KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Processes and Technologies

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KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Processes and Technologies
HERWIG ROLLETT
Kluwer Academic Publishers
Boston/Dordrecht/London
Contents
Foreword vii
Preface xi
Part I Background
1.Introduction 3
2.Two Complementary Views 9
3.Lessons Learned fromPast Projects 19
Part II Processes
4.Knowledge Planning 35
5.Creating Knowledge 45
6.Integrating Knowledge 57
7.Organizing Knowledge 69
8.Transferring Knowledge 83
9.Maintaining Knowledge 97
10.Assessing Knowledge 107
v
vi KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Part III Technologies
11.Communication 119
12.Collaboration 129
13.Content Creation 139
14.Content Management 147
15.Adaptation 155
16.eLearning 163
17.Personal Tools 173
18.Arti?cial Intelligence 181
19.Networking 189
20.Standards 195
21.Hardware 203
22.Summary 209
Bibliography 213
Index 225
About the Author 231
Preface
The rst thing I discovered when I started out in knowledge management was
that it is not about technology.It is about people.People as individuals,people
as teams,people as communities,people as organizations.
The second thing I discovered was that technology,handled properly,can
make an important contribution.It can connect people with each other.It
can connect people to information they nd useful.It can protect them from
irrelevant content.Sometimes,systems can even come up with something one
is tempted to call knowledge on their own.
The third thing I discovered was that there was no book providing a com-
pact,comprehensive,balanced overview of both knowledge management and
the role technology couldor shouldplay.Abook that would discuss knowl-
edge management processes,point out the most important issues,and assess
the relevance of technologies to the various processes.Without going to un-
necessary lengths.And in an easily accessible way.
I occupied myself with knowledge management in its various forms:With
a strategic focus and with an operational focus,with a people focus and with
a technology focus,with an organizational focus and with a personal focus.
Meanwhile,the hype around knowledge management grew,as did the jungle
of theories,models,methods,practices,and tools of knowledge management.
Books on the subject were springing up like mushrooms.Except,of course,the
kind of book I considered the most appropriate as a guide through that jungle.
At some point,I found myself writing the book I had been missing when I
rst started out.You are holding the result in your hands.If you are taking
your rst steps in knowledge management,it will provide you with a valuable
map of the territory.And even if you are already an expert,I amcondent that
you will discover a fewaspects which you have not yet considered in this light.
Books are written by authors.But authors would rarely write books if it
were not for the encouragement and support of many people.I am partic-
ularly grateful to all my colleagues at the Know-Center and at the Institute
xi
xii KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
for Information Processing and Computer-Supported NewMedia at Graz Uni-
versity of Technology,not only for supporting me in writing this book,but
also for providing a very pleasant working environment.Special thanks go to
Hermann Maurer,Klaus Tochtermann,Tobias Ley,Markus Strohmaier,Janez
Hrastnik,Andreas Ausserhofer,and Denis Helic.The Know-Center is a Com-
petence Center funded within the Austrian Kplus Competence Centers Program
(www.kplus.at) under the auspices of the Austrian Ministry of Transport,Inno-
vation and Technology.
Many further people have directly or indirectly helped to make this book
possible:The members of Wissensmanagement Forum and its PhD circle;
people fromthe companies I have conducted projects with;the members of the
Forschung Austria taskforce on knowledge management;all the people with
whom I discussed knowledge management issues at conferences,workshops,
and informal meetings;and last but not least my friends and family.I would
particularly like to thank,in alphabetical order,Manfred Bornemann,Georg
Droschl,Marion Graggober,Karin Grasenick,Erich Hartlieb,Herbert Haubold,
Bernd Humpl,Thomas Jud,Iris Klein,Ulrike Kriemann,Philipp Koronakis,
Karl-Heinz Leitner,Thomas Mikl,Fritz Ohler,Johann Ortner,Franz Pirker,
Maja Pivec,Michael Ploder,Arthur Primus,Karl Ritsch,G

unter Rollett,Martin
Sammer,Andreas Schibany,Gerald Steiner,Josef Tuppinger,Patrick Wehinger,
Reinhard Willfort,and Kurt W

ols.Finally,I would like to thank my publishers,
particularly Lance Wobus.
Ultimately,a book like this has to be judged by its usefulness to the reader.
Most of all,therefore,I hope that it will help you.

Chapter 1
Introduction
The herd is grazing near a small river.Alight wind is blowing The tribe
over the plain.The hunters are lying low behind a ridge,in
small groups.They are good hunters:They know where to
hide so the herd cannot smell them.Together,they move.
The tribe will have a feast tonight.
The elders of the tribe are pleased.Another successful
hunt.They encourage the hunters to recount the story to the
children.
Under the guidance of the elders,the tribe has ourished.
When resolving disputes,they try to be fair.But ultimately,
their responsibility is to the future of the tribe.Occasionally,
the elders favor those hunters who are not just quick and
strong,but also unusually smart.And the people who have
proved adept at nding fruit in abundance.And the old one
who knows how to heal,and his apprentice.In a sense,they
are managing knowledge.
In the boardroom of a multinational manufacturing com- The
manufacturing
multinational
pany,the directors are pleased.Since the company is com-
peting on price,its knowledge management initiative has fo-
cused on increasing efciency by sharing lessons learned be-
tween plants all over the world.Costs have been reduced by
improving cycle times and avoiding common mistakes.
First,the responsible managers in the plants have been
encouraged to regularly visit other plants.This has helped
them establish a shared perspective with their peers as well
as a level of trust.Only then has technology been introduced
to support the process:Lessons learned are collected on a
3
4 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
central server and classied for easy retrieval.All of them
contain relevant contact details for further inquiries.In addi-
tion,an existing suggestion scheme has been brought up to
date and linked to incentives.
The head of a criminal investigation department is pleased.The criminal
investigation
department
The magic word is knowledge discovery:Leads extracted
from the aggregated content of various databases with the
help of the new data mining system have already led to ve
arrests.
Training his ofcers works well,too.The rules and proce-
dures of police work,and some of the required background
knowledge,are written down and taught in courses.Beyond
this explicit knowledge lies the tacit knowledge ofcers have
accumulatedthroughpersonal experience.People ndit hard
to articulate,and often are not even aware of what they know.
These things cannot be taught,but police ofcers pick them
up over time fromtheir partners.
The chief executive of a mediumsized software companyThe software
company
is pleased.He co-foundedthe business four years ago and has
presided over its rapid growth to almost two hundred staff.
The downside of growth showed when it became apparent
that unlike the close-knit group they were in the early days,
employees suddenly did not even know what others were
doing any more.
Looking at the situation through the lens of knowledge
management,however,quickly revealed a number of sim-
ple measures the company could take.There is now a large
common room,where programmers gather around the coffee
machine.Regular trips into the countryside allowemployees
to catch up with each other in an informal atmosphere.Ajob
rotation scheme has been met with approval by most employ-
ees.More attention is now also being paid to recruiting to
avoid unnecessary fragmentation.
The company,even though it is itself developing software,
has resisted the temptation of turning to information technol-
ogy as a solution too early.Yellowpages providing details on
the skills and experience of employees,and even automated
expertise proling,have been discussed.However,they will
not be implemented until the benets really outweigh the
effort.
The manager of a call center providing customer supportThe call center
is pleased.On the one hand,sharing and reusing knowledge
Introduction 5
systematically with a helpdesk application has increased cus-
tomer satisfaction by reducing the time employees need to
answer inquiries,and by increasing the quality of the an-
swers.Since employee turnover is high at the call center,
the most important experiences have been packaged into an
eLearning course,which keeps costs for training new hires
down.
On the other hand,the manager has also succeeded in
his second mission:To improve the collection and use of
knowledge about customers.The newcustomer relationship
management software generates customer proles.Employ-
ees answering calls receive relevant background information
about customers in a user-friendly interface,integrated with
that of the helpdesk application.
The owner-manager of a small engineering company is The small
engineering
company
pleased.As specialists in a niche market,he and his team
are successfully staying ahead of the competition through
research and innovation.To them,knowledge management
has always been an integral part of what they do.
Their focus is not so much on efciency,but rather on the
effectiveness of creating and integrating knowledge.They
employ creativity techniques,attend many conferences,and
cooperate closely with both industry and scientic partners.
Technologies like intelligent agents,automatic text summa-
rization,and visualization help them nd,lter,and make
sense of the vast amount of documented knowledge avail-
able.
Knowledge Management:What and Why
The increasing complexity of both the environment in which Importance of
knowledge
companies operate and of their internal workings,combined
with the speed demanded from them,the pressure for inno-
vation,and the scarcity of attention as the ultimate limited
resource,make knowledge central to business success today.
Knowledge is now seen as a factor of production not only
on par with land,labor,and capital,but surpassing them in
importance.
How should we think about knowledge?It is frequently Data,
information,
knowledge
pictured at the top of a hierarchy,with information below it
and data at the bottom.Various criteria have been suggested
to distinguish knowledge frominformation and data,includ-
ing value (knowledge is more valuable than information and
6 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
data),temporal sequence (knowledge is based on informa-
tion,which in turn is based on data),the role of structure,
context,and interpretation (knowledge is structured,contex-
tualized,and interpreted information),and the potential for
action (knowledge,unlike information,can be directly acted
upon).
Without doubt,these criteria may sharpen one's aware-
ness of important aspects.However,clear-cut denitions of
knowledge tend to be either too restrictive,obscuring one's
view,or too broad to offer much guidance in practice.It is
therefore advisable not to let a single denition guide one's
exploration of knowledge management.
Where is knowledge located?First of all,knowledge is
held by people:By individuals,teams,communities,and
organizational units.Relationships between people and be-
tween items of content also contain knowledge,as do phys-
ical arrangements such as oor layouts.Some knowledge
has been documented in patents,books,journals,magazines,
reports,presentations,manuals,memos,meeting minutes,
problem-solution lists,newsfeeds,and databases.Business
processes,best practices,lessons learned,common mistakes,
design rationales,stories,and learning histories represent
knowledge which may or may not have been documented.
Finally,knowledge is also embedded in software and equip-
ment.
Ever more knowledge is available,and access to muchEmergence of
knowledge
management
of that knowledge is getting ever better thanks to technol-
ogy.Knowledge management has emerged as a label for
consciously perceiving and addressing the issues raised by
the importance and the availability of knowledge.It consists
of more than directly managing knowledge as a resource:It
is concerned with managing the environment of knowledge
workers,with creating and maintaining favorable conditions
for value creation based on knowledge.
Knowledge management is not a discipline with well de-Many sources
ned boundaries.The examples above,from the tribe to
the engineering company,illustrate the scope of the sub-
ject.It draws on many different elds of study,includ-
ing business studies,psychology,sociology,educational sci-
ence,cognitive science,computer science,and library and
informationscience.It concerns strategicmanagement,orga-
nizational development,business process management,hu-
Introduction 7
man resources management,communications management,
information technology management,change management,
andcontrolling.Practitioners incompanies,consultants,sys-
temvendors,and academics each address the subject in their
own way.
Denitions of knowledge management are legion,and A way of
thinking
many of them contradict each other.This book does not
attempt to squeeze knowledge management into a neatly de-
ned box.Instead,it provides an overview of what knowl-
edge management is all about by discussing relevant issues.
Knowledge management is best seen as a way of thinking.
After reading this book,you will have that way of thinking
at your disposal.
Part I continues with chapter 2,which introduces two dif- The structure
of this book
ferent but complementary ways to think about knowledge
management:In terms of processes,and in terms of interac-
tions.Chapter 3 then summarizes lessons learned from past
knowledge management projects,which are used to motivate
discussions throughout the book.
Part II contains one chapter for each of the knowledge
management processes.Part III discusses the role of tech-
nologies in knowledge management,each chapter providing
an overviewof the technology in question,a discussion of its
relevance to knowledge management,and an examination of
open issues and opportunities for future research and devel-
opment.Part III closes with a summary of the contribution
of technologies to knowledge management.
Chapter 22
Summary
Knowledge management is,rst and foremost,a way of thinking.It is a way
of thinking for managers:It draws attention to aspects which previously have
often been neglected.In another sense,it is also a way of thinking for all
employees:A knowledge-friendly culture increasingly determines the success
of the company as a whole.
Like a pair of glasses,knowledge management brings some things into focus
more sharply,things that one would otherwise have missed.On the other
hand,glasses also restrict one's eld of view:Knowledge management is no
panacea for all problems that bedevil businesses today.These glasses simply
complement the range already available and established in management.
In practical terms,knowledge management consists of a wealth of actions
that can be taken to achieve business objectives.In order to better understand
their possible uses and relationships,it helps to consider themthrough the lens
of knowledge management processes.
Knowledge planning is concerned with knowledge management goals and
strategies.Creating knowledge is all about generating new knowledge,while
integrating knowledge refers to making both external and internal knowledge
available to the entire company.Organizing knowledge superimposes a struc-
ture on available knowledge.Transferring knowledge includes both planned
and unplanned communication of knowledge.Maintaining knowledge keeps
knowledge available,accurate,and up to date.Assessing knowledge tackles
the challenge of measuring knowledge.
The role of technology in knowledge management is that of an enabler.
Knowledge management must not be driven by technology,but many technolo-
gies can make knowledge management both more effective and more efcient.
Different technologies support each of the various knowledge management pro-
cesses to a different extent (Figure 22.1).
209
210 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Figure 22.1.The contributionof technologies tothe various knowledge management processes.
Summary 211
Communication technologies such as email,electronic discussion forums,
instant messaging,chatrooms,andvideoconferencingprimarilysupport knowl-
edge transfer.However,their contribution to knowledge creation should not be
underestimated either:Creating knowledge heavily depends on communica-
tion,and participants may be geographically dispersed.
Collaboration technologies integrate communication technologies with fur-
ther tools such as virtual whiteboards,brainstorming tools,voting mechanisms,
and shared browsing.Again,knowledge transfer and knowledge creation bene-
t most fromthese technologies.Furthermore,workowmanagement systems
support more structured forms of collaboration,which also benets knowledge
maintenance.
Content creation tools like authoring systems and annotation facilities help
with creating and integrating knowledge,as do automated approaches to docu-
ment enrichment and expertise proling.Organizing knowledge benets from
specialized applications handling structures like thesauri and classications
schemes.All these tools not only help with creating content,but also with
maintaining it.
Content management systems,including both document management and
web content management,excel at integrating documented knowledge.Meta-
data and classication capabilities help with organizing knowledge,versioning
and link management with maintaining it.Sophisticated retrieval functionality
aids the transfer of knowledge.
Adaptation technologies like portals and recommender systems support the
transfer of knowledge by making it possible to customize and personalize the
presentation of content.In addition,visualization helps with managing the
complex structures typically involved in organizing knowledge.
eLearning environments support knowledge transfer not only by helping
learners to make sense of content,but also by enabling communication,both
among learners and between learners and tutors.Testing components also
make eLearning systems one of the fewtechnologies that can directly help with
assessing knowledge.
Personal knowledge tools support tasks ranging from note taking to book-
mark management.These tools allow individuals to organize knowledge in
accordance with their own mental models rather than structures established by
others.For the same reason,personal knowledge tools also aid knowledge
creation.
Articial intelligence provides methods for automatically segmenting and
classifying content,aiding the organization of knowledge.Expert systems and
intelligent agents also support knowledge integration and knowledge transfer.
Network technologies rarely are at the foreground of any knowledge man-
agement initiative.Nevertheless,they provide necessary infrastructure and are
particularly important with regard to knowledge transfer.
212 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Standards for le exchange formats,metadata,and content syndication are
important for knowledge integration,knowledge transfer,and knowledge main-
tenance.Organizing knowledge benets from standards for specifying struc-
tures as well as from particular standardized structures such as library classi-
cation schemes.
Hardware,like network technologies,provides infrastructure required for
other technologies.Suitable input and output devices,including video cameras
and mobile devices,are particularly important for transferring knowledge.
Overall,transferring knowledge benets most fromtechnology,followed by
integrating and organizing knowledge.Technology contributes very little to
knowledge planning,and not a lot to assessing knowledge either.
Comparing the various technologies,content management supports a partic-
ularly broad range of knowledge management processes,as do content creation
tools and standards.The latter two,in particular,merit more attention than is
often being paid to themin practice.
This book has discussed knowledge management processes,supporting tech-
nologies,their relationships,andorganizational andtechnological issues regard-
ing their implementation as well as future research and development.Armed
with this pair of glasses called knowledge management,you should now be
able to see your organization in a newway,to spot improvement potentials,and
to identify courses of action.Your own experiences with implementing those
actions will constitute the ne nishing of your glasses.
Index
Abstracting,182
Academics,7,184
Accounting,108,110,111
ACMCCS,196
Adaptation technologies,155162,168,211
Address books,131,174
After action reviews,61
Alerts,86,87,121,135,183,193
Alumni networks,59,103
Analytico-synthetic classication,see Faceted
classication
Annotations,52,139,148,165
Applets,120,190,193
Application servers,190
Apprenticeships,3,94,168
Articial intelligence,52,54,64,70,72,140,
141,156,181187,211
Assessing knowledge,12,13,36,65,76,101,
107116,125,135,144,151,160,
167,178,186,193,200,207,209
Assumptions,scrutinizing,21,28,49,72,158
Asynchronous collaboration technologies,130
131
Asynchronous communication technologies,
120122
Attention,5,30,87,100,102,104,125,159
Augmented reality,204
Authoring tools,54,139,143145,148,159,
164,166,167
Authority les,71
Ba,46
Balances,20,24,39,77,92,113,125,135,153,
168,169,178
Benchmarking,23,25,39,42,109
Biases,91,141
Bibliography management,174,175
Bitmaps,196
Blended learning,168
Bookmark management,131,174,175
Brainstorming,49,52,112,130,133,192
Brainwriting,50
Built environment,31,171,208
Business portfolio matrices,38
Business process management,6
Business processes,6,24,42,54,108,132,133
Business strategy,22,26,37,38,110,152
Business studies,6
Buy-in,22,23,158,175
Call center,4
Capability to share,61
Capital,5
Capturing knowledge,6061,65,92,134
Card sorting,80
Career history,103
Case based reasoning,183
Categorization,71,see Classication
CBT,163
CD-ROMs,57,64,163
CGI,190,193
Change management,7
Chatrooms,120,124,126,127,130,135,165
Checklists,48,199
Classication,4,30,38,7072,7579,85,93,
94,99,101,104,121,124,140,144,
148,150152,183,185,186,192,
196,199,200
Clustering,102,148,183,185,186
Coaching,66,95,102
Coffee machine,4
Cognitive science,6
Collaboration,25,53,89,129137,139,142,
148,152,157,164,173,175,176,
178,191,198
Collaboration technologies,53,129137,211
Collaborative ltering,140,156
Collaborative writing,130
Combination,46
Commitment,21,24,37,40,66,108,110
225
226 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Communication skills,88,9293
Communication technologies,119127,132,
165,167,211
Communications management,7
Communities of practice,14,58,95,100
Competitive analysis,38
Computer science,6
Concept fan,50
Concept mapping,51,53,73,130,173,176
Conicts,25,165
Conicts of interest,62,112,178,208
Consultants,7,59,64,99,105,161
Content creation tools,139146,211
Content management,105,147153,211
Content syndication,198,199
Context,60,64,70,76,79,87,9094,124,134,
152
Controlled vocabularies,70,71,76,78,80,99
Controlling,7
Cookies,190
Cooperation between organizations,5,59
Corporate culture,see Organizational culture
Correcting knowledge,101102
Creating knowledge,11,13,4555,123,133,
142,150,158,166,176,185,191,
199,205,209
Creativity,5,46,47,140,143,158,176
Criminal investigation department,4
CSCW,129,see Collaboration technologies
Culture,see Organizational culture
Curiosity,25
Customer relationship management,5
Customization,86,155,161
Data mining,4,64,100,141,143
Data warehousing,64,156
Data,relationship to knowledge,5
Databases,6,41,57,63,64,89,100,114,131,
140,141,148,156,174,177,184,
201
DDC,196
Decision support systems,132,182
DHTML,190
Dialogue,51
Diaries,174
Dictionaries,71
Digital cameras,204
Digital libraries,86,167,169
Directory services,149,189
Discussion forums,74,90,95,121,124,125,
127,130,131,141,165
Displays,15,131,204,206,207
Document adaptation,156
Document analysis,182,184186
Document enrichment,140,143
Document management,58,60,131,134,136,
147153,197
Downsizing,66,97
Dublin Core,197
DVDs,163,197
Educational science,6,170
Elders,3
eLearning,5,58,160,163171,211
Email,17,53,73,74,86,90,104,120122,124,
125,127,130,136,141,165,173,
190,193
Email attachments,125
Embedded systems,204
Emergency situations,52,73,203
Employee turnover,5,31,97
Encryption,189,191,194
End users,79
Engineering company,5
Environmental scanning,38
Expert systems,70,181,186,187
Expertise location,see Locating experts
Expertise proling,4,53,84,110,126,131,141,
142,144,146,199,200
Explicating knowledge,61,62,102,177
Explicit knowledge,4,30,4042,46,89,90,94,
95,150,168,185
Externalization,46
Extranets,189,192
Extrinsic motivation,27,66
Faceted classication,72,74
Factors of production,5
Faxes,122
Fears,25,51,52,133
Fiber optics,204
File sharing,130,135,189
Filtering knowledge,67,72,9092,131
Floor layouts,6
Floppy disks,64,163
Former employees,59,103
Fun,27,48
Fuzzy logic,181
Gap analysis,38
Gazetteers,71
GIF,196
Glossaries,71,167
Group decision support systems,132
Group support systems,53,131,134
Groupware,129,see Collaboration technologies
H.323,197
Hardware,104,203208,212
Helpdesk,5
HTML,100,195
Human memory,61,75,104
Human resources management,7,30,100,105,
165,171
Hunting,3
INDEX 227
Idea collection,see Brainstorming
Idea processors,52
Identifying knowledge,6365
IMAP,190
Incentives,2627,41,48,63,6567,91,170
Indicators,see Assessing knowledge
Information professionals,79
Information technology management,7,30,165
Information,relationship to knowledge,5
Innovation,5,25,27,36,42,43,46,48,111
Input devices,204
Instant messaging,86,120121,124,127,130,
136,141,165
Instructional design,164,166,169
Insurance claims processing,60,132
Intangible assets,see Measuring intellectual cap-
ital
Integrating knowledge,11,13,5767,102,124,
134,143,150,158,166,177,185,
192,199,205,209
Intellectual capital reporting,see Measuring in-
tellectual capital
Intelligent agents,5,183186
Interaction view,1318
Internalization,46
Internet,76,119122,126,131,141,163,169,
174,177,189,192,196198
Interviews,70,103,112,114
Intranets,73,95,105,120,163,189,190,192
Intrinsic motivation,27,48,66
IP telephony,119,126
IRC,120
Java,120,190,193
Job rotation,4,47,66,94
JPEG,196
JSP,190
KDD,64
Knowledge engineering,183,187
Knowledge fairs,83
Knowledge gaps,21,29,38,93,101,168
Knowledge goals,22,23,3537,63,67,76,107
Knowledge management processes,913,35
116,123125,133135,142144,
150151,158160,166168,176
178,184186,191193,198200,
205207,209212
Knowledge management strategy,22,3743,60,
123
Knowledge maps,70,73,75,79,157,159
Knowledge planning,10,13,2023,3543,76,
88,123,133,142,150,158,166,
176,185,191,198,205,209
Knowledge products,57
Knowledge representation,85,88,181,185
Knowledge requirements,21,3637,105,144,
152,187,193,207
Knowledge skills,31,48,62,85,91,92,145,
161,207
Labor,5
Land,5
LCC,196
LDAP,190
Leadership,2324
Learning by doing,169
Learning management systems,164
Learning styles,88,164,167,168
Lectures,83,170
Legacy systems,153
Legal aspects,104,146
Librarians,79,99,105
Libraries,7173,76,77,105,196,199
Library and information science,6
Linguistic technologies,64,182,see Natural lan-
guage processing
Link management,148
Locating experts,13,41,53,84,141
LOM,197
Machine learning,73,182
Maintaining knowledge,12,13,30,97106,
108,124,135,144,151,159,167,
178,186,193,200,206,209
Manufacturing,3
Markup,195,199
Measuring intellectual capital,12,13,36,37,65,
107116,167
Mental models,80,112,158,175178
Mentoring,30,41,66,83
Metadata,52,72,85,140,141,143,148151,
159,186,197,199,200
Metrics,see Assessing knowledge
Microphones,204
Mistakes,dealing with,11,25
Mobile devices,15,86,122,203207
Mobile phones,15,93,204,207
Morphological analysis,50
MP3,197
MPEG,197
Multi-agent systems,183
Multimedia,52,122,139,164,169,173,198,
203
Multimedia retrieval,149
Narratives,see Storytelling
Natural language processing,149,182,186,187
Network technologies,189194,203,211
Networks of people,see People networks
Neural networks,183,184,187
New product development,11,13,49
Newsfeeds,92,148,198
Newsgroups,121
Newsletters,86,123
228 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
NewsML,198
Not-invented-here syndrome,24,25,63,65
Note taking,173,175,177
Nuclear power plant,73
ODMA,197
ODP,196
Ontologies,55,70,72,99,140,160
Open sources,58
OPML,196
Opportunity to share,63
Optical character recognition,140,147
Options analysis,38
Organizational culture,2426,28,95,108,123,
133,170,209
Organizational development,6
Organizing knowledge,12,13,6981,102,124,
134,143,151,159,166,177,185,
192,199,206,209
Outliners,130,173
Output devices,204
Outsourcing,66,97,164
Ownership,sense of,112,178
Patents,6,54,58,66
PDF,197
Peer-to-peer applications,15,120,130
People locator systems,see Locating experts
People networks,15,20,28,41,59,84,99104,
125,137
Perl,190
Personal digital assistants,15,86,203,207
Personal knowledge tools,173179,211
Personalization,155,158160,165,169,174,
177,179
PHP,190
Pilot projects,22,39,88,136
Planning,see Knowledge planning
PNG,196
POP3,190
Portals,86,94,156,159
Postscript,197
Power,25,62,133
Precision (of retrieval),149
Presenting knowledge,9294
Preserving knowledge,102104
Privacy issues,31,84,127,170,208
Problem solving,46,52,54
Process view,913,18
Prototyping,22
Psychology,6,73,170,177
Pull methods,31,8386,90
Purpose hierarchy,49
Push methods,31,83,8687,89
Python,190
Quality ratings,see Ratings
Queries,see Search queries
Random stimuli,49
Raster graphics,196
Ratings,36,108,131,148,151,157
RDF,197
Real-time,see Synchronous
Recall (of retrieval),149
Reciprocity,48,89,133
Recommender systems,110,156,159,160
Recruiting,4,26,41,58,65
Rening knowledge,42,102
Removing knowledge,104105
Retail stores,64
Retaining employees,98,102,105
Retirement,103
Retrieval technologies,51,69,78,80,85,141,
149,151,153,173175
Reviewing knowledge,91,100102,104,132
Risk management,4243
Roles,30,51,76,91,105,149
RSS,198
RTF,195
Sagacity,47
Scanning,64,147,204,206
Scenario planning,38
Search engines,see Retrieval technologies
Search queries,85,94,141,149,151153,186
SECI,46
Security,98,103,149,194,203
Segmentation,77,183
Semantic networks,71,181
Semantic web,55,72
Serendipity,47
Servlets,190,193
SGML,196
Shared browsing,130,133
Shared spaces,130135
Sharing knowledge,24,25,27,29,31,6163,
66,67,122,124,126,127,132,133,
137,142,173,177
Simulations,54,132,169
Skills management,58,100,102,171
Skunk works,47
Smart rooms,204
Smart walls,131,204,205
Smartphones,86,203,207
SMS,121,122
SMTP,190
Socialization,46
Sociology,6
Software company,4
Speech recognition,140,182,206
SSL,191
Standards,76,104,108,164,195202,212
Storage,103,148,203
Storytelling,93,95
INDEX 229
Strategic management,6
Structures for organizing knowledge,7073,76
80,99,101104,121,140,143,
144,159,167,177,196,206
Subject headings,70,72
Success stories,24
Succession planning,58,171
Suggestion schemes,4,48,112
Summarization,5,93,156,182,184,186,199
SVG,197
SWOT analysis,38
Synchronous collaboration technologies,130
131
Synchronous communicationtechnologies,119
121
Synectics,49
Tacit knowledge,4,28,30,4042,46,8890,
9495,168,184
Taxonomies,71,see Classication
Teamware,129,see Collaboration technologies
Telephony,119
Templates,29,40,62,114,145,148,149,166
Termlists,70
Terminology,129
Text mining,64
Text retrieval,see Retrieval technologies
Text summarization,see Summarization
Textbooks,169
Thesauri,62,71,78,140,149
Thinking hats,51
Threading,121,139
TIFF,196
TIPS,54
TLS,191
Topic Maps,196
Training,5,26,31,41,58,86,102,105,112,
122,144,153,161171,175
Transferring knowledge,12,13,8395,124,
134,144,151,159,167,178,186,
192,200,206,209
TRIZ,54
Trust,3,25,48,62,125,136,157,170
Tutoring,30,83,167
UDC,196
Unied messaging,122
Updating knowledge,101102
Usage histories,36,81,85,87,94,108,126,
141,149,165,174
Usenet,121
User interface,5,15,63,78,81,87,88,134,
135,153,156,164,179,184,207
Value chain analysis,38
Values,26,109111
Vector graphics,197
Vendors,7,103,184,198
Versioning,148,151
Video cameras,120,204206
Videoconferencing,53,119120,122124,126,
130,133,165,197,205,206
Video projectors,131,204,205,207
Videophones,204
Virtual private networks,189,192,194
Virtual whiteboards,130,133
Visualization,5,15,40,53,64,73,78,101,116,
157160,162,204
Voicemail,122
Voting mechanisms,131
Water cooler,83
WAV,197
WBT,163
Wearable computing,204
Web browsers,120,130,174,190192
Web servers,120,131,190
WebDAV,198
Wiki webs,131
Willingness to share,62
Wireless data,15,192,204,207
Work processes,16,29,61,63,87,114,142,
150,156,184,206
Workow management,60,132135,149
Workgroup computing,129,see Collaboration
technologies
Workshops,13,53,58,112,114,115,123
World wide web,58,74,163,190
XML,196198
XTM,196
Yellow pages,4,29,53,75,76,84,101,110,
127,131
About the Author
Herwig Rollett conducts research and industry projects at the Know-Center,
Austria's competence center for knowledge based applications and systems.
He is also vice chairman of the Wissensmanagement Forum,a nonprot as-
sociation dedicated to knowledge management.Previously,he has been en-
gaged in knowledge management research at the Institute for Information Pro-
cessing and Computer Supported NewMedia,Graz University of Technology,
and Forschung Austria,the umbrella organization of the country's largest non-
university research institutions.He can be contacted at

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