Ranger Telerobotics Program

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13 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

108 εμφανίσεις

Brian Roberts


University of Maryland

Space Systems Laboratory

http://www.ssl.umd.edu/


Ranger Telerobotics Program

On
-
Orbit Servicing Workshop


14 November 2001

Space Systems Laboratory

University of Maryland

Space Systems Laboratory


25 years of experience in space systems research


Focus is to develop and test complete systems capable
of performing complex space tasks end
-
to
-
end


People


4 full time faculty


12 research and technical staff


18 graduate students


28 undergraduate students


Facilities


Neutral Buoyancy Research Facility (25 ft deep x 50 ft in diameter)

»
About 150 tests a year

»
Only neutral buoyancy facility dedicated to basic research and only
one in world located on a university campus

»
Fabrication capabilities include rapid prototype machine, CNC mill
and lathe for prototype and flight hardware


Class 100,000 controlled work area for flight integration


Basic tenet is to maximize involvement of students in
every level of research activities

Space Systems Laboratory

University of Maryland

SSL Assets for On
-
Orbit Servicing


Development and testing of
multiple complete robotic
systems capable of performing
complex space tasks end
-
to
-
end:


Docking


Assembly


Inspection


Maintenance


Facility for evaluating systems
in a simulated 6 degree
-
of
-
freedom (DOF) microgravity
environment


Expertise:


Autonomous control of multiple robotic systems


Design of dexterous robotic manipulators


Adaptive control techniques for vehicle dynamics


Use of interchangeable end effectors


Investigation of satellite missions benefiting most from robotic servicing


Space Systems Laboratory

University of Maryland

What are the Unknowns in Space Robotics?

Ground Control?

Capabilities and
Limitations?

Multi
-
arm Control and
Operations?

Flexible Connections
to Work Site?

Interaction with Non
-
robot Compatible
Interfaces?

Effects and Mitigation
of Time Delays?

Control Station
Design?

Human Workload
Issues?

Utility of
Interchangeable

End Effectors?

Manipulator

Design?

Hazard Detection and
Avoidance?

Development,
Production, and
Operating Costs?

Ground
-
based
Simulation
Technologies?

Space Systems Laboratory

University of Maryland

Multimode Proximity Operations Device (MPOD)


Probe
-
drogue docking system


Operational since 1986


Achievements:


Autonomous approach and docking


Maneuvering and berthing of large masses


Application of nonlinear adaptive neural network control system


System to evaluate
controls associated
with robotic docking


Full 6 DOF mobility
base


Full state feedback
through an on
-
board
sensor suite,
including an
acoustic
-
based
sensor system


Space Systems Laboratory

University of Maryland

Supplemental Camera and Maneuvering Platform


Supplemental Camera and
Maneuvering Platform
(SCAMP) is a free
-
flying
camera platform


6 DOF mobility base


Stereo video and close
-
up color
cameras


Originally used to observe
neutral buoyancy
operations


Evolved to evaluate
robotic inspection


Operational since 1992


Achievements:


Used routinely to observe robotic and non
-
robotic neutral buoyancy
operations


Demonstrated visual survey and inspection

Space Systems Laboratory

University of Maryland

SCAMP Space Simulation Vehicle (SSV)


Continuation of SCAMP’s
evolution into a high fidelity
neutral buoyancy simulation of
6 DOF space flight dynamics


Uses onboard sensors (3
-
axis gyros,
accelerometers, magnetometers, and
a 3
-
D acoustic positioning system) to
accurately calculate its position,
attitude, and translational and
rotational velocities


Robot is positioned to a specified
location, determined by a
mathematical computer simulation


Operational since 1997


Achievements:


Cancellation of water drag effects for flight dynamics


Model
-
referenced vehicle flight control


Adaptive control of unknown docked payloads


Autonomous docking


Different methods of trajectory planning are being investigated

Space Systems Laboratory

University of Maryland

Beam Assembly Teleoperator (BAT)


Free
-
flying robotic system to demonstrate assembly of an
existing space structure not robot friendly:










6 DOF mobility base


5 DOF dexterous assembly manipulator


Two pairs of stereo monochrome video
cameras


Non
-
articulated grappling arm for grasping the
structure under assembly


Specialized manipulator for performing the
coarse alignment task for the long struts of the
truss assembly


Operational since 1984


Achievements:


Combination of simple 1 DOF arm with dexterous 5 DOF manipulator
proved to be a useful approach for assembly of a tetrahedral structure


Demonstrated utility of small dexterous manipulator to augment larger,
less dexterous manipulator


Assisted in the change out of spacecraft batteries of Hubble Space
Telescope

Space Systems Laboratory

University of Maryland

“Ranger” Class Servicers


Ranger Telerobotic Flight eXperiment (RTFX)


Free
-
flight satellite servicer designed in 1993; neutral buoyancy vehicle
operational since 1995


Robotic prototype testbed for satellite inspection, maintenance,
refueling, and orbit adjustment


Demonstrated robotic tasks in
neutral buoyancy

»
Robotic compatible ORU
replacement

»
Complete end
-
to
-
end connect and
disconnect of electrical connector

»
Adaptive control for free
-
flight
operation and station keeping

»
Two
-
arm coordinated motion

»
Coordinated multi
-
location control

»
Night operations


With potential Shuttle launch opportunity, RTFX
evolved into Ranger Telerobotic Shuttle eXperiment
in 1996

Space Systems Laboratory

University of Maryland


Demonstration of dexterous robotic on
-
orbit satellite
servicing


Robot attached to a Spacelab pallet within the cargo bay of the orbiter


Task ranging from simple calibration to complex dexterous
operations not originally intended for robotic servicing


Uses interchangeable end effectors designed for different tasks


Controlled from orbiter and from the ground


A joint project between NASA’s Office of Space
Science (Code S) and the University of Maryland
Space Systems Laboratory


Key team members


UMD
-

project management, robot, task elements, ground control
station


Payload Systems, Inc.
-

safety, payload integration, flight control
station


Veridian
-

system engineering and integration, environmental testing


NASA/JSC
-

environmental testing


Ranger Telerobotic Shuttle eXperiment (RTSX)

Space Systems Laboratory

University of Maryland

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Ranger’s Place in Space Robotics

How the Operator Interacts with the Robot

How the Robot Interacts with the Worksite

Space Systems Laboratory

University of Maryland

Robot Characteristics


Body


Internal: main computers and power distribution


External: end effector storage and anchor for launch restraints


Head = 12


捵扥


Four manipulators


Two dexterous manipulators
(5.5


楮 摩慭整e爻r4
8


汯湧l

»
8 DOF (R
-
P
-
R
-
P
-
R
-
P
-
Y
-
R)

»
30 lb of force and 30 ft
-
lbf
of torque at end point


Video manipulator (55


汯湧l

»
7 DOF (R
-
P
-
R
-
P
-
R
-
P
-
R)

»
Stereo video camera at
distal end


Positioning leg (75


汯湧l

»
6 DOF (R
-
P
-
R
-
P
-
R
-
P)

»
25 lb of force and 200 ft
-
lbf
of torque; can withstand
250 lbf at full extension
while braked


~1500 lbs weight; 14


汥湧瑨 晲潭 扡獥b潮 卌S
瑯 潵瑳t牥瑣桥搠慲洠瑩t

Space Systems Laboratory

University of Maryland


Fiduciary tasks


Static force compliance task
(spring plate)


Dynamic force
-
compliant control
over complex trajectory (contour
task)


High
-
precision endpoint control
(peg
-
in
-
hole task)

Task Suite


Robotic assistance
of EVA


Articulating Portable
Foot Restraint
setup/tear down


Non
-
robotic ORU
task



HST Electronics
Control Unit
insertion/removal


Robotic ORU task


Remote Power Controller
Module insertion/removal

Space Systems Laboratory

University of Maryland

End Effectors

Microconical
End Effector

Bare Bolt Drive

EVA Handrail
Gripper

Tether Loop
Gripper

SPAR Gripper

Right Angle Drive

Space Systems Laboratory

University of Maryland

Operating Modalities


Flight Control

Station
(FCS)


Single console


Selectable time delay

»
No time delay

»
Induced time delay






Ground Control Station


Multiple consoles


Communication time delay
for all operations


Multiple user interfaces

»
FCS equivalent interface

»
Advanced control station
interfaces (3
-
axis joysticks,
3
-
D position trackers,
mechanical mini
-
masters,
and force balls)


CPU (Silicon
Graphics O2)

Keyboard, Monitor,
Graphics Display

2x3 DOF

Hand Controllers

Video Displays (3)

Space Systems Laboratory

University of Maryland


Neutral Buoyancy Vehicle I (RNBV I)


Free
-
flight prototype vehicle operational since
1995


Used to simulate RTSX tasks and provide
preliminary data until RNBVII becomes
operational


RNBV II is a fully
-
functional, powered
engineering test unit for the RTSX
flight robot. It is used for:

Ranger Neutral Buoyancy Vehicles


Refining hardware


Modifying control algorithms and developing
advanced scripts


Verifying boundary management and computer
control of hazards


Correlating space and neutral buoyancy operations


Supporting development, verification, operational,
and scientific objectives of the RTSX mission


Flight crew training


An articulated non
-
powered mock
-
up is used for
hardware refinement and contingency EVA training

Space Systems Laboratory

University of Maryland

Graphical Simulation

Task Simulation

Worksite Analysis

GUI Development

Space Systems Laboratory

University of Maryland

Simulation Correlation Strategy

Simulation

Correlation

EVA/EVR

Correlation

Simulation

Correlation

EVA/EVR

Correlation

All On
-
Orbit

Operations Performed

Pre/Post Flight with

RTSX Neutral

Buoyancy Vehicle for

Flight/NB Simulation

Correlation

Space Systems Laboratory

University of Maryland

Arm Evolution

BAT Dexterous Arm (5 DOF)

ca. 1984

Ranger Dexterous Arm Mark 1 (7 DOF)

ca. 1994

Ranger Dexterous Arm Mark 2 (8 DOF)

ca. 1996

Roboticus Dexterus

BAT Tilt & Pan Unit (2 DOF)

ca. 1984

Ranger Video Arm (7 DOF)

ca. 1996

Roboticus Videus

BAT Grapple Arm (0 DOF)

ca. 1984

Ranger Grapple Arm (7 DOF)

ca. 1996

Roboticus Grapplus

Ranger Positioning Leg (6 DOF)

ca. 1998

Space Systems Laboratory

University of Maryland

Program Status


1995: RNBV I operations began at the NBRF


1996: Ranger TSX development began


June 1999: Ranger TSX critical design review


December 1999: Space Shuttle Program Phase 2
Payload Safety Review


April 2000: Mock
-
up began operation (62 hours of
underwater test time on 45 separate dives to date)


October 2001: Prototype positioning leg pitch joint and
Mark 2 dexterous arm wrist began testing


Today: RNBV II is being integrated; 75% of the flight
robot is procured


January 2002: RNBV II operations planned to begin


Ranger TSX is #1 cargo bay payload for NASA’s Office
of Space Science and #2 on Space Shuttle Program’s
cargo bay priority list


Space Systems Laboratory

University of Maryland

SSL Assets for On
-
Orbit Servicing


Development and testing of
multiple complete robotic
systems capable of performing
complex space tasks end
-
to
-
end:


Docking: MPOD and Ranger TFX


Assembly: BAT and Ranger


Inspection: SCAMP


Maintenance: Ranger


Facility for evaluating systems
in a simulated 6 DOF
microgravity environment


Expertise:


Autonomous control of multiple robotic systems


Design of dexterous robotic manipulators


Adaptive control techniques for vehicle dynamics


Use of interchangeable end effectors


Investigation of satellite missions benefiting most from robotic servicing


Space Systems Laboratory

University of Maryland

Backup Slides

Space Systems Laboratory

University of Maryland

Robot Stowed Configuration

Space Systems Laboratory

University of Maryland

Computer Control of Hazards


Human response is inadequate to respond to the robot’s
speed, complex motions, and multiple degrees of freedom



Onboard boundary
management
algorithms keep
robot from
exceeding safe
operational
envelope
regardless of
commanded input



Space Systems Laboratory

University of Maryland

Results of a Successful Ranger TSX Mission

Demonstration of Dexterous

Robotic Capabilities

Pathfinder for Flight

Testing of Advanced Robotics

Dexterous Robotics for

Advanced Space Science

Precursor for Low
-
Cost

Free
-
Flying Servicing Vehicles

Understanding of Human Factors

of Complex Telerobot Control

Lead
-
in to Cooperative

EVA/Robotic Work Sites