic matter
(TOM)
content of the dried matter was determined by igniting at 550
°C in a
furnace
[22]
.

The
high
calorific value

(HCV)

of dried solid wastes was determined with the
AC
-
350 calorimeter. The pH of the samples was determined with a mobile pH meter (pH
330i) according to EPA Method 9045D
[23]
.

Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and
Total Nitrogen
(TN) of the samples were determined with a UV
-
VIS spectrophotometer (Cadas 200) and its
cuvette
-
tests (TOC cuvette test measuring range 2
-
65 mg/l TOC and LATON TN cuvette test
measuring range 20
-
100 mg/l TN). Grinded samples were extracted a
ccording to EPA
Method 1310B
[24]

before the determination of TOC and TN. Determination principle of
TOC: Total carbon (TC) and total inorganic carbon (TIC) are converted to carbon dioxide
11


(CO
2
) by, respectively, oxidation and acidification. The CO
2

passes

from the digestion cuvette
through a membrane and into the indicator cuvette. The change of colour of the indicator is
photometrically evaluated. TOC is determined as the difference between the TC and TIC
values. Determination principle of TN: Inorganical
ly and organically bonded nitrogen is
oxidized to nitrate by digestion with peroxodisulphate. The nitrate ions react with 2.6
-
dimethylphenol in a solution of sulphuric and phosphoric acid to form a nitrophenol.


Experimental results belonging to all of the

studied variables are given in
Table 1

[25,26,27]
.


Take in Table 1


5. Analysis of the Sample Characteristics


5.1
. Multi Linear Regression Model


Multi linear

regression
model is

used for
the prediction

of C:N ratio (y), and

the

model as
follows:


y = a
1

x
1

+ a
2

x
2

+a
3

x
3

+ a
4

x
4

+ a
5

x
5

+ a
6

x
6

+ a
7

x
7

+ c

(8)


where a
1

-

a
7

and
c

are regression coefficients; x
1

is F&Y percentage
; x
2

is
A&S percentage
;
x
3

is
MC
; x
4

is
FC;

x
5

is
TOM; x
6

is HCV and x
7

is pH.
The regression coefficient

(R
2
)

was

determined
as 0.490

for
the
model

(
Table 2
)
.


Take in Table 2


5.2. Construction, Teaching and Testing of Artificial Neural Network


The main objective of this section is to develop an appropria
te ANN model for prediction of
the C:
N ratio
by training

experimental
data including F&Y percentage, A&S percentage, M
C,
12


FC, TOM, HCV and pH. It is important

to choose the proper network size. If the network is
too small, it may not be able to represent the system adequately. On the other hand, if the
network is too big, it
becomes over trained and may provide erroneous results for untrained
patterns. In general, it is not straightforward

to determine the best size of the
networks for a
given system. As shown in
Fig. 2
, a three layer network is selected for the

present study.

Each
layer is connected to the next but no connections exist between neurons on the same level.
The number of neurons in the first and third layers, which contain input and output data
respectively, is predetermined and
depends on the problem
at hand
. The
re are seven nodes in
the input layer corresponding to the seven variables and
the
C
:
N ratio (y) is in the output
layer. The variables in the input layers are
the following: F&Y
, A
&S, M
C, FC, TOM, HCV
and pH.


They are split into the training and testing p
atterns of the numbers 42 and 10, respectively.
Input values of the testing (test no 1, 5, 12, 14, 20, 26, 28, 32,

42 and 46) and training set can
be seen

in
Table 1
.


Data preprocessing is also known as da
ta normalization. Raw
data need

to be preprocessed

into a range that can be accepted by the network.
Hyperbolic tangent sigmoid (input layer →
hidden layer) and logistic sigmoid (hidden layer → output layer) transfer functions are used
within the network.
Scaling of the inputs to the range [0, 1] greatly
improves the learning
speed
.
Therefore
,

each group of input and output values are norma
lized into range [0.1, 0.9]
as,



(9)


The definition of network size is a compromise between generalization and convergence.
Convergence is the capacity of

the network to learn the pattern on the training set
,

and
13


generalization is the capacity to respond correctly to new patterns. The idea is to implement
the smallest network possible, so it is able to learn all patterns and at the same time provide
s

good g
eneralization. As for the number of hidden layer, it is well said that one hidden layer is
sufficient for most usual applications, thus only one hidden layer is used in this study.
Determining the number of nodes to include in the hidden layer is not an ex
act science, so
network is tested for different number of hidden layer nodes. Parameters used to find
optimum ANN structures are given in
Table 3
. During the training process, all
of

the training

patterns are introduced to the network
,

and corresponding outputs are obtained. Then
,

the
network error (E) is computed according to
Eq. (7)

and the increments of generalized weights

are computed by
Eq. (6)
. The choice of initial weights will influence the net reaches a global
minimum of the er
ror and, if so, how quickly it converges. As mentioned

earlier
,

the update of
the weight betwe
en two units depends on both

derivative of the upper un
it’s activation
function and

activation of the lower unit
.
For this reason, it is important to avoid choice
s of
initial weights that would make it likely that either activations or derivatives of activations are
zero. In this study, the weights are initialized into random values between
-
0.5 and +0.5, a
procedure commonly accepted
. Factors α and η in
Eq. (6)

al
so influence the convergence.

T
he
learning rate

(
α
)

is the constant of proportionality of the generalized rule.
The larger the value
is the greater the changes in weights.
T
he momentum term
(
η
)

is used to smooth out the
weight changes to prevent network tr
aining from oscillating.

Different combinations of
selected
values of α and η are tried for good convergence of the neural network (
Table 3
).


Take in Table 3


The level of convergence in training is monitored using
TSSE

of training and testing patterns
separately. Training patterns were introduced to NN five times in each cycle as shown in the
4
th

column (cycle) in
Table 4
. The patterns are presented to each epoch in the same order.

14


After the learning set of data presented to the ANN models, we stopped t
he learning process
when the
epochs reached
to 10
0000
,

and determined

which epoch number gives the minimum
TSSE

of testing set for various
ANN alternatives.
Table 4

shows the s
tructures of the ANN
giving

the best results.


Take in Table 4


6
.

Results and Discussion


It is found that there is a tradeoff between the performance of a network and time consumed.
Generally, the performance of a network is found to increase with the suitable increase in the
number of samples, epochs (learning time) and the number of hidden l
ayer nodes. Meanwhile,
the increase of these parameters also increases
the
consumed time. It may be said that,
learning rate
(α)

and momentum term
(
η
)

in addition to

hidden layer nodes, epochs and
number of samples

also

influence

the

network to provide goo
d generalization too much
[28]
.


In the ANN analysis, the smallest average relative error value in the testing sets are obtained
from the network with α = 0.1 and η = 0.75 as 6.376 % (
Table 4
). The maximum relative error

of testing data set in this case is

9.528

%.
Maximum relative error may be reduced if

stopping
criteria,

epoch number, is increased. Besides, conjugate gradient

or scaled conjugate gradient
methods may be used to

reduce maximum relative error instead of generalized delta

rule in
learning.
Also
,

different network structures with one

or more hidden layers or nodes with
different learning rates

and momentum terms may produce smaller error.
Relative error is
calculated as



(10)


15


where O
ANN

an
d O
real

are the computed and real values, respectively.

Testing set is used to
evaluate the confidence in the performance of the trained network. Ten testing vectors are
used to test the
ANN

model.

Fig. 4

is an expression of the learning results of network,

and

e
ach
lozenge

sign

stands

for a testing vector.
Also,
the
results obtained from LRA for the
same values are shown with tri
angles in the same figure.
The nearer the po
ints gather around
the diagonal the better the learning results are. The relative errors of
the points on the
diagonal are zero. Although the maximum relative error obtained from the testing set for
ANN analysis is 9.528 %, the maximum relative errors obtained from LRA are 31.294 %.
Average relative error of testing set of ANN analysis is 6.376 %

while the average relative
errors obtained from LRA are 11.002 %. As a consequence,

it is shown that ANN analysis,
which is used for the determination of C:N ratio, gives reasonable results.


Take in Figure 4


After training is accomplished, the network becomes able to respond upon unknown input. In
this way, the constructed network can be used to recognize and generate patterns given by
new inputs. The trained NN model is used to simulate the effect of TOM on t
he C:N ratio.
Effect of the variation in the TOM values on the C:N ratio is seen in
Fig. 5
. The changed

TOM values were obtained by adding a value with 4 % corresponding to the variation
coefficient
, division of the standard deviation to the arithmetic ave
rage,

to every TOM value
or by subtracting a value with 4 % from every TOM value. Evaluation was performed for
total 15 samples by starting from the 3
rd

sample with four
-
week
intervals. The C:N ratio
increased together with increasing of the TOM value (
Fig
. 5
).


Take in Figure 5


16


Effect of
the changing in the A&S percentages on the C:N ratio was also investigated.

The
A&S component was 0 % during the 14
th

and 33
th

weeks. The case that the A&S component
was also 0 % in the weeks after 33
th

week was simulated in the ANN model, and the variation
occurred in the C:N ratio was given in
Fig. 6
. A decrease occurred in the C:N ratio together

with decreasing of the A&S percentage. Conversely, the case that A&S percentage, which
was 0 % during the 1
4
th

and 33
th

weeks, was 41.5 %, which was average of the values in the
other weeks, was investigated, and the obtained results were given in
Fig. 7
. It was clearly

seen that the C:N ratio increased together with increasing of the A&S percentage.


Take in F
igure 6


Take in Figure 7


Finally, effect of the

changing

in the F&Y percentages on the C:N ratio was investigated.
Evaluation was conducted between 14
th

and 33
th

weeks when the A&S component was 0 %.
A value with 40 % corresponding to the variation coeff
icient was added to the actual
percentage of the F&Y component or subtracted from this actual value. The obtained values
were simulated
in the ANN and the results were given in
Fig. 8
. It was seen that C:N ratio
increased together

with increasing of the pe
rcentage value of the F&Y component except for a
small number of sample.


Take in Figure 8


7. Conclusion


The most important scope of this study is to predict C:N ratio of compostable part of the
MSW using ANN. Training and testing patterns of neural
network is obtained from the
experimental data based on the solid waste samples taken from the MSW open dumping area
17


in Gümüşhane Province. The validity of neural network is proven by comparing the predicted
C:N ratio with the experimental and regression a
nalysis results. In the result of analyses, the
smallest average relative error value for testing set are obtained from ANN methods with
6.376 %. The same value is 11.002 % for LRA.

ANN analysis used for determination of the
C:N ratio gives better results
than regression analysis.


The ANN model was separately simulated for different values of TOM content,
A&S
percentage

and
F&Y percentage
. In this way, the effects of these variables on the C:N ratio
were investigated. Consequently, it is determined that
C:
N ratio increases if TOM content,
A&S percentage or F&Y percentage increase
.


It is shown that the neural network can effectively predict the C:N ratio. This study also
indicates
that
the presented method has the potential for practical applications in
more
complicated problems.

18



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22


Figure Captions


Figure 1.
Artificial neuron


Figure 2. The architecture of back propagation network model


Figure 3. Three dimensional showing of the MSW

open dumping area


Figure 4. Comparison of the computed results with the experimental results for C:N ratio


Figure 5. Effects o
f the variation in TOM content data on the C:N ratio


Figure 6. Effects of the variation in the A&S percentages (34
th
-

52
th

samples) on the C:N ratio


Figure 7. Effects of the variation in the A&S percentages (14
th
-

33
th

samples) on the C:N ratio


Figure

8. Effects of the variation in the F&Y percentages (14
th
-

33
th

samples) on the C:N ratio














23




Fig
ure 1







































24




Fig
ure 2




























25




Figure 3



































26




Fig
ure 4























27




Figure 5






















28




Fig
ure 6
























29




F
igure 7





























3
0




Fig
ure 8

31



Table 1

Experimental results of the studied variables for Gümüşhane MSWs



Sample




No

F & Y


(%)

A & S


(%)

MC


(%)

FC


(% DM)

TOM


(% DM)

HCV


(cal/gr)

pH



C:N ratio




1

22

46.5

84

19.2

90.4

4228

5.00

22.4


2

12.5

49

80

18.2

93.4

4407

4.69

11.8


3

28.5

37

77

18.8

95.5

4601

4.31

32.6


4

16.5

60

77

20.7

95.2

4267

4.60

28.6


5

16

50

71

12.1

84.3

3533

6.18

24.4


6

19

48

65

13.5

87.3

3694

6.13

25.6


7

23

39

59

14.8

90.1

3835

6.08

24.4


8

26

40

64

15.2

89.5

3759

6.33

29.6


9

24

50

78

18.1

92.9

4279

5.31

22.5


10

48

4

78

17.7

85.1

4196

6.42

16.7


11

32

5

78

21.8

94.3

4147

4.65

16.0


12

27

33

73

18.6

89.6

3924

5.28

18.3


13

13

38

83

13.1

74.2

3141

5.95

16.4


14

35

0

81

19.4

93.1

4316

4.44

22.4


15

43

0

84

18.5

91.5

4004

4.23

11.8


16

57

0

85

18.0

89.0

3798

4.71

32.6


17

48

0

87

17.8

90.4

3859

4.33

28.6


18

42

0

85

21.7

92.8

4101

4.36

24.4


19

48

0

81

17.8

93.2

4313

4.44

25.6


20

42

0

81

18.0

94.5

4332

4.00

24.4


21

27

0

81

14.2

89.0

3700

5.07

29.6


22

41

0

77

18.7

94.6

3812

3.90

22.5


23

37

0

87

19.7

92.6

4059

3.95

16.7


24

25

0

83

18.4

90.4

4027

4.83

16.0


25

49

0

85

21.5

94.5

4010

3.44

18.3


26

42

0

84

20.1

94.6

4067

3.65

16.4


27

39

0

81

19.3

94.4

4198

3.68

22.4


28

30

0

82

18.8

94.7

4256

3.82

11.8


29

29

0

77

17.5

94.8

4663

3.91

32.6


30

34

0

80

18.9

94.3

4412

3.96

28.6


31

30

0

82

20.0

93.9

4158

4.00

24.4


32

41

0

79

20.2

94.8

4206

4.12

25.6


33

45

0

76

20.1

95.4

4264

4.35

24.4


34

56

18.5

67

20.3

97.1

4321

4.45

29.6


35

50.5

7

78

20.0

94.6

4455

5.05

22.5


36

18

6.5

78

20.2

92.8

4149

5.18

16.7


37

29

36

77

19.6

93.4

4340

5.20

16.0


38

25

30

78

19.5

93.2

4310

4.72

18.3


39

29

36

84

17.7

87.6

3759

4.89

16.4


40

23

47

79

18.8

92.4

4006

4.54

22.4


41

20.5

64

79

20.2

93.7

4252

4.48

11.8


42

24

43

75

17.9

95.3

4632

4.07

32.6


43

30

44

80

19.0

92.2

4082

4.84

28.6


44

9

61

79

18.7

89.8

3752

4.32

24.4


45

27

29

75

21.1

93.4

4607

4.51

25.6


46

12

60

80

18.3

91.9

4052

4.50

24.4


47

18

58

79

19.7

94.1

4104

4.47

29.6


48

24

57

79

20.1

95.7

4155

4.34

22.5


49

16

61

75

19.1

95.0

4360

4.54

16.7


50

11.5

67

67

18.6

94.2

4079

4.97

16.0

32



51

23

48

79

17.2

91.2

4037

5.72

18.3


52

6.5

61

79

15.9

89.3

4149

5.76

16.4

Table 2

Regression coefficients and R
2

values for LRA


a
1

a
2

a
3

a
4

a
5

a
6

a
7

c

R
2

0.0628

0.1626

-
0.0796

0.3526

0.6617

-
0.0008

2.5726

-
53.6996

0.490








































33




Table 3

Parameters used for different ANN structures


Number of hidden layer unit

Learning rate (α)
=
Momentum (η)
=
R
=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=
〮㄰
=
〮㈵
=
〮㔰
=
〮㜵
=
ㄮ〰
=
〮㄰
=
〮㈵
=
〮㔰
=
〮㜵
=
ㄮ〰
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
34




Table 4

Characteristics of ANN giving the best results


Number of
hidden layer
unit

α

η

Cycle

Epoch

Training
error (%)

Testing
error (%)

Maximum
relative error in
testing set (%)

Average relative
error of testing
set (%)

20

0.10

0.75

5

6251

1.071

0.0206

9.528

6.376