loutclankedΤεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική

13 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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Jennifer Homich



Teleoperation is defined as operation of a
machine at a distance.

It is similar in meaning to the phrase
“remote control" but is usually
encountered in research, academic and
technical environments.


Teleoperation is controlling a robot
from a distance. Distance can vary
from tens of centimeters to millions of

Teleoperation System

A teleoperation system consists of a
master device

that the operator
holds on to

and a slave device

robotic tool on the other place.

Since the user cannot see the robot
directly, he or she must rely on
feedback from the robot's worksite.
This is presented to the user by way
of the interface.

Forms of Feedback

Live video from video cameras

Haptic (touch, such as a vibration)

Auditory (human ear range)


contact sensors

sonar images

Sample Teleoperation

Common Uses for
Controlling Robots

in space from earth

in a nuclear reactor

to diffuse a bomb

for minimally
invasive surgery.


In Space From Earth

Space Teleoperation Study Using

ARS/A is Aerospace Robot System
for Aoba arm


a test
bed to establish technologies for
space teleoperation.

It is composed of a 6
DOF industrial
manipulator A
ARM (Aoba
ARM) as a
slave and a 6
DOF compact haptic
interface as the master arm.

For planetary surface operations, the
European Space Agency initiated a
development for teleoperated mini

Remote control functions related to
autonomous reaction capabilities and sensor
data processing on
board the vehicle exhibit
interesting transfer potential to industrial
and educational teleoperation tasks.

Activities in space are fundamentally limited
by the amount of energy required to raise
loads into earth orbit.

An additional requirement, when humans are
involved, is the expense and additional mass
of life support and safety critical systems.
Because of these reasons, conducting
operations such as protein crystal growth on
manned space missions is very expensive.

Teleoperation technology can thus have a
very substantial impact on the cost of
microgravity operations by reducing the
number of humans required in space for a
given amount of work.

Secondly, if the size of the teleoperation slave
system is reduced, the cost of launching and
housing the robotic system is also reduced.


communication time delay

restrictions of communication capacity

limitations of computation power on board

These space systems demand a high level of
safety and reliability. A mis
operation may
induce serious damages to human life or to
the space system itself.

An example of a slave system based in space

Teleoperation in Nuclear

Inspection and maintenance is essential
in the nuclear industry. It is not easy to
carry out such maintenance tasks since
the environments are usually highly
radioactive and are unsafe for human
workers. The usual way of carrying out
inspection and maintenance tasks in
these hazardous environments is using
long reach fixed base manipulators.


suffer from low payload capacity

relatively large end point deflections.

installation and the storage of these
long manipulators could be costly.

Teleoperation in Diffusing
a Bomb

Diffusing a bomb can be very unsafe
for a human, so we use a robot to do
this and operate it from a distance.

Army readies robot soldier for Iraq

MSNBC, Jan 24, 2005

“The Army is preparing to send 18 of these remote
controlled robotic warriors to fight in Iraq beginning
in March or April.”

Made by a small Massachusetts company these will
be the first armed robotic vehicles to see combat.

“Military officials like to compare the roughly three
high robots favorably to human soldiers: They
don’t need to be trained, fed or clothed. They can
be boxed up and warehoused between wars. They
never complain.”

A SWORDS robot shoots only when its human
operator presses a button after identifying a target
on video shot by the robot’s cameras.

Teleoperation in Minimally
Invasive Surgeries

an operation is performed with
instruments and viewing equipment
that is inserted into the body through
small incisions.

Increase the surgeon's dexterity for difficult aspects of the minimally
invasive procedure

Offer better visualization of anatomical structures by immersing the
surgeon in a high
resolution three
dimensional image, instead of the
two dimensional or "flat" video screen of traditional minimally invasive

Minimally invasive surgery with robotic technology creates less trauma
for the patient, less risk of complications, faster overall recovery time,
and a quicker return to normal activities.

da Vinci™
Surgical System, the newest
and most advanced technology for
minimally invasive surgery (MIS).

The surgeon's console with

dimensional endoscopic viewer and
hand controls.

The da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive, Inc.,
Sunnyvale, CA). Operating room setup with
surgeon seated at control console.

The da Vinci robot consisting of two
manipulation arms and one camera


This minimizes the surgical trauma
and damage to the healthy tissue,
resulting in shorter patient recovery


Reduced dexterity

Reduced workspace

Reduced sensory input to surgeon
which is only available through a
single video image

Video example

Soccer Teleoperation Video

First Teleoperation

The first teleoperation systems were
built after the Second World War for
needs in nuclear activities.

They used the master
slave concept.

They are composed of two
symmetrical arms.

The master arm is handled by the
operator; the slave one replicates the
operator motions at the spot where
the task has to be performed.

In the earlier systems, master and slave
were mechanically connected.

they were electrically powered giving the
possibility of any distance between master
and slave.

In early systems, the absence of
sophisticated electronics (mainly
computers), obliged to a symmetrical
mechanical device to correctly transfer the
motions from the operator to the slave

Problems in Teleoperation

The unreachable ideal transparency

Time delay

Industrial robotics is sometimes
opposed to teleoperation solutions

Reliability and safety

The unreachable ideal

One of the most important teleoperator
characteristics after stability is transparency.

The goal of teleoperation is to achieve

by mimicking human motor
and sensory functions

An established fact is that ideal
transparency can never be reached by
conventional bilateral control unless it is
redefined by other criteria or conceived

Time Delay

Communication time delay between
master and slave is very crucial in

Time delay affects not only
transparency, because the operator
actions and feedback are delayed, but
also stability

Problems with Industrial

Industrial robotics is sometimes opposed to
teleoperation solutions from a flexibility

Yet teleoperation flexibility is in many ways
dependant on operator adaptation to the
teleoperation system.

to perform a task the operator must be
trained and specialized.

Reliability and Safety

Use of high
powered master/slave
devices is very dangerous.

Powered manipulation arms are very
slow devices

quick or jerky motions should not be

Field of Haptics

These machines communicate with humans
using movement and forces

The most common devices are force
feedback joysticks that can give a certain
force back to the user, dependent on the
joystick position.

Sometimes the forces are generated from a
virtual environment, and sometimes from a
real robot somewhere else. In this case, it is
called force
reflecting (or haptic)