Investigation Report on the Rescue Problem at Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in Kobe

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Investigation Report on the

Rescue Problem at

Hanshin
-
Awaji Earthquake in Kobe

Satoshi Tadokoro, Kobe Univ.

Toshi Takamori, Kobe Univ.

Koichi Osuka, Kyoto Univ.

Saburo Tsurutani, Kobe Steel

IROS 2000, Takamatsu, Nov. 3, 2000

Hanshin
-
Awaji Earthquake


January 17, 1995, 5:47 am





Magnitude
7.2


Serious Damage Region
20 x 1 km

(13 x 0.6 mi)

People s
eriously effected:
2,300,000


Deaths:
6,432 ++

Injured:
43,800 ++

Buildings Damaged:
530,000


fully destroyed:
104,906
, fully burnt:
6,148
,


half destroyed:
144,272


Fire:
285


large scale:
14


(>10,000m
2

(3600 mi
2
))


largest: Nagata Ward


Direct Damage:
10 trillion yen

(100 billion US$)

Earthquake Disaster


> 3 times/year

Top 10 earthquakes in the 20
th

century

Taiwan

Cause of Death and Injury in

Hanshin
-
Awaji (Kobe) Earthquake


Death


Crush and Suffocation by

80%

Building Destruction


Burn





10%


Injury


Collapse of Buildings and

Most

Tumble of Furniture

Typical Collapse of Buildings


Crush of 1st floor


30cm (1ft)


In a minute

Kobe, 1995

Kobe, 1995

Kobe, 1995

Apartment House of a Student

(by S. Fuji)

Kobe, 1995

From the 2nd Floor

(by S. Fuji)

Kobe, 1995

Kobe, 1995

Kobe, 1995

Kobe, 1995

Search and Rescue


Residents, Civilians, Volunteers:

---

Main rescuer


Firefighters, Policemen:

---

Too few in number


Self
-
Defense Force

---

Too late by information isolation of


stricken area


The disaster was much larger than


supposed possible damage.

Taiwan

Expected Contribution of

Robotics


Industrial Robot Contribution


Save workers from 3D jobs


Demanding, Dirty, Dangerous


Cost Reduction


Efficiency Improvement


Quality Improvement


Rescue Robot Contribution



...

(Kawasaki Heavy Industry Co.)

Dream of Robotics and AI


If mighty robot
heroes

in SF and comics

..

(Mighty Atom, Osamu Tezuka)

(Gundam)

Search & Rescue Process

1.
Search

Collect information

Estimate the possibility of buried person

Identify the position

2.
Excavation of debris

Dig a hole, Destroy obstacles, Take out debris

Make secure space

3.
Rescue

Pull out the body outside, Treat victims

Transfer to the hospital


Advanced

Search Tools

Optical fiber scope

Acoustic investigator

Heartbeat detector using microwave

Rescue

Tools

Removal Work Mobile

Air Jack

Suspender

Power Spreader/Cutter/Jack

Rescue Robots !!

In Japan

RoboFighter

Fire Serarch

RoboCue

Wall

Climbing

Robot

Activities of robotics in Japan


JSME Robotics & Mechatronics Div. Research
Committee (1995.11

1996.11)


Investigation of search & rescue activities in Hanshin
-
Awaji Earthquake for the purpose of research &
development of rescue robotic infrastructure


JSME Research Committee RC
-
150 (1997.4

1999.3)


Research & development of robotic systems for
search & rescue in large
-
scale disaster


MITI Humanoid Robot Project

Activities of robotics in Japan


SICE System Integration Division, Rescue Engineering TC


ISCIE Rescue System Forum


SICE Urban Disaster Prevention TC


The RoboCup
-
Rescue Project


Rescue Robot Contest


JSME Robotics Mechatronics Conf., 1996,
1997, 1998, 1999, 2000


Robotics Society of Japan Annual Conf.,
1996, 1997, 1998, 1999


JSME Robotics Mechatronics Symposia,
1997


JSME Annual Conference,1998


SICE Urban Disaster Prevention
Symposium, 1998


AI Robot Fair, 1998


JSAI SIG
-
Challenge Symposium, 1999


RoboCup
-
Rescue Symposium, 1999


IROS, 1999


ICRA, 2000


SPIE
-
UMG, 2000


ICMAS, 2000


IROS, 2000


IECON, 2000


Global Disaster Information Network, 2000


RoboCup WC Melbourne, 2000


…………

Search Robot Specification

(Committee Report)


Searchable from out of debris


Need no standard face/line


Searchable faint victim


Non
-
contact search


Teleoperation


Robustness against
environment


Transportable by human


Rapid setting


Need no accuracy


Battery drive


Need no special
knowledge


Usable in ordinary social
life


Easy maintenance


Judge alive/death and
health condition

Excavation Robot Specification

(Committee Report)


Ability for various tasks


Robustness against
environment


Battery drive


Teleoperation rather
than autonomous
system


Safety support for
human workers


Task support for human
workers


Light weight


Simple structure


For easy maintenance


For easy understanding of
usage


For reliability


Transportable by human
or having high self
-
mobility


Easy operation without
special knowledge

Victim Care Robot Specification

(Committee Report)


Judge of alive/death and health condition


Ability of Life maintenance


Ability to reduce the load


Mobility to carry victim bodies out


Transfer from debris to outside street


Transfer from street to hospital

Kobe, 1995

Emergency Response System
Problems & Expected Functions


Problems


Insufficient supposed
scale


Damage of ER centers
and members


Cut and congestion of
communication


Information isolation of
civilians and volunteers


Insufficient information
support in decision
making



Expected Functions


Acquisition, accumulation,
relay, selection, analysis,
summarization, and
distribution of necessary
information


Sufficient decision support


Distribution of systems for
reliability and robustness


Continuity of operation
from ordinary time

Essential Issues


Number of systems


Huge number of
simultaneous break
-
out


Continuousness from
ordinary time


Efficiency


Cooperation with human


Effective organization of local
residents


Variety of Problems


Search


Information support


Rescue work


Real
-
time Disaster Response
Research


Response

Action



Support for residents and civilians


Thorough check of availability


Cost reduction by standardization
& open architecture


Extensible mechanism

Kobe, 1995

Distributed Search of Victims
(Takamori, Kobe U.)

Marsupial Rescue Robot

(Robin Murphy, South Florida U.)

Portable Rescue Manipulator

(Tadokoro, Kobe U.)

Mobile Mechanisms in Debris

(Hirose, Tokyo Inst. Tech.)

Gembu II

ParaWalker
-
II

Humanoid Robot Project (MITI)

Human Manipulation


Masuda, Tokai U.)

Rescue Support


Osuka & Tokuda, Kyoto U.)

InfoBaloon (Onosato, Osaka U.)

RoboCup
-
Rescue Simulation

2D log viewer by Kuwata

3D viewer by Shinjoh & Yoshida

Rescue Robot Contest
(RoboFesta)



(Osuka, Masutani)

For Creation of Safer Social
Systems

1.
Wide human groups concerned


<Wideness>


User


Market


Designer


Developer







Researcher


Scientists

2.
Wide range/variety of R&D trials

<Variety>


Practical


Prototype


Research level


Idea level


Expert level


Civilian level


For solutions against variety of disasters

3.
Long
-
range & short
-
range R&D


<Continuity>


1 year


3 years


5 years




1 decade


2 decades


5 decades


1 century

For the Future Social Safety


International Cooperation of


Researchers


Industries


Governments


Experts


Volunteers


Agencies


Mass Communications


………


R&D Scenario of search & rescue systems

Disaster


Mitigation


Culture