Knowledge Management: The first

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6 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Jessica Chen
-
Burger

Knowledge Management: The first
Encounter

Jessica Chen
-
Burger



Jessica Chen
-
Burger

Why KM ?


A company's intellectual capital represents its ability
to change in the face of adversity. Develop new
products. Cut research and develop time. Provide
quality customer service. Share knowledge with
employees, partners and customers.


Source: Orbital Software



Jessica Chen
-
Burger

What is Knowledge?


Knowledge is neither data nor information, though it is related to
both, and the differences between these terms are often a matter
of degree.


Data, information and knowledge are not interchangeable
concepts.


Knowledge is a fluid mix of framed experience, values,
contextual information, and expert insight that provides a
framework for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and
information. It originates and is applied in the minds of knowers.
In organizations, it often becomes embedded not only in
documents or repositories but also in organizational routines,
processes, practices and norms.

-

Thomas H. Davenport, Laurence Prusak

Working Knowledge: How organisations manage what they know

Harvard Business School Press, 1998, 2000



Jessica Chen
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Burger

What is Knowledge Management?
(1)


The leveraging of collective wisdom to increase responsiveness
and innovation.

-
The Delphi Group


Knowledge Management is intended to allow organisations to
protect and develop their knowledge resource.

-
Applied Knowledge Resource Institute



Knowledge Management is a management discipline that focuses
on enhancing knowledge production, integration and use in
organizations.

-
Mark W. McElroy, Macroinnovation Associates. LLC

-
Knowledge Management Consortium Int'l



A cycle of knowledge creation, integration and dissemination.

-
Gerhard Fischer, Jonathan Ostwaid, Univ.of Colorado




Jessica Chen
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Burger

What is Knowledge Management?
(2)


Knowledge Management facilitates the capture, deployment,
access and reuse of information and knowledge
-
typically using
contemporary technology… i.e. internet.

-

Daniel E. O’Leary, Univ. of S. California


Knowledge Management is the ongoing creation, capture,
preservation and management of information. This gives
employees, customers, partners and companies the resources
needed to be more efficient and productive.

-
Orbital Software, ass. with KM world



Knowledge Management has referred to efforts to capture, store,
and deploy knowledge using a combination of information
technology and business processes.

-

Alun Preece, Alan Flett, and Derek Sleeman, Univ. of Aberdeen



Jessica Chen
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Burger

What are the current KM practice?

Who offers Them? (1)




KM is a management discipline that focuses on
enhancing knowledge production, integration and use
in organizations.


-
Mark W. McElroy, Macroinnovation Associates. LLC

-
Knowledge Management Consortium Int'l



Jessica Chen
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Burger


Macroinnovation Ass. KM Framework




Jessica Chen
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Burger

Approach


Individual Learning


Group Learning


Communities of Inquiry


Think Tanks


Management Planning


Training Program


Communities of Practice


Knowledge Capture


Storytelling


KM Initiatives


Operations mgmt


Knowledge Portals


Innovation mgmt tools


Groupware: collaboration apps, Virtual
Teaming Tools, emails


Discussion group



Information Portals


Intranets


Information mgmt


Work product mgmt


Content mgmt


Groupware

Demand
-
side KM

Supply
-
side KM

Social

Dim.

Tech.

Dim.



Jessica Chen
-
Burger

What are the current KM practice?

Who offers Them? (2)




Knowledge Management is the ongoing creation,
capture, preservation and management of information.
This gives employees, customers, partners and
companies the resources needed to be more efficient
and productive.


-

Orbital Software, ass. with KM world



Jessica Chen
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Burger

Orbital

Orbital's flagship

Organik

software provides expertise location
capabilities to bring people and information together so that users
can ask questions, find experts and share knowledge.



Browse

through a range of communities, and instantly access
a valuable, dynamic source of knowledge on their favourite
subjects.


Find

and connect with like
-
minded individuals and subject
experts.


Ask

questions on any subject, and get tailored, relevant
answers from other community members.


Share

their own knowledge with others by answering
questions.


Get

involved in discussions with other community members.



Jessica Chen
-
Burger

What are the current KM practices?

Who offers Them? (3)

IBM and Lotus


People, Places and Things


Lotus and IBM have identified People, Places and
Things as the three essential ingredients of an
effective Knowledge Management infrastructure.


According to this concept, people, not facts, are the
focal point of knowledge management.


People bring powerful insights and expertise to the
business process and require Places where they can
create and act on knowledge, and Things to help them
meet their business goals.



Jessica Chen
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Burger

IBM and Lotus KM



Jessica Chen
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Burger

Lotus Knowledge Management Solution



Lotus has developed an integrated collection of
Knowledge Management technologies:



Lotus K
-
station.

A collaborative knowledge portal that
organises content, applications, and people for both
individuals (personal places) and communities (community
places).


Lotus Discovery Server
.
A discovery tool that probes an
organisation's combined knowledge and discovers the
relationships between People, Place and Things so that they
can be applied to specific business challenges.



Jessica Chen
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Burger

Lotus and IBM KM Strategy



Jessica Chen
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Burger

On Reflection


There is a “rough” consensus on Knowledge
Management Process.


It is widely agreed that IT can help KM.


However, there is no single KM methodology that is
agreed upon by all.


There is no single dominating formal approach for
KM; in fact, most KM do not have a formal approach.


Furthermore, most KM only manipulate on the
syntactic level, but not on the semantic level.



Jessica Chen
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Burger

Can AI Contribute to KM ?




Jessica Chen
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Burger

Relevant (AI) Techniques to KM


Knowledge Engineering/Acquisition techniques


Data Mining, Information Extraction


Ontology


XML, XML Schema, RDF, RDF Schema


Knowledge and Enterprise Modelling


Business Process Modelling


Capability, Goal Modelling, User Modelling and Profiling


Case Based Reasoning


Planning


Workflow Systems


Knowledge integration, specialisation and reuse


Inconsistency checking and critiquing


Automatic support for collaborative discussion, argumentation,
topic tracking and maintenance



Jessica Chen
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Burger

What can AI contribute to KM ?


Knowledge engineering techniques:


Knowledge acquisition


Knowledge capture


Knowledge modelling


Knowledge sharing


Knowledge reasoning and inferencing, e.g.

»
Workflow system

»
Knowledge verification, validation and critiquing

»
Knowledge argumentation and conflict resolving


Knowledge use and re
-
use



Jessica Chen
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Burger

Proposal: A KM Approach that is
aligned with Organisational Goals


The process of KM is a recursive one, since an organisation
evolves with its goals and objectives while its external
environment changes; its members, the employees, also change
with time.


The KM process may be described as below:


Identification of Organisational Goals and Scoping of KM
project;


Capturing and Creating Knowledge;


Evaluation of Knowledge;


Planning: aligning organisational goals, knowledge assets and
(current and future) knowledge requirements;


Use and Re
-
use of Knowledge;


Re
-
shaping the organisation.



Jessica Chen
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Burger

Proposal:

KM: An AI Approach


Multiple Perspective Enterprise Modelling


Design Principles:


A set of complimentary models;


Intuitive visual style;


Structural methodology guided;


Underlying formal representation;


Ontology based;


Verification, validation and critiquing theory;


Knowledge sharing between different models;


Collaborative support for discussion, argumentation, topic
tracking and maintenance.




Jessica Chen
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Burger

The Set of Enterprise Models


Organisational Goal Model


Organisational goals described at different levels


Task based


Knowledge Asset Model


Capability Model


Knowledge actors


Knowledge assets


Capabilities of knowledge actors


Types of capabilities


Organisational Goal and Capability Matching Model


Mapping goals and tasks with capability and people


Business Process Model


Mapping knowledge with business operations (blueprint for workflow)


Business KM Strategy Model


Realising KM in daily working life and in
-
cooperating with the business’ strategies
in longer
-
term plans



Jessica Chen
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Burger

Motivation

Indiv. Cap.

Group Cap.

Org. Cap.

Org. Short Term

Goal = KM/KA project goal

Org. Mid
-
Term, Knowledge
Use and evaluation

Org. Long
-
Term

Task and Goal Oriented

KM planning



Jessica Chen
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Burger

Conclusion:

KM is largely still a puzzle




Jessica Chen
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Burger

However, if we catch the golden
snitch
-




Jessica Chen
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Burger

There will be a feast awaiting us !!




Jessica Chen
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Burger

Selective References

1)
Thomas H. Davenport, Laurence Prusak: Working Knowledge: How
Organisations manage what they know. Harvard Business School
Press, 1998, 2000

2)
Gerhard Fischer, Jonathan Ostwaid, Univ.of Colorado: Knowledge
Management: Problems, Promises, Realities, and Challenges. IEEE
Intelligent Systems, Knowledge Management, January/February
2001.

3)
Daniel E. O’Leary, Univ. of S. California: How Knowledge Reuse
Informs Effective System Design and Implementation. IEEE
Intelligent Systems, Knowledge Management, January/February
2001.

4)
Ann Macintosh, Ian Filby, Austin Tate: Knowledge Asset Roadmap,
Proceedings of 2
nd

Int. Conf. On Practical Aspects of KM, Oct. 1998.

5)
Harry Potter Photos used in this document are taken from
http://harrypotterclips.tripod.com.




Jessica Chen
-
Burger




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