Computers and Medical Technology

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13 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Computers and
Medical Technology

The Future of Computers in
Medicine

Angel Colandrea


Kevin Goncalves


Brittani Cotton

Introduction


Computers and Technology are
revolutionizing the world of Medicine daily,
and can be used in the following areas:


Robotic surgeries


Electronic Medical Records


Personal Digital Asistants


Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)



Computer Motion


Computer Motion develops and manufactures
products for what it refers to as the
"Intelligent Operating Room"™, including
medical computers and robots.


founded in 1989 by Dr. Yulan Wang, now the
company's Chief Technical Officer and
Executive Vice
-
President.


Goal was to revolutionize technology and
improve patients’ lives.

Aesop


Computer Motion’s first major product.


A robotic system used for holding an
endoscopic camera in minimal invasive
surgery.


Like a “third arm” for surgeon.


Operated by foot pedals


Solved problems due to hand tremors.


In 1994, the AESOP 1000 system
became the world's first surgical robot
certified by the FDA in the US.


Problems: new users had to look down
at the pedals before they could adjust
them.



Aesop (cont.)


Motion followed with AESOP 2000 in 1996,
with the enhancement of voice control, and in
1998, the AESOP 3000, which has 7 degrees
of freedom, and provides more flexibility in
how surgical doctors and nurses can position
the endoscope.


By 1999, over 80,000 surgical procedures
have been performed using AESOP
technology.

Zeus


First Prototype demonstrated in 1995 by Computer
Motion.


Holds 28 robotic instruments. The surgeon can sit
comfortably at a master console and control
instruments using a pair of master manipulators.


Advantages


The fatigue factor is substantially reduced as the surgeon is
seated and does not have to constantly hold onto the
instruments.


The robotic instruments follow the surgeon's motion while
filtering out tremors. With motion scaling, they can also
execute micro
-
movements which may be humanly
impossible.


With robotic instruments, the incisions needed are even
smaller than with previous MIS instruments, leading to less
trauma on the patients and hence shorter recovery times.


Zeus (cont.)

Zeus (cont.)

Intuitive Surgical


Formed in 1995 based on research acquired at
the Stanford Research Institute International.


With over 210 devices in use throughout the
United States, Europe, and Japan, Intuitive
Surgical is the leading company in digital
surgery.


Collaborated with MIT, IBM Corporation,
Heartport Inc., Olympus Optical, Ethicon Endo
-
Surgery, Johnson and Johnson Company, and
Medtronic Inc.


Came up with the da Vinci System.

The da Vinci System


There are four main components to the system:


The surgeon console


Pateint side cart


EndoWrist instruments


And Insite Vision System with 3D endoscope and Image
Processing Equipment.


The surgeon sits several feet away from the patient operating
table, he has his hands in the main system interface and watches
his work in 3D real
-
time progression.


The side cart contains the robotic arms that directly contact the
patient.


The EndoWrist Instruments allow the robotic arms to move in a
way that simulates human movement. They also move in full
circles
-

an advantage over non
-
robotic arms.


The camera unit provides 3D enhanced images. It includes real
-
time high magnofication, high resolution images of the inside of the
patient.


Video



The da Vinci System (cont.)


Benefits of Robotics in surgery:


Improved Patient Outcomes


Reduced trauma to the body


Reduced blood loss and need for transfusions


Less post
-
operative pain and discomfort


Less risk of infection


Shorter hospital stay


Faster recovery and return to normal daily
activities


Less scarring and improved cosmesis


The da Vinci System (cont.)

Detachable instruments

The da Vinci System (cont.)

Electronic Medical Records


Electronic medical record systems allow
medical practices to manage all the
information collected for their patients
electronically, protecting the safety of the
information and improving the efficiency of
the practice.


Cost of buying paper, folders, charts, ink, etc.


Storage space


Saves time


Electronic Medical Records
(cont.)


Improves efficiency


Less employees can do the same job


Decrease in lost revenue


Ensures complete documentation for every
patient (physicians can easily fully document
every
note.)


Improves patient care with improved chart quality,
reminders, maintenance, and medical
management.


Electronic Prescriptions


A significant problem in current medical practice is
the rate of error in prescriptions. The single greatest
reason for this is error in communication. A
pharmacist may not be able to accurately read the
writing of a a doctor even if it is reasonably clear.
For example, 20 units written as "20u" could easily
be misunderstood as "200" units.


Statistics:


17% error rate in outpatient clinics


24% error rate in new prescriptions


10% error rate in refills


Total error rate in handwritten prescriptions is 34%


Total error rate in electronic prescriptions is 4%


Also ensures patient information (such as allergies,
history of the patient) is not looked over.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging


Advances in medical technology are allowing for
better diagnostic tools such as higher resolution
MRI.


There is a horizontal tube running through the
magnet from front to back, known as the bore of the
magnet. The patient lies on his back and slides into
the bore on a special table. Once the body part to
be scanned is in the exact center of the magnetic
field, the scan can begin. MRI’s use radio waves
and pulses of energy, the MRI scanner can pick out
a very small point inside the patient's body and
determine the type of tissue. The MRI system goes
through the patient's body point by point, building up
a 2
-
D or 3
-
D map of tissue types. It then integrates
all of this information together to create 2
-
D images
or 3
-
D models.


MRI’s (cont.)