Contemporary Uses of Robotics

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13 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 2 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

48 εμφανίσεις

Natalia Mozol

There are roughly two main categories of uses of
robotics based on the types of jobs robots have to

There are jobs that a robot can do better than a human, in
which they increase productivity, accuracy, and

There are also jobs that a human can do better than a
robot, but humans are removed from the activities
because they are dirty, dangerous, and dull tasks.

There are also unusual robots, which let us investigate
new types of robots. These new types of robots will be
able to solve real world problems when they are
finally realized.

Jobs that require speed, accuracy, reliability
or endurance can be performed a lot better
by robots than humans.

Robots have replaced humans in factories for over
fifty years now.

We’re allowed to have cheaper mass
produced goods,
including many automobiles, appliances, and

The amount of installed robots has grown to more than
800,000 worldwide (42 % in Japan, 40% in the European
Union and 18% in the USA).

Factory work suits robots because it can be
accurately defined and repeated in the same
manner every time, requiring no intelligence or
feedback from the robot. The robots may
require some basic exteroceptors to sense things
in their environment.

Car production



Automated Guided Vehicles

This is the number one example
of factory automation.

Factories have been dominated
by robots for the past three

A factory contains hundreds of
industrial robots working on
fully automated production

There is one robot for every ten
human workers.

On a automated production line,
an automobile is carried on a
conveyer to be welded, glued,
painted and assembled by
various robots working within a
factory environment.

Industrial robots are
extensively used for
palletizing and
packaging of
manufactured goods.

Packing includes:

Taking products off of
the end of a conveyor
belt and placing them
into segregated boxes.

Loading and unloading
of machining centers.

Industrial Robot

Pick and place robots
mass produce circuit

They do this with SCARA
manipulators. These
manipulators remove tiny
electronic components
from strips or trays, and
place them on to PCBs
with great accuracy.

These robots are known to
place several components
per second.

Pick and Place Robot

These are large mobile
robots, which follow
markers or wires in the
floor or use vision or
lasers to transport
goods around large
facilities, including
many warehouses,
container ports, or

There are many jobs that a human could do a lot
better than any single robot, but usually the human
does not want to do this particular job or cannot be
present to carry out the particular task needed to be
accomplished so he has robots carry out the task for

These types of jobs may be too boring to carry out, such as
house hold cleaning

Other jobs may be too dangerous to carry out, such as the
exploration from within a volcano.

Or jobs may be inaccessible, such as exploration of an
unknown planet, cleansing of a long pipe or the
performance of laparoscopic surgery.

Robots in the home



Military Robots

Elder Care Robots

Laparoscopic Robotic Surgery Machine

Prices of these robots keep
on dropping and their
performance and
computational ability is

Currently more of these robots
have been sold than any other
single type of robot because
they seem to be relatively
autonomous, usually requiring
a command to begin their job.

Robots take on unwanted
tasks such as :

vacuum cleaning

floor cleaning

lawn moving

Vacuum Cleaner

Telerobots are used when a
human cannot be present on
site to perform a specific task
because it is too dangerous, far
away, or inaccessible.

Usually the robot will be in
another room or country,
depending on where the robot
has to accomplish a task, away
from the operator.

Margaret Atwood uses a robot
pen to sign books that she has
published, without being
present at the book signing

The pen saves the financial cost
and physical inconvenience of
traveling to book signings around
the world.

Margaret Atwood’s robotic pen

Most space exploration has
been conducted with telerobotic
space probes.

Most space
based astronomy
has been conducted with
telerobotic telescopes, including
telescopes such as the Mars
exploration rovers and the
Hubble Space Telescope.

Marine remotely operated
vehicles are used to work in
water that is too deep or too
dangerous for divers to explore.
These vehicles repair offshore
oil platforms and attach cables
to sunken ships to hoist them.

The wreck of the sunken ship
named Titanic was actually
explored by a remotely operated
vehicle, as well as by a crew
operated vessel

Remotely Operated Vehicle

A laparoscopic surgery
robot, such as Vinci
allows surgeons to
work inside a human
patient on a smaller
scale compared to
open surgery.

This robot significantly
shortens the patients
recovery time.

This is the use of robotic technology to help
orthopedic surgeons in the healing, repair, and
replacement of any joint related conditions.

It is a minimally invasive method for viewing forms within
the body and performing surgery on a joint.

Arthrobotics uses a fiber
optic instrument, which is
inserted through a tiny incision that enables remote
viewing of the joint through an eyepiece or on a
machine screen.

Future arthrobotic uses will potentially incorporate
complete joint replacement with bionic bionics and
computer interfaces for limb control from
neural impulses in the brain.

Teleoperated robot aircraft, like the
Predator Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
are used by the military.

These robots can be operated from
anywhere in the world, allowing an
army to search terrain, fire at targets
without endangering those who are
operating the robot, and take
surveillance photographs.

There are robots that are being
developed that can make decisions
automatically; choosing where to
fly or selecting and engaging enemy

There is a iRobot Packbot and a
Miller TALON, which are
being used by the U.S. military to
defuse roadside bombs or
improvised explosive devices in an
activity known as Explosive
Ordnance Disposal.

Predator Unmanned Aerial Vehicle


US Mechatronics has produced a working automated sentry gun
and they are still developing it further for commercial and military

MIDARS is a four
wheeled robot outfitted with several cameras, a
radar, and possibly a firearm, that automatically performs random
or preprogrammed patrols around a military base or other
government installation.

It alerts a human when it detects movement in an unauthorized area,
or other programmed conditions.

The robot would also frequently scan radio frequency identification
tags placed on stored inventory. It would be able to record any items
that were missing.

U.S. scientists at MIT are looking into building a mechanical super
fighter who would be able to heal his own wounds, leap buildings,
deflect bullets and even become invisible. The invisibility part of
the robot wouldn’t be ready for at least another 10 years.

Humans make the best care
specialists, but they are often
unavailable due to the increasing
amount of elder people and not
enough younger people willing to
take care of them.

Japanese nursing homes have
robots installed within them to help
care for elderly people.

A package of sensors is placed inside
a teddy bear. The bear speaks to the
elderly individual and asks him or her
a question. Then, judging by the
response time, the bear decides
whether a nursing assistant should
be called over to the premises.

Sanyo Electric introduced a robot
bathtub, which costs about $50,000.
It closes the patient in it while the
patient is seated on a wheelchair.
The wash and rinse cycles operate
automatically cleaning the individual

These new types of
robots will be able to
solve real world issues
when they are finally


Soft robots

Reconfigurable robots

Swarm robots

Evolutionary robots

Virtual reality


Soft Robot

Nanorobots would be
devices ranging in size from
10 micrometers and
constructed of nanoscale or
molecular components.

Researchers have produced
only parts of these complex
systems, such as bearings,
sensors, and synthetic
entrants for the Nanobot
Robocup contest.

sensor will have a switch
approximately 1.5
nanometers across, capable
of counting specific
molecules in a chemical

Cell Impair Nanorobots

Researchers also hope to create robots as small as viruses or bacteria,
allowing them to carry out tasks on a small scale.

Some applications of these robots would include: micro surgery,
utility fog, manufacturing, weaponry and cleaning.

Medical technology might be used to identify cancer cells and destroy them.

Another potential application is the detection of toxic chemicals, and the
measurement of their concentrations, in the environment.

Rice University has recently demonstrated a single
molecule car,
developed by a chemical process. It is actuated by controlling the
environmental temperature and by positioning a scanning tunneling
microscope tip.

Nanotechnology coatings are being used to make clothing with stain
resistant fibers. They are used on swim suits to repel water, reduce
friction with the water, and allow swimmers to go faster.

Robotic engineers are trying
to create robots that will be
composed of soft materials
such as rubber, foam, and
gel. They will also be
composed of soft actuators
such as air muscles,
electroactive polymers, and
ferrofluids as well as soft
behaviours such as fuzzy
logic and neural networks.

These robots would be capable
of rough terrain locomotion.

The robots will look, feel, and
behave differently from
traditional hard robots.

Soft Robots which are capable of
rough terrain locomotion.

These robots will be able
to alter their physical
form to suit a particular

Algorithms have been
designed in case any of
these reconfigurable
robots become a reality.

The Picture at the right
represents molecubes in

Researches are hoping to make
swarms of tiny robots which as a
united whole will perform useful
tasks, such as finding something
hidden, cleaning or spying.

This project was inspired by colonies
of insects such as ants and bees.

Each robot would be quite simple,
but as a whole, the swarm would be
quite complex.

Largest swarms created so far
include the iRobot swarm and the
Open source micro
robotic project.

Swarms are more resistant to

One large robot may fail and ruin the
whole mission, but the swarm can
continue even if several robots that it
is composed of fail. This factor
makes the swarms of robots an
effective use for space exploration,
where failure can be extremely

Specialized robots such as the
haptic interfaces are used

Haptic technology refers to
technology which interfaces the user
via the sense of touch by applying
forces, vibrations and/or motions to
the user. This type of virtual reality is
used in various video games.

Haptic interfaces allow touch
enabled user interaction with real
and virtual environments.

Robotic forces allow simulating the
mechanical properties of virtual
objects, which users can experience
through their sense of touch.

The Shadow Dextrous Robot Hand
was produced to use the sense of
touch, pressure, and position to
reproduce the human grip in all its
strength, delicacy, and complexity.

Virtual Haptic Interface

A biobot is designed to

Imitate the configuration or
physiology of a life science

Connect and integrate life
science and mechanical
modules in its operation.

Or it can do both.

The biobots biological
functions and processes
imitated or integrated with
mechanical systems would
generally include:

Motion (walking)

Power making (digestion)

Sensing and communication
(language recognition and

Knowledge and control (
neural adaptation)

Someday biobots specialized for cleaning
up toxic spills could analyze, seek out, and
neutralize pollutants in a single

Biobots have potential applications in
medicine, national security, environmental
protection, and many other fields.

Biobots are designed to decontaminate toxic
spills. They can detect and identify specific
hazardous chemicals, track down the extent of
contamination, and internally manufacture
whatever was needed to clean up the mess.
They can do this all with one trip to the site

Phase Office Robotics.”
. 2006.


Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
. 16 Nov. 2007


Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
. 23 Nov. 2007


Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
. 26 Nov. 2007


“Robots Help Japan care for its Elderly.”
Popular Mechanics
. June 2004