Genetic Engineering

lookkneeΒιοτεχνολογία

16 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Genetic Engineering

Breeding Strategies


Selective breeding
-
Selection of a few
individuals to get specific traits


Inbreeding
-
crossing of individuals with
same


Hybrididization
-

Mutations


Mutagens
-

cause mutations things such as
radiation and chemicals


Often used with bacteria, large number of
organisms in a short time period

Genetic Engineering


First
-
You will need a way to carefully cut
the DNA containing the gene away from the
genes surrounding it.


Second
-

You would have to find a way to
combine that gene with a piece of DNA
from the recipient organism.

Genetic Engineering cont.


Third
-
You would have to insert the
combined DNA into the new organism.


Fourth
-

Be able to read the sequences of
nucleotide bases in the gene in order to
analyze the genes that you are manipulating.


http://www.dnalc.org/ddnalc/resources/shoc
kwave/pcranwhole.html

for PCR


NOVA Online | Killer's Trail | DNA
Fingerprint Lab

DNA fingerprinting

Gene Products


http://www.biologymad.com/master.html?ht
tp://www.biologymad.com/GeneticEngineer
ing/GeneticEngineering.htm


New Phenotypes


http://www.biologymad.com/master.html?ht
tp://www.biologymad.com/GeneticEngineer
ing/GeneticEngineering.htm


Technique


Purpose


1



cDNA


To make a DNA copy of mRNA


2


Restriction
Enzymes


To cut DNA at specific points, making
small fragments


3


DNA Ligase


To join DNA fragments together


4


Vectors


To carry DNA into cells and ensure
replication


5


Plasmids


Common kind of vector


6


Gene Transfer


To deliver a gene to a living cells


7


Genetic
Markers


To identify cells that have been
transformed


8


Replica Plating
*


To make exact copies of bacterial colonies
on an agar plate


9


PCR


To amplify very small samples of DNA


10


DNA probes


To identify and label a piece of DNA
containing a certain sequence


11


Shotgun *


To find a particular gene in a whole
genome


12


Antisense
genes *


To stop the expression of a gene in a cell


13


Gene
Synthesis


To make a gene from scratch


14


Electrophoresi
s


To separate fragments of DNA