PUBLISHED REPORTS - MINERAL PROCESSING

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PUBLISHED REPORTS
-

MINERAL PROCESSING


[For overseas customers, please include an additional $50 Australian to cover bank fees, postage and handling costs.]


REPORT 1

DUNN, J. G,

1983.

“The flash smelting of nickel sulphide concentrates”.

MERIWA
Project 2




[Fiche $5, Hardcopy $31.50]

The thermal and oxidative characteristics of two floated nickel sulphide concentrates, one from the Kambalda Nickel Operation

and from Agnew
Mining Corporation, as well as a mixture containing concentrates, flash furnace dust and fluxes, were investigated
using Differential Thermal
Analysis, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Thermogravimetry, Electronprobe microanalysis and X
-
ray diffraction .

KEYWORDS:

Differential Thermal Analysis/Differential Scanning Calorimetry/Thermogravimetry/nickel sulphide concen
trates.


REPORT 2

RUANE, M,

1983.

“Carbon
-
in
-
pulp gol d processing technol ogy”.

MERIWA
Project 10




[Fi che $10, Hardcopy $47]

The report critically evaluates Carbon
-
in
-
Leach versus C.I.P. processes, agitation and screening systems, performance
criteria for activated
carbons, elution techniques, and alternative approaches to recovering gold and regenerating carbon. Fouling of carbon is rec
ognized as one of the
main problems of the process.

KEYWORDS:

CIP processes/Carbon
-
in
-
leach/elution/carbon
fouling.


REPORT 5

SMITH, I., HINCHCLIFFE, W.,

HOSKING, J. W., and MUIR, D. M,

1984.

“ Foul i ng s t udi e s on C.I.P. c a r bons a nd
pr os pe c t s f or gol d r e c ove r y us i ng i on e x c ha nge r e s i ns ”.

M ERI WA

Pr oj e c t 3 5




[ Fi c h e $ 1 0, H a r d c o p y $ 4 1 ]

Fo u l e d c a r b o n s f r o m
t h r e e We s t e r n A u s t r a l i a n c a r b o n
-
in
-
pulp plants were investigated by optimising the acid washing conditions needed to remove
the major contaminants, calcium, magnesium and silica, and by measuring comparative kinetic activities of the carbon before a
nd afte
r acid
washing, thermal regeneration, and contact with plant process waters.

KEYWORDS:

Carbon/acid washing/resins/fouling/gold recovery.


REPOR
T 7

DUNN, J. G. and SMITH, T. N,

1984.

“Flash smelter shaft operations”.

MERIWA

Project 27




[Fiche $5,
Hardcopy $
54.45
]

Studies were made of the dispersion of solids entering the shaft and of the subsequent reactions among sulphide concentrate,
added coal and
combustion air in the flash smelting process at the Kalgoorlie Nickel Smelter. A model at 1:4 sca
le was employed to test alternative designs.
Concentrates from the different sources showed significant variations in ignition temperature.

KEYWORDS:

Dispersion of Solids/Differential Thermal Analysis/Thermogravimetry/Nickel Sulphide Concentrate/Flash Smelting.


REPORT 15

BAX, A. C. and RITCHIE, I.

M,

1986.

“ I nve s t i ga t i on of t he pr oduc t i on of i r on ox i de pi gme nt s f r om r e duc e d
i l me ni t e ”.


M ERI WA

Pr o
j e c t 4 6/6 4




[ Fi c h e $ 5, H a r d c o p y $ 5 0
]

A b y
-
p r o d u c t o f t h e Be c h e r s y n t h e t i c r u t i l e p r o c e s s i s i r o n o x i d e, f o r me d d u r i n g t h e a e r a t i o n r e a c t i o n w h i c h r u s t s t h e i r o n f r o m t
h e r e d u c e d i l me n i t e.
Th i s p r o j e c t e x p l o r e d t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f p r o d u c i n g ma r k e t a b l e i r
o n o x i d e f o r p i g me n t a t i o n, b y o x i d e c a l c i n a t i o n.

KEYWO R D S:

Iron oxide/reduced ilmenite/pigment/synthetic rutile/oxide calcination.


REPORT 17

MUIR, D. M. and PASS, D. J
,

1985.

“The application of chloride hydrometallurgy to upgrading dirty base metal
sulphi de concentrates and processing nickel matte in Western Australia”.

MERIWA

Project 15




[Fi che $10, Hardcopy $63]

This research considers the reactivity of mineral sulphi
des and physical properties of concentrated chloride solutions, and develops options f or
nickel mattes and “complex” sulphide concentrates. The corrosion characteristics of dif f erent sulphides vary w idely in chlor
ide media, and f actors
controlling the cor
rosion are determined.

KEYWORDS:

Chloride hydrometallurgy/leaching/electrowinning/sulphides/nickel matte.


REPORT 19

FARROW, J. B., RITCHIE, I.

M,

1985.

“Corrosion of metallic iron from reduced ilmenite”.

MERIWA

Project 29




[Fiche $5, Hardcopy
$29.50]

A mechanistic study of the aeration reaction used for removing iron from a reduced ilmenite matrix to produce synthetic rutil
e is described
employing two techniques, one based on the measurement of mixed potentials, and the other on measurement of

the aeration rate to determine the
role of the ammonium chloride electrolyte.

KEYWORDS:

Reduced ilmenite/aeration reactions/ammonium chloride.


REPORT 25

DUNN, J. G. and BAILEY, R
,

1986.

“Gold deposition during the roasting of pyritic gold concentrates
”.




MERIWA

Project 67




[Fi che $5, Hardcopy $30.50]

The study examined the ef f ect of chloride ion and gold telluride on the tendency of gold to vaporise and then deposit during
the roasting of pyritic
gold ores. Samples of pyritic gold concentrates
w ere doped w ith varying quantities of sodium chloride and roasted in a tube
-
f urnace at 600
0
C.
Similar studies w ere conducted in oxygen on a concentrate preleached w ith cyanide solution.

KEYWORDS:

Pyritic gold/gold extraction/gold telluride.


REPORT 33

GUPTA, A. and EREN, H
,

1987.

“On
-
line control of hydrocyclones”.

MERIWA

Project 16




[Fiche $10, Hardcopy $40.50]

This study investigates the possibility of obtaining a consistently sized product from a hydrocyclone used as a classifier by

altering th
e spigot
diameter, the vortex finder height and the inlet flowrate. Krebs D6B


12
0



839 hydrocyclone was connected to a computer which continuously
calculated the d50c value to measure the cyclones efficiency.

KEYWORDS:

Hydrocyclone control/slurry classification/silica slurry.


REPORT 39

SMITH, T. N., DUNN, J. G., MACKEY, J. C. and STEVENSON, L. R
,

1988.

“Flash smelter operating variables”.




MERIWA

Project 53




[Fiche $10, Hardcopy $53.50]

An experimental flash
reactor was developed in order to simulate the operation of the reaction shaft at the Kalgoorlie Nickel Smelter. A programme

of testing was carried out to investigate the effects of (1) mineralogy of the feed material, (2) particle size of the solid
s, (
3) addition of coal fuel to
the feed, (4) oxygen enrichment of the combustion air and (5) residence time in the reaction jet.

KEYWORDS:

Flash smelting/nickel sulphide concentrate/particle size/reaction time/oxygen enrichment/coal addition.


PUBLISHED REPORTS
-

MINERAL PROCESSING ... Cont’d.


[For overseas customers, please include an additional $50 Australian to cover bank fees, postage and handling costs.]


REPORT 46

CORRANS, I.

J. and HAYES, J
,

1989.

“The r ecover y of gol d f r om l eached cal ci ne r esi dues ( wi t h a l i t er at ur e
r evi ew of t he t echnol ogy of ext r act i on of gol d f r om r ef r act or y or es) ”.

MERI WA

Pr oj ect 72




[ Fi che $10, Har dcopy $51.50]

Ref r ac t or y py r i t e t el l ur i
de c onc ent r at es w er e ex ami ned and t he mi ner al ogi c al as s oc i at i on of r es i dual gol d w as i nv es t i gat ed. Pos s i bl e w ay s t o
i mpr ov e r ec ov er y, i nc l udi ng f i ne mi l l i ng, gr av i t y c onc ent r at i on, magnet i c s epar at i on, ac i d l eac hi ng and di ges t i on, pr es s ur e l
eac hi ng and r e
t r eat i ng
w er e ex ami ned. A r ev i ew of t he l i t er at ur e i s pr es ent ed.

KEYWORDS:

Calcine/gold/pyrite/refractory/telluride.


REPORT 51

VAUGHAN, J. P., BACIGALUPO
-
ROSE, S. and DUNNE, R
,

1990.

“Mi ner al ogy and pr ocessi ng char act er i st i cs of
ar seni cal gol d or es”.

MERI WA

Pr oj ect 87




[ Fi che $5, Har dcopy $45
]

Sampl es of t hr ee ar s eni c al gol d or es
-

Lanc ef i el d, Paddi ngt on ( Wes t er n Aus t r al i a) and Cas s i l i s ( Vi c t or i a)
-

w ere s ubj ec t ed t o f i ne mi l l i n
g f ol l ow ed by
c y ani dat i on t o det er mi ne t he amount of l eac habl e gol d, f ol l ow ed by det ai l ed mi ner al ogi c al i nv es t i gat i ons t o ex pl ai n t he di f f e
r ent r es pons es t o
l eac hi ng obt ai ned. Var i ous as pec t s of pr oc es s i ng ar s eni c al or es ar e di s c us s ed.

KEYWORDS:

Gold/ars
enopyrite/milling/leaching/mineralogy.


REPORT 54

GOND, W. Q., PARENTICH, A.,

LITTLE, L. H. and WARREN, L. J,

1990.

“ S e l e c t i v e f l o t a t i o n o f M o u n t W e l d
p h o s p h a t e o r e ”.

M ER I WA

P r o j e c t 8 0




[ F i c h e $ 1 0, H a r d c o p y $ 4 2 ]

T h i s r e p o r t d e s c r i b e s t h e u s e o f
f l o t a t i o n a s a me t h o d o f u p g r a d i n g Mt We l d p h o s p h a t e o r e. T h e Q EM* S EM t e c h n i q u e w a s u s e d t o h e l p
u n d e r s t a n d t h e f l o t a t i o n b e h a v i o u r o f t h e v a r i o u s mi n e r a l s, p a r t i c l e s a n d c o mp o s i t e p a r t i c l e s i n t h e o r e. A k e y f e a t u r e o f t
h e f l o t a t i o n w a s t h e u s e o f
s o d i u
m s i l i c a t e a s a s e l e c t i v e d e p r e s s a n t f o r t h e i r o n o x i d e s.

K E Y W O R D S:

Phosphate/ores/flotation/separation/iron/sodium silicate.


REPORT 59

DUNN, J. G., GRAHAM, J. and AVRAAMIDES, J
,

1990.

“ R e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n m i n e r a l o g y, r o a s t i n g, a n d
e x t r a c t i o n o f g o l d f r o m r e f r a c t o r y p y r i t i c a n d a r s e n o p y r i t i c g o l d o r e s a n d c o n c e n t r a t e s ”.

M ER I WA

P r o j e c t 7 8




[ F i c h e $ 1 0, C D
-
R O M $ 5 0, H a r d c o p y $
58
.50]

Several gold
-
bearing sulphidic concentrates were c
haracterised f or elemental and phase composition, particle size and surf ace area, and
mineralogically assessed by scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis. The concentrates were roasted and

the calcines
characterised bef ore being leac
hed in cyanide. The f orm of the gold in the calcines and the leached residue was determined.

KEYWORDS:

Mineralogy/roasting/gold extraction/refractory/gold ores.


REPORT 80

KRAMADIBRATA, S., JONES, I.

O. and COX, S. J. D,

1991.

“ Me c ha ni c a l pr ope r t i e s of Gol df i e l ds r oc k s w i t h
pa r t i c ul a r e mpha s i s on a n e x a mi na t i on of t he i nf l ue nc e of s a mpl e s i z e on l a bor a t or y s t r e ngt h me a s ur e me nt s ”.




M ERI WA

Pr oj e c t M1 4 9




[ Fi c h e $ 1 5, C D
-
R OM $ 5 0, H a r d c o p y $
90
]

A 4.5 MN Instron stif f servo
-
co
ntrolled testing machine was used to conduct compression tests on samples in a range of sizes and an Instron 1342
servo
-
controlled universal testing machine was used f or f racture toughness tests. A range of rock types f rom the Long Shaf t Mine (
at Kambalda
)
and the Mt Charlotte Mine (at Kalgoorlie) was tested and the rock types categorised.

KEYWORDS:

Rock/strength/mechanical/size effects/measurement.


REPORT 87

SMITH, T. N., DUNN, J. G
., WILD, M. B. and MACKEY, L. C,

1992.

“Ignition studies in flash smelting”.





MERIWA

Project M141




[Fiche $10, Hardcopy $44]

Following a review of published material on the process of ignition and flash smelting, a test programme was conducted on a p
ilot flash smelter.
The variables
examined were the type of coal added, the particle size to which it was ground and the quantity in which it was added to the
sulphide
concentrate as a fuel.

KEYWORDS:

Smelting/nickel sulphides/coal fuel/flash furnace.


REPORT 92

GRIMSEY, E. J
,

1992.

“The solubility of cobalt in fayalite slags and factors affecting cobalt recovery”.




MERIWA

Project M102




[Fiche $10, Hardcopy $46]

This study evaluates the behaviour of cobalt in non
-
ferrous smelting and converting circuits by experimentally dete
rmining the effects of silica,
alumina, lime, and magnesia on the solubility of cobalt in iron silicate slags and by applying a new equation which describes

cobalt recovery in
terms of a readily measured thermodynamic parameter and a mass balance.

KEYWORDS
:

Cobalt/recovery/
nickel
/iron/sulphide/smelting.


REPORT 97

VAUGHAN, J. P. and CORRANS, I.

J,

1993.

“Mineralogy and processing characteristics of arsenical gold ores
-

phase 2”.


MERIWA

Project M136




[Fi che $15, Hardcopy $7
7
.50]

Five ref ractory
gold ores w ere characterised according to their mineralogy and ref ractory behaviour. The mineralogy and processing response o
f
f lotation concentr ates pr oduced f rom the or es w er e investigated. Ultr af ine milling w as used to r ecover all f ine par ticulate
gold
. Gold depor tment in
individual sulphide miner als w as measur ed using electr on micr opr obe and ion micr opr obe. The sulphides in the f lotation conce
ntr ates w er e
oxidised by r oasting, pr essur e, and bacter ial methods. Gold r ecover y by cyanidation of the oxid
ised pulps w as compar ed w ith the or e miner alogy.

KEYWORDS:

Gold ores/arsenic/mineralogy/processing/refractory ores.


REPORT 105

DUNN, J. G., WARR
EN, L. J. and WEISSENBORN, P. K,

1993.

“Upgrading ultrafine iron ore”.




MERIWA

Project M128




[Fiche
$15, Hardcopy $8
6.50
]

A laboratory scale selective flocculation process, capable of recovering iron oxide from a sample of ultrafine (< 10

m) iron ore tailings containing
kaolinite and other gangue minerals, was developed. Under optimum conditions, a
feed containing 46.6% iron produced a concentrate of 63.5%
iron with an overall recovery of 58%.

KEYWORDS:

Iron ore/ultrafine/up
-
grading/flocculation.


PUBLISHED REPORTS
-

MINERAL PROCESSING ... Cont’d.


[For overseas customers,
please include an additional $50 Australian to cover bank fees, postage and handling costs.]


REPORT 113

AVRAAMIDES, J., RITCHIE, I. M., JAYASEKERA, S. and ZHENG, J. L
,

1993.

“ C o n t r o l o f c o p p e r i n g o l d
e l e c t r o w i n n i n g ”.

M E R I W A

P r o j e c t M 1 9 1




[ F i c h e $ 5,
H a r d c o p y $ 4 1
]

A f u n d a m e n t a l e l e c t r o c h e m i c a l s t u d y o f t h e d e p o s i t i o n o f g o l d a n d c o p p e r i n c y a n i d e m e d i a, a n d a s i m u l a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l e l e
c t r o w i n n i n g p r a c t i c e
u s i n g a l a b o r a t o r y
-
s c a l e c e l l, a r e d e s c r i b e d. T h e v a r i a b l e s s t u d i e d w e r e f r e e c y a n i d e
c o n c e n t r a t i o n, p H, a g i t a t i o n, t e m p e r a t u r e a n d t h e i n i t i a l r a t i o
o f g o l d t o c o p p e r i n t h e s o l u t i o n.

K E Y W O R D S:

Gold/copper/electrodeposition/differential extraction.


REPORT 115

SMITH, B. J.,
KEPERT, D. L. and PATRICK, V. A,

1993.

“ The s t udy of he t e r opol y
t ungs t a t e s f or he a vy l i qui d
mi ne r a l s e pa r a t i ons ”.

M ERI WA

Pr oj e c t M1 8 6




[ Fi c h e $ 5, H a r d c o p y $ 2 6 ]

A n u mb e r o f p o l y t u n g s t a t e s w e r e p r e p a r e d a n d s t u d i e d a s p a r t o f a s e a r c h f o r n e w, s a f e r h e a v y l i q u i d s t o r e p l a c e t h e t o x i c h e
a v y l i q u i d s s u c h a s
t e t r a b r o mo
e t h a n e a n d t h a l l i u m ma l o n a t e
-
f o r ma t e w h i c h a r e c u r r e n t l y u s e d i n mi n e r a l d e n s i t y s e p a r a t i o n s.

KEYWO R D S:

Heteropolytungstates/heavy liquids/mineral separation/speciation.


REPORT 125

TUTEJA, R., SPOTTISWOOD, D., MISRA, V. and SIEFKEN, T
,

1994.

“Studies on column flotation of sulphide ores
of Western Australia”.

MERIWA

Project M185



Al so refer Report 141 Suppl ement

[Fi che $10, Hardcopy $52.50]

The separation of arsenopyrite Au ores using a 7
-
cm diameter laboratory scale f lotation column, a
20
-
cm diameter pilot scale column, and for
some, a 250
-
cm industrial flotation column, was compared. Scale
-
up considerations were tested using the 20
-
cm pilot scale column in parallel with
the 250
-
cm plant column at the Harbour Lights gold mine plant. Th
e effects of froth height, superficial air rate, superficial feed rate, feed grade,
column diameter and other column variables were studied.

KEYWORDS:

Flotation/columns/sulphides/scale
-
up modelling/operating variables.


REPORT 135

SMITH, T. N., VERBAAN,
B., GIBBS, M. D., SHI, D. and WILD, M. B
,

1994.

“Pyrolysis and extraction of gold from
refractory sulphide concentrates”.

MERIWA

Project M192



[Fi che $10, Hardcopy $60; Suppl ementary Report Fi che $5, Hardcopy $
49
.50, CD
-
Rom $50 includes Supplementary
Report]

A process f or the treatment of ref ractory sulphidic gold concentrates by pyrolysis has been developed. The kinetics of the p
yrolysis, the treatment
of concentrate in a pilot
-
scale rotary kiln and the extraction of pyrolysed concentrate by cyanide

were investigated.

An economic analysis of the pyrolysis process showed a f avourable comparison with conventional, oxidative roasting.

KEYWORDS:

Pyrolysis/refractory gold/kinetics/cyanide extraction/economics.


REPORT 141

TUTEJA, R K
,

1994. "Modelling
and simulation of flotation columns".

MERIWA
Project M185



Supplement to Report No. 125

[Fiche $5.00, Hardcopy $35.50]

Research on column flotation scale
-
up was carried out using gold
-
bearing sulphide ores. The studies led to the development of
mathematical
equations to describe the behaviour of columns under the conditions investigated. With the use of these models it was possib
le to explain
entrainment in the froth layer. The effect of column diameter, feed rate, air rate, froth zone height,
collection zone height and frother dosage were
investigated. The response variables were recovery and grade. The results were statistically analysed and screened and conv
erted to
mathematical equations. Subsequently, computer simulations were carried ou
t using the model equations to predict the behaviour of columns
under conditions other than those studied.

KEYWORDS:

Column flotation/entrainment in froth/recovery/grade.


REPORT 144

STEAD, R. J., ALECU, I. D., PENNIFOLD, R., O’RIELLY, K. J., NG, A., O’C
ONNOR, B., LATELLA, B. and CARTER, J
,

1995.

“Manufacture of alumina wear tiles using WA raw materials”.

MERIWA

Project M207




[Fiche $5, Hardcopy $26.00]

This project developed and optimised processing routes for the production of debased high wear re
sistance alumina ceramics utilising an Alcoa
alumina. Information on each of the major stages pertinent to the processing of engineering ceramics, i.e. mixing, milling,
spray drying,
compaction, sintering and quality control, are presented.

KEYWORDS:

Alu
mina/ceramics/engineering/wear tiles.


REPORT 149

DUNN, J. G and CHAMBERLAIN, A. C
,

1995.

“The effect of stoichiometry on the ignition behaviour of

synthetic iron
-
nickel sulphides”.

MERIWA

Project M205




[Fiche $10, Hardcopy $74

CD
-
Rom $50.00]

The
ef f ect of stoichiometry of the mineral phases af f ects the ease of smelting iron
-
nickel sulphides. Violarite and pentlandite of various
stoichiometries were synthesised, and their ignition temperatures and extents of oxidation measured.

KEYWORDS:

Violarit
e/pentlandite/ignition/oxidation/flash smelting.


REPORT 180

LABROOY, S and BAX, A C, 1997. “Gold Processing Technology”

MERIWA Project M238


[CD
-
Rom $50.00]

This AMIRA project was intended to decrease cyanide plant operating costs and maintain or increase gold recovery at the same
time. The report
includes a literature review and a lengthy plant
practice

review, undertaken to assess if it could be determined
whether a plant is operating in its
optimum cost
-
efficiency area.

KEYWORDS:
Gold processing/cyanide/cost efficiency.


REPORT 183

JOHNSTON, R R M., SWIFT, J D., NGUYEN, T., SIMIC, K and FARROW J B, 1997. "Improving thickener technology".




MERIWA
Project M279




[Fiche $5.00, Hardcopy $
71
.00, CD
-
ROM $50.00]

In this study, thickener technology concepts developed by CSIRO in a preceding project were evaluated at f ull scale, using tw
o high rate thickeners
operating in parallel at the site of one
sponsor. Results were used to predict implications f or f ull scale operation, in particular the f locculation
ef f iciency and hence thickener perf ormance. The outcomes conf irmed the ability to make general predictions, and f urther work

is required.

KEYWORDS
:

Flocculation/thickener.


PUBLISHED REPORTS
-

MINERAL PROCESSING ... Cont’d.


[For overseas customers, please include an additional $50 Australian to cover bank fees, postage and handling costs.]



REPORT 192

AVRAAMIDES, J and
KINSELLA, B, 1998. "Reducing the corrosion wear of steel grinding media".





MERIWA
Project M272




[Fiche $5.00, Hardcopy $27.50]

The report concerns the first two phases of a project originally conceived in four phases; at the conclusion of the second

phase it was decided not
to pursue phases three and four. Phase 1, "Continuous laboratory scale milling tests to determine the reduction in corrosion

wear by the addition of
sodium nitrite inhibitor", was carried out using 610 kg of high carbon steel bal
ls, 25, 40 and 52 mm in diameter to grind 50 kg/h of quartzite, at a mill
density of 50% w/w. Overall weight losses were around 5 kg/trial, or just under 1% of the total ball charge, and a prelimina
ry data assessment
indicated that adding sodium nitrite i
nhibitor reduces the loss of grinding media by 12
-

15%. In Phase 2, "Comparative assessment of
commercially available corrosion inhibitors in terms of potential cost effectiveness", a range of commercially available corr
osion inhibitors were
evaluated in

terms of effectiveness and cost. The approaches followed included a comparative assessment of corrosion rates using weight l
oss
measurements of steel coupons and also steel balls immersed in synthetic and mine waters containing the inhibitor, and in som
e

cases in the
presence of sulphide ore. It was shown that a greater number of inhibitors worked well in lower salinity process waters than

in saline. The
presence of sulphide ore lowered the effect of the inhibitors and of sodium nitrite in particular.
It was found that sodium chromate and zinc
sulphate/sodium compound mixtures were very good inhibitors.

KEYWORDS:
Corrosion/steel balls/sodium nitrite/ore milling.


REPORT 194

BROSNAN, J and SNOW, B, 1998. "Recovery of silicon metal from dross".

MERIWA
Project M258




[Fiche $5.00, Hardcopy $28.50]

This project developed a separation process that would allow recovery of silicon from dross, for sale at a greatly enhanced v
alue. To recover the
silicon metal two objectives had to be realised: 1. Development of a suitable mineral flotation technique t
o recover entrained silicon metal from
dross, and 2. Development of a furnace melting process in which molten flotation
concentrate

is separated into a >99% Si product and a waste
slag. The flotation process produced a silicon
-
rich concentrate and a si
licon
-
slag tailing, achieving a concentrate grade and recovery of greater
than 90% from a dross feed containing 58 weight percent silicon. The second stage of the two
-
part separation process involved melting the
flotation concentrate, to upgrade the silic
on to a saleable product with a grade of 99 weight percent silicon. Large furnace trials produced silicon
metal in excess of 98 weight per cent silicon when corrected for iron contamination.

KEYWORDS:

Silicon metal/recovery from dross/mineral flotation.


REPORT 202

DONECKER, P., HARRISON, K., McCORMICK, P., HARROWFIELD, J and HALAIS, C, 1999. "Activated carbon recovered
from wastes of synthetic rutile operations in Western Australia".

MERIWA Project M285




[Fiche $10.00, Hardcopy $64.00]

The project u
ndertook to develop cost effective methods for the recovery of activated carbon in granular and powder forms from carbonaceou
s
wastes of f our synthetic rutile operations in WA. The work showed that activated carbon f rom the synthetic rutile plants occ
upie
s a unique market
place position in having an outstandingly high degree of mesoporosity combined with high surf ace area. This product has a hi
gh potential to be
cost competitive.

KEYWORDS:

Activated carbon/synthetic rutile/carbonaceous waste/filtration/p
rocessing.


REPORT 204

VERNON, C., WATLING, H., LAU, D., BROWN, M., PARKINSON, G., ROHL, A., LOH, J., FREIJ, S and GALE J, 1999.
"Fundamentals of gibbsite precipitation".

MERIWA
Project M278




[Fiche $15.00, Hardcopy $
8
5.
5
0, CD
-
ROM $50.00]

This module
of a larger AMIRA project was dedicated to improved understanding of the gibbsite crystallisation process. Findings include
the two
mechanisms by which gibbsite crystals may grow depending on conditions, and several f actors that govern growth rate in the
region of the spiral
mechanism.

KEYWORDS:

Gibbsite/crystallization/precipitation.


REPORT 210

REYHANI, M., DWYER, A.,

PARKINSON, G., ROSENBERG, S., HEALEY, S., ARMSTRONG, L., ROWE, S and SOIRAT, A,
2000. “Investigations at the atomic level of interactions between gibbsite and sodium oxalate in the
Bayer

process”




MERIWA Project M255




[Hardcopy $68.00, CD
-
ROM $50.00]

This research was undertaken to explain fundamental interactions between solid sodium oxalate and gibbsite in solution. A me
chanism of
formation of crystal intergrowths between solid oxalate and gibbsite was demonstrated.


KEYWORDS:
Gibbsite/sodium oxal
ate/Bayer process/flocculation.


REPORT 211

REYHANI, M., DWYER, A., FREIJ, A., PARKINSON, G., ROSENBERG, S., HEALEY, S., ARMSTRONG, L and ROWE, S,
2000. “Investigations at the atomic level of interactions between gibbsite and sodium oxalate in the
Bayer

process”
-

Extension






MERIWA Project M255A




[Hardcopy $62.50, CD
-
ROM $50.00]

The extension research was aimed at elucidating the mechanisms by which a third component induces NSH/
floc

formation and finding ways to
counteract the flocculation.


KEYW
ORDS:

Bayer process/flocculation/gibbsite.


REPORT 212

MCKINNON, A and PARKINSON, G, 2000. “Adsorption of oxalate seed poisons and its effect on crystallization”




MERIWA Project M256




[Hardcopy $26.50, CD
-
ROM $50.00]

This study was part of a
three
-
year project designed to characterize the adsorption of oxalate seed poisons (OSP) onto sodium oxalate, and the
effect of such adsorption on oxalate nucleation, crystallization and thickening. The effects of OSP were quantified, and a m
echanistic
un
derstanding of their action was sought.


KEYWORDS:

Hydrate precipitation/oxalate seed poison/alumina refining/thickening.


PUBLISHED REPORTS
-

MINERAL PROCESSING ... Cont’d.


REPORT 215

ILIEVSKI, D., RUDMAN, M., BEDELL, D., METCALFE,
G and SCHIBECI M, 1999. "Relationship between hydrodynamics
and gibbsite precipitation".

MERIWA
Project M305




[Fiche $10.00, CD
-
ROM $50.00]

Techniques developed in an earlier AMIRA
-
supported program for investigating hydrodynamics in gibbsite precipita
tion were applied in this project,
to understand mechanics of precipitation in laminar and turbulent flow regimes. Key findings relate to size of the agglomera
tion kernel and the
effects of shear rate.

KEYWORDS:

Crystallization/flow regime/precipitation.


REPORT 253

KARAKYRIAKOS, E and PATRICK, V, 2005. “Industrial applications using improved measurements of particle surface
charge”


MERIWA Project M367




[Hardcopy $61.50, CD
-
ROM $50.00]

This research

provided new information on particle surface charge in industrial liquors, through zeta potential and acoustic measurements.

The
DT1200 spectrometer was used in Australia for the first time to measure zeta potential and compared with Acoustosizer results
.

KEYWORDS:
Acoustosizer/electroacoustic spectrometer/zeta potential/gibbsite/DT1200.



REPORT 257

FLETCHER, H., GURESIN, N., KITTELTY, D., MARINOVICH, Y., McGINNITY, J., NGUYEN, T., NICOL, M and TUFFREY, N,
2006. “Improved anode and cathode processes
in base metal electrowinning”

MERIWA Project M359




[CD
-
ROM $50]

The outcomes of this project include a review of alternative anode materials, and results of tests on physical and chemical p
roperties of many
anodes supplied by project sponsors. The
report also includes results of studies on the corrosion of anodes for electrowinning of copper and zinc
and effects of additives on corrosion rates, and describes aspects of the cathodic processes affecting the quality of copper
and zinc cathodes.

KEYWORD
S:

Electrowinning/base metal/copper cathode/zinc cathode/corrosion.


REPORT 274

ZWINGMANN, N., GILKES, R J and SWASH, P M, 2008. “Iron oxyhydroxide characterization and modification in bauxite:
Tools for predicting and improving Bayer performance”.

MERIWA Project M392




[Hardcopy $49.00, CD
-
ROM $50.00]

In this study two sub
-
projects were carried out for the sponsor. The first one characterized Al
-
goethite, and the second boehmite because it can
have an impact on autocrystallisation in liquors. A
method of selective dissolution of gibbsite and kaolin without affecting boehmite was newly
developed in the project.

KEYWORDS:

Boehmite/Bayer liquor/iron oxyhydroxide/Bayer clarification/alumina processing.


REPORT 278

NICOL, M., JEFFREY, M., ZHANG, H., BARBETTI, K., STAUNTON, W and WARDELL
-
JOHNSON G, 2009. “Gold
processing technology”

MERIWA Project M384/AMIRA P420C




[Hardcopy $121, CD $50.00]

The two areas investigated in the MERIWA
-
supported modules of this AMIRA
project were the further development of the thiosulfate process for
gold leaching, and exploration of several aspects of sustainable cyanide management. The thiosulfate process offers some new

advantages. A
model to track cyanide chemistry in a circuit b
y site personnel is presented.

KEYWORDS
: Thiosulfate/gold leaching/cyanide chemistry/sustainable cyanide management.


REPORT 282

KARAKYRIAKOS, E., PATRICK, C J., and PATRICK V A, 2010. “Measuring particle surface charge and particle
interactions in
process liquors”

MERIWA Project M390




[Hardcopy $96, CD
-
ROM $50.00]

This 3 year project used the DT1200 instrument to measure zeta potential for solids in caustic solutions up to 10m NaOH. It
showed that rheology
is capable of reflecting changes in zet
a potential of dispersions in concentrated caustic liquors, and that colour of a red mud slurry can be used to
determine its relative degree of flocculation, among numerous other results.

KEYWORDS:

Bayer liquor
/
red muds
/
zeta potential
/
liquor rheology
/
elec
trical double layer.


REPORT 288

V
AN

E
MDEN
, B. and P
ATRICK,

V.A., 2010
.


En h a n c e d e l e c t r o s t a t i c s e p a r a t i o n b y r e d u c i n g s t a i n s o n HT r o l l
s e p a r a t o r s.


M ERI WA P r o j e c t

M 4 0 8

[
H a r d c o p y $ 4 7.0 0, C D $ 5 0.0 0
]

T
h i s s t u d y i d e n t i f i e d w a y
s

t o p r e v e n t h i g h r e s i s t a n c e s t a i n s f or mi n g o n e l e c t r o s t a t i c r o l l s i n mi n e r a l s a n d p r o c e s s i n g. Co a t i n g s p r e p a r e d f r o m f i n e
t u n g s t e n c a r b i d e i n a r a n g e o f p o l y me r s w e r e t e s t e d i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y a n d t r i a l e d t o p r o d u c e s t a i n s a n d d e t e r mi n e t h e w e a r r e
s i s t a n c e

o f c o a t i n g s.

K E Y W O R D S
: Mi n e r a l

s a n d

p r o c e s s i n g/h i g h t e n s i o n r o l l s/e l e c t r o s t a t i c s e p a r a t i o n/r e s i s t a n c e s t a i n s/

t
u n g s t e n

c a r b i d e.


REP ORT 2 8 9

ROBINSON, D.J., 2010

Improving solvent extraction technology.


MERIWA Project M401

[CD $50.00]

This study focussed on translating developments in fundamental understanding into outcomes for SX plant operations. Highlight
s included the
development of probes for mixer
-
settler characterisation, improvements in CFD modelling capabilities, use of an impr
oved Lewis cell and on
-
site
investigations.

KEYWORDS
: Solvent extraction, mixer
-
settler, CFD modelling, Lewis cell.


REPORT 291 JEFFREY, M., ZHANG, H., BENVIE, B., MARTIENS, E., PROMMER, H., SWART, F., GRESKOWIAK, J., JOHNSTON, C.,
KAKSONEN, A.,
PARR, J. and ROBERTS, P, 2011
.


In
-
place leaching of oxidised gold ores
.”

MERIWA Project M409

[CD $50.00]

This study developed novel systems for recovering gold from currently uneconomic oxide gold resources in Australia by using a

modified
in situ

leaching method. Three lixiviant systems were studied, and gold was recovered using an ion exchange resin. A literature revie
w identified microbial
processes which may hold potential for leaching of oxide gold ores.

KEYWORDS:
Gold oxide ores, in situ leac
hing, alternative lixiviants, ion exchange recovery, microbial processes.




PUBLISHED REPORTS
-

MINERAL PROCESSING ... Cont’d.



REPORT 295 KARAKYRIAKOS, E., and PATRICK V A, 2012
. “
Fine particle agglomeration in process slurries.”

MERIWA Project M416

[CD $50.00]

In t
his study
zeta potentials in
high sulfide pul
p

densities at high ionic strengths were measured for the first time. Fine particle agglomeration of
solids including pyrite, chalcopyrite, pentla
ndite, quartz and iron oxide we
re studied

to identify the conditions that could increase agglo
meration.

KEYWORDS:
Zeta potential, ionic strength, agglomeration, sulfides, oxides.