Microelectronics and VLSI Design - Chandigarh University

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Microelectronics and VLSI Design













COURSE SCHEME


For

MASTER OF ENGINEERING (Hons.)

(

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGG.
(
WITH
SPECIALIZATION
Microel
ectronics and VLSI Design
)

(REGULAR)


(SEMESTER SYSTEM)

YEAR 201
3
-
201
4

Batch 201
3



S.No

Subject
code

Subject

Contact hrs/

Marks

Credits

Microelectronics and VLSI Design






SEMESTER

I

L

T

P

INT

EXT

TOTAL


1.

ECT 501

Advanced
Engineering
Mathematics

4

0

0

4
0

6
0

100

4

2.

ECT 512

Embedded
Systems

4

0

0

4
0

6
0

100

4

3.

ECT 513

Advanced

VLSI
Design

4

0

0

4
0

6
0

100

4

4.

ECT 51
X

Elective I

4

0

0

4
0

6
0

100

4

5.

ECT 51
X

Elective II

4

0

0

40

60

100

4

6.

ECP 51
4

Lab I

0

0

4

40

60

100

2

7.

ECT 505

SEMINAR

2

0

0

100

0

100

1

8.

CME 601

Psychology of
teaching learning

3

2

0

40

60

100

4



Total

2
5

2

4

38
0

42
0

8
00

2
7

SEMESTER
-
II

9.

ECT 56
5

VLSI Signal
Processing


4

0

0

40

60

100

4

10.

ECT 56
6

VLSI
Architectures


4

0

0

40

60

100

4

11.

ECT 5X
X

Elective III

4

0

0

40

60

100

4

12.

ECT 5X
X

Elective IV

4

0

0

40

60

100

4

13.

ECT 5X
X

Elective V

4

0

0

40

60

100

4

14.

ECP 554

Lab II

0

0

4

40

60

100

2

15.

ECT 599

SEMINAR

2

0

0

100

0

100

1

16.

CME 602

Curriculum and
Instruction

3

2

0

40

60

100

4



Total

2
5

2

4

38
0

42
0

8
00

2
7

SEMESTER
-
III











1
7
.

ECP 601

Research Project


100

0

100

4

18
.

ECT 602

SEMINAR

2

0

0

100

0

100

1

19
.

ECT 60X

Elective VI

4

0

0

40

60

100

4

20
.

CME 603

Education
Technology

3

2

0

40

60

100

4

21
.

CME 604

Research
Methodology

4

0

0

40

60

100

4













Total

13

2

0

320

180

5
00

1
7

SEMESTER
-
IV

22
.

ECT 6
5
1

Thesis





20




Total





20

Microelectronics and VLSI Design


Specialization: Microelectronics and VLSI Design


Elective I

& II



S.No

Subject code

Subject

Credits

1.

ECT 515

IC Fabrication
Technology

4

2.

ECT 516

Synthesis Using HDLS

4

3.

ECT 517

ASICs and FPGAs

4

4.

ECT 518

Sensor Technology &
MEMS

4


ELECTIVE III, IV & V



1.

ECT 56
7

Design of Analog/Mixed
Signal VLSI Circuits

4

2.

ECT 56
8

Testing and Fault
Tolerance of VLSI
Circuits

4

3.

ECT 56
9

MOS Device Modeling

4

4.

ECT 5
70

Optical VLSI

4

5.

ECT 57
1

Digital VLSI Design

4

6.

ECT 57
2

Low Power

VLSI Design

4

ELECTIVE VI



1.

ECT 606

RF IC Design

4

2.

ECT 607

High Speed VLSI Design

4























Microelectronics and VLSI Design


ECT
-
501

ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS


L T C













4 0 4

Max Marks: 60

Contact Hours:48

Course objectives



To reinforce the mathematical foundation with advanced topics.



To enable the student to appreciate the engineering aspect of mathematics.



To equip the student with tools to confront continual mathematical challenges
.


Un
it1

Review of FT & it’s Proof, properties of FT

-
:

Fourier Transform, Fourier Integral Theorem,
Complex Form of Fourier Integral . DFT and its inverse, Properties of DFT, Inverse Fast
Fourier Transform, Wavelet Transform, Multi resolution Analysis by the w
avelet method.













(12)



Unit
-
II

Z
-
Transform, Introduction, Properties of Z
-

Transform, Evaluation of inverse Z


Transform,
Applications.












(8)

Conformal Mapping, Introduction, Linear mapping, Bi
-
linear mapping, Schwarz
-
Christoffel
transformation.









(7)



Unit
-
III

Vector spaces. Subspaces, Linear independence, Basis, Dimension, Finite dimensional vector
spaces,
Direct sum. Vector space of matrices. Linear Transformation, Matrix representation
of linear transformation. Change of basis.







(8)

Calculus Of Variations : Euler
-
Lagrange’s differential equation, Brachistochrone problem
and other application
s. Isoperimetric problem, Hamilton’s Principle and Lagrange’s
Equation.







(10)

Convolution
: Properties of convolution, Circular convolution, Deconvolution














(3)


Recommended Books:


1. Higher Engineering Mathematics
-

by Dr. B.S. Grewal; Khanna Publishers

2. Fourier Series and Boundary Values Problems
-

by Churchill; McGraw Hill.

3. Complex Variables & Applications
-

by Churchill; McGraw Hill.


4
. Calculus of Variations
-

by Elsgole; Addison Wesley.

5. Calculus of Variations
-

by Galfand & Fomin; Prentice Hall.


6. The Use of Integral Transforms
-

by I.N. Sneddon., Tata McGraw Hill



Microelectronics and VLSI Design


ECT 512




EMBEDDED SYSTEMS




L T C


4 0 4

Max Marks: 60

Contact Hours:48


Course objectives



To understand embedded processing concepts and embedded processors.



To understand Real time operating system and its
relevance to embedded systems.



To understand system design and emulation concepts.


UNIT I


Embedded Processing:
Introduction to Embedded Computing, Difference between
Embedded and General
-
Purpose Computing, Characterizing Embedded Computing,
Design Philos
ophies,
RISC, CISC, VLIW versus superscalar, VLIW versus DSP Processors,
Role of the Compiler,
Architectural structures, The datapath, Registers and Clusters,
Memory Architecture, Branch
architecture, Speculation and prediction, Prediction in
the embedded
domain, Register File
Design, Pipeline Design, the control unit, control
registers.












(12
)

Embedded Processors:
Microprocessor versus Microcontroller architecture, ARM
architecture,
Embedded Cores, Soft and Hard Cores, Architectu
re of Configurable
Microblaze soft core,
Instruction set, Stacks and Subroutines, Microblaze Assembly
Programming, Input
-
Output
interfacing, GPIO, LCD interfacing, Peripherals, DDR
Memory, S DRAM, Microblaze interrupts,
Timers, Exceptions, Bus Interfacing,

DMA,
On
-
chip Peripheral bus (OPB), OPB Arbitration,
OPB DMA.




(12
)

UNIT II

RTOS and Application design:
Programming language choices, Traditional C and
ANSI C,
C++ and Embedded C++, matlab, Embedded JAVA, Embedded C
extensions, Real time
operating systems, Embedded RTOS, Real time process
scheduling, structure of real time operating system, Memory management in
Embedded operating system, operating system
overhead, interprocess communication
mechanisms, File systems in Embedded devices, Dif
ferent types of locks, Semaphores,
Application studies with Vxworks, Montavista Linux etc.





(12
)

UNIT III

System Design and Simulation:
System
-
on
-
a
-
Chip (SoC), IP Blocks and Design
Reuse,
Processor Cores and SoC, Non
-
programmable accelerators, r
econfigurable logic,
multiprocessing
on a chip, symmetric multiprocessing, heterogeneous
multiprocessing, use of simulators,
Compilers, Loaders, Linkers, locators, assemblers,
Libraries, post run optimizer, debuggers,
profiling techniques, binary utilities
, linker
script, system simulation, In Circuit Emulation,
Validation and verification, Hardware
Software partitioning, Co
-
design.








(12
)

Microelectronics and VLSI Design


Recommended Books

1.

Wolf, W., High
-
Performance Embedded Computing Architectures, Applications,
and
Methodologies, Morgan Kaufman Publishers (2007).

2.

Heath, S., Embedded Systems Design, Elsevier Science (2003).

3.

Fisher, 1.A., Faraboschi, P. and Young, C., Embedded Computing
-

A VLIVV
Approach to Architecture, Compilers and Tools, Morgan Kaufman
(2005)

4.

Simo
n, D.E., An Embedded Software Primer, Dorling Kindersley (2005).




Microelectronics and VLSI Design


ECT
-
5
1
3




ADVANCED
VLSI DESIGN





L T C






4 0 4

Max Marks: 60

Contact Hours:48


Course objectives



To facilitate the student with
VLSI design and simulation procedures.



To understand the working and results of various digital circuits and components.



To understand various stages in design of VLSI.

UNIT I

I
ntroduction to VLSI:

Introduction to solid state electronics, CMOS Logic, VLSI
Design Flow.




(2)

MOS FET theory: Ideal V
-
I Characteristics, C
-
V Characteristics, Non
-
ideal I
-
V
Characteristics,










(4
)

CMOS processing technology: P
-
well, N
-
well, Twin Tub and silicon on Insulator
processing, layout Design rules, CMOS
Process enhancement.




(4
)

CMOS Circuit and Logic design:

Combinational Circuit Design: Introduction, circuit Families like static CMOS, Ratioed
circuits, CVSL, Dynamic Circuits, Pass Transistor circuit,.






(3
)

Sequential Circuit design:
Sequencing methods, Max
-
Delay constraints, Min
-
delay
constraints, time borrowing, and clock skew.







(3
)

Data Path Subsystems: Adders, Sub tractors, Comparators, flip
-
flops, Shifter, counters,

Multiplie
r






(6
)


UNIT II

Design Methodology
&
Tools:

Design Methodology: Introduction, structured Design, Programmable logic, fully Custom
design, CAD tools in VLSI Design Process.








(6
)

Floor Planning: Introduction, Block Placement
and Channel Definitions, Global Routing,
Switchbox routing, Power Distribution, clock Distribution.


(6
)

Architecture Design: Introduction, HDLs, High level synthesis, Logic Synthesis.





(6
)

UNIT III

VLSI Simulation and Algorithm:

Hierarchy of simulation tools, Switch level simulations, Layout synthesis, Placements
and routing algorithms, spice simulation.




(
8
)

Microelectronics and VLSI Design


Recommended Books:

1.

CMOS Vlsi design by Neil H.E. Weste, David
Harris, Ayan Banerjee
(Pearson Education)

2.

Modern VLSI Design by Wayne Wolf (Pearson education)

3.

FPGA
-
Based system design by Wayne Wolf (Pearson Education)

4.

Introduction to VLSI Systems by Mead and Conway (Addison wisely)

5.

VLSI Desiogn by Puckneel.






Microelectronics and VLSI Design


CME
-
6
0
1

PSYCHOLOGY OF TEACHING LEARNING




L T C












3 2

4









Max. Marks: 60

Contact Hours:48

Course objectives



Understand the teaching models and instructional objectives



Understand the concept of learning and assessment



Understand the psychology of learner



Understand the classroom management


UNIT
-
I

Teaching Models
:

Concept of teaching, Phases of teaching


pre interactive, interactive and
post interactive of teaching.

Ba
sic teaching models
--

Glaser’s Model, Computer Based
Teaching Model (Davis, 1965) and interaction Model (Flander 1960) .


Instructional objectives
:
Concept, Bloom`s Taxon
omy
-

Cognitive, Psychomotor and
affective

,
benefits of writing instructional
objectives




(16
)




UNIT
-
II

Varieties of Learning and conditions of learning:

Learning
-
concept and characteristics,
varieties of learning
-

Verbal information; Intellectual skills
-

concept learning, rule learning,
problem solving; Motor skills; attitude; Cognitive strategies. Conditions of learning.






Assessment
:
Evaluating learning outcomes
-

Cognitive, Psychomotor and affective
.
















(16
)





UNIT
-
III

Entry behaviour:
Concept and purposes
,
Learners’ characteristics
-

Individual differences
with respect to
Physical, Cognitive (Intelligences, learning styles, and creativity),
Personality
differences
-

Introvert vs Extrovert, Big five factor theory. Emotion intelligence and their
assessment.








St
udent motivation:
Motivation concept, types
-

Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivation,
Techniques of motivating students,











Classroom management:
Concept, Classroom problems and strategies for management














(16
)










Microelectronics and VLSI Design


R
ecommended

Books

1.

Smith, MC & Pourchott, T (1988), Adult Learning & Development: Perspectives
from Education Psychology, Lawrence Erlbaum Associate Inc.

2.

Tennant, M (1997), Psychology of Adult Learning, UK, Routledge.

3.

Knowles, Malcolm (1990), The A
dult Learner


A neglected specie. Houston,
London: Gulf Publishing Company .

4.

Lovell , R . Bernard (1987), Adult Learning, London & Sydney: Croom Helm.

5.

Brown, FG (1976), Principles of Educational psychological Testing Rinehart and
Winston, NY.

6.

Bloom, BS (
1974) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Book 1: Cognitive Domain,
Longman Group Ltd. London.

7.

Ebel, RL and Frisbie , DA (1991), Essentials of Educational Measurement, New
Delhi, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. ,

8.

Gronlund, NE and Linn RL, (1990), Measure
ment and Evaluation in Teaching, New
York, Macmillan Publishing company

9.

Hopkins, KD Stanley, JC and Hopkins BR, (1990), Educational and psychological
Measurement and Evaluation , USA , Allyn and Bacon

10.

Tuckman, BW, (1975), Measurement Educational Outcomes:

Fundamentals of
Testing, NY: Hardourt Brace Jovanvich Inc.

11.

Wilson Bob (1997), The Systematic Design of Training Courses , Vol. I. Parthenon
Publishing

12.

DeCecco, JP and Crawford, W. Psychology of Teaching and Learning. Prentice Hall

13.

Bloom, BS (1974) Taxono
my of Educational Objectives, Book 1: Cognitive Domain,
Longman Group Ltd. London.

14.

Gagne, R and Briggs, L.J (!978) Instructional Design. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

15.

Wilson Bob (1997), The Systematic Design of Training Courses , Vol. I. Parthenon
Publishin
g

16.

Cole, PG and Chan, LKS teaching Principles and practices. New york: Prentice Hall














Microelectronics and VLSI Design


ECP


514




VLSI LAB




L

T

C











0

0

2

List of Experiments

1.

To Study the basic features of Xilinx and Design Methodologies used for digital
design.

2.

Design, Synthesis and Simulation of Basic Gates.

3.

Design, Synthesis and Simulation of following.

a)

Half Adder

b)

Full Adder

4.

Design, Synthesis and Simulation of following.

a)

4:1 Multiplexer

b)

1:4 Demultiplexer

5.

Design, Synthesis and Simulation of following.

a)

SR

flip
-
flop

b)

Jk flip
-
flop

c)

T flip
-
flop

6.

Design, Synthesis and Simulation of following.

a)

SR flip
-
flop

b)

J
K

flip
-
flop

c)

T flip
-
flop

7.

Design, Synthesis and Simulation of 4
-
bit up and 4
-
bit up down counter.

8.

Design, Synthesis and Simulation of 4
-
bit parallel to serial co
nvertor.

9.

Design, Synthesis and Simulation of 4
-
bit serial to parallel convertor.

10.

Minor Project
-

Design, Synthesis and Simulation of 4
-
bit Airthmatic Logic Unit.




Microelectronics and VLSI Design





SEMESTER
-
2















Microelectronics and VLSI Design


ECT 5
6
5


VLSI
SIGNAL
PROCESSING






L T C


4 0 4

Max Marks: 60

Contact Hours:48


Course objectives

The students will be able to

1.

Analyse the DSP systems’ features.

2.

Design the optimum architecture for various signal processing algorithms on VLSI
based platforms.

3.

Optimize the algorithms for fast and efficient calculation required for VLSI based
Signal processing systems.


Introduction:
Introduction to DSP Systems, Terminating and Non
-
Terminating,
Representation of DSP programs, Data Flow graphs (DF
Gs), Single rate and multi rate DFGs,
Iteration bound, Loop, Loop Bound, Iteration rate, Critical loop, Critical path, Area
-
Speed
-
Power trade
-
offs, Precedence constraints, Acyclic Precedence graph, Longest Path Matrix
(LPM) and Minimum Cycle Mean (MCM) Alg
orithms, Pipelining and parallel processing of
DSP Systems, Low Power Consumption.







(8)

Algorithmic Transformations:
Retiming, Cut
-
set retiming, Feed
-
Forward and Feed
-
Backward, Clock period minimization, register minimization, Unfolding, Sample period

reduction, Parallel processing, Bit
-
serial, Digit
-
serial and Parallel Architectures of DSP
Systems, Folding, Folding order, Folding Factor, Folding Bi
-
quad filters, Retiming for
folding, Register Minimization technique, Forward Backward Register Allocatio
n technique.

(9)

Unit
-

II


Systolic Architecture Design and Fast Convolution:
Systolic architecture design
methodology, Projection vector, Processor Space vector, Scheduling vector, Hardware
Utilization efficiency, Edge mapping, Design examples of systoli
c architectures, Cook
-
Toom
Algorithm and Modified Cook
-
Toom Algorithm, Wniograd Algorithm and Modified
Winograd Algorithm, Iterated Convolution, Cyclic Convolution.




(14)


Unit
-

III


Algorithm Strength Reduction:
Introduction, Parallel FIR
filters, Polyphase decomposition,
Fast FIR filters Algorithms, Discrete Cosine Transform and Inverse Discrete Cosine
Transform, Algorithm
-
Architecture Transformation, DIT Fast DCT, Pipelined and Parallel
Recursive and Adaptive Filters, Look
-
Ahead Computati
on, Look
-
Ahead Pipelining,
Decompositions, Clustered Look
-
Ahead Pipelining, Scattered Look
-
Ahead pipelining,
Parallel processing in IIR Filters, Combining Pipelining and Parallelism.



(10)


Scaling and Round
-
off Noise:
Introduction, State variab
le description of Digital Systems,
Scaling and Round
-
off Noise Computation, Slow
-
Down Approach, Fixed
-
point digital filter
implementation.











(7)


Microelectronics and VLSI Design


Recommended Books:

1. Parhi, K.K., VLSI Digital Signal Processing Systems: Design and Implementation,
John
Wiley (2007).

2. Oppenheim, A.V. and Schafer, R.W., Discrete
-
Time Signal Processing, Prentice Hall
(2009) 2nd ed.

3. Mitra, S.K., Digital Signal Processing. A Computer Based Approach, McGraw Hill
(2007)3rd ed.

4. Wanhammar, L., DSP Integrated Circuits
, Academic Press (1999).






























Microelectronics and VLSI Design


ECT 5
6
6
VLSI ARCHITECTURES


L T C











4 0 4

Max Marks: 60

Contact Hours:48


Course objectives



To appreciate the
differences between RISC and CISC.



To understand pipeline processing and memory architecture.



To facilitate the student with concepts


UNIT I

Complex Instruction Set Computers (CISC):
Instruction Set, Characteristics and
Functions,
Addressing Modes, Instru
ction Formats, Architectural Overview, Processor
Organization,
Regis
.
ter Organization, Instruction Cycle, Instruction Pipelining, Pentium
Processor, PowerPC Processor.








(10
)

Reduced Instruction Set Computers (RISC):
Instruction execution Ch
aracteristics,
Register
Organization, Reduced Instruction Set, Addressing Modes, Instruction Formats,
Architectural
Overview, RISC Pipelining, Motorola 88510, MIPS R4650, RISC Vs. CISC.














(8
)

UNIT II

Pipeline Processing:
Basic Concepts, Classifi
cation of Pipeline Processors, Instruction
and
Arithmetic Pipelining: Design of Pipelined Instruction Units, Pipelining Hazards and
Scheduling, Principles of Designing Pipelined Processors.






(6
)

Memory Architectures:
Memory hierarchy design, Multiprocessors, thread level parallelism
and
multi
-
core architectures, I10 buses. Arithmetic: Fixed point, Floating point and
residue
arithmetic, Multiply and Divide Algorithms.






(9
)

Issues in arithmetic system design, Issues
in the applications (optimizing the hardware


software interface), AM', reconfigurable computing, Future'microprocessor architectures.

(5
)


UNIT III

Superscaler Processors:
Overview, Design Issues, PowerPC, Pentium.




(10)



Microelectronics and VLSI Design


Recommended Books

1.

Patterson, D.A. and Hennessy, J., Computer Architecture: A Quantittthve
Approach, Morgan Kaufmann (2003)3
rd

ed.

2.

Stallings, W., Computer Organization and Architecture: Designing for
Performance, Prentice Hall (2003) 7th ed.

3.

Patterson, D.A. and Hennessy,J.,
Computer Organizat ion and Design,
Elsevier(2004). 3
r4
ed.

4.

Flynn, M.J. and Oberman, S.F., Advanced Computer Arithmetic Design, Wiley
(2001).

5.

Parhami, B., Computer Arithmetic Algorithms and Hardware Design, Oxford
(2000).




Microelectronics and VLSI Design


CME
-
6
0
2
CURRICULUM & INSTRUCTION





L T C










3

2

4









Max. Marks: 60

Contact Hours:48

Course objectives



Understand the engineering education in India



Understand the
c
oncept of curriculum

design and development



Understand the instructional design, delivery and evaluation



Know the skills required for instructional delivery



Understand the steps in setting question papers



Understand the process of designing performance te
st



Understand the parameters for course, teacher and teaching evaluation


.

UNIT
-
I

Engineering
education in India
:
Craftsmen training, Technician education and professional
engineering education
-

Historical development and status.



Curriculum
Design and D
evelopment:
Concept of curriculum, curriculum vs syllabus,
curriculum development process
-

stages
,
models of curriculum development based on various
approaches


subject specialization
.

Need Analysis,
Curriculum Design
, Specifying
curriculum objectives, various approach
to Curriculum Design
.
Norms and standards for
space, infrastructure, equipment,

libraries, computer centre, teaching staff, etc.
; Curriculum
Implementation
-
factors for effective implementation; Curriculu
m Evaluation


CIPP Model













(16
)





UNIT
-
II

Instructional Design:
Task analysis
-

Concept and rules
, Instructional objectives
-

Concept,
domains, cognitive, psychomotor and affective. Instruc
tional Methods and writing of
instructional objectives
-

large group (Lecture), small group problem based learning (Group
discussion, case study, demonstration, Tutorial and project work, simulation and games, brain
storming) and individualize (CAI
-
Computer

assisted instruction)


characteristics, advantages
and disadvantages. Instructional media
-

Concept, types
-
print and non
-
print


characteristics,
advantages and disadvantages.










Lesson planning:
Concept
, format

and process
.






Organization of instructional resources
-

procuring or developing exercise, activities,
assignments, tests, media.







(
16
)




UNIT
-
III

Instructional Delivery:
Skills for instructional delivery, Motivating students,
Communication, Questioning,
Explaining, Stimulus variation, feedbacks, Board writing.
Student engagement.









Instructional Evaluation:
Student assessment

evaluation
-

Concept, types and
techniques
setting question papers, performance tests, Assessing objectives in affective domain; course
evaluation, teacher evaluation and teaching evaluation.





(16
)




Microelectronics and VLSI Design


R
ecommended

Books

1.

Hamidi, MB and Ravishankar, S., Curriculum Development
and Educational
Technology: New Delhi, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

2.

Hass, G, Bondi, J and Wiles, J.,. Curriculum Planning


A New Approach, Boston:
Allyn and Bacon, Inc.

3.

Taba, Hilda, Curriculum Development


Theory and Practice. Harcourt, Brace and
World

4.

Alberty, HB and Alberty, EJ, Reorganizing the High School Curriculum, New Delhi
Light and Life Publishers

5.

Romiszowski, Designing Instructional System, Kogan Page, London

6.

Tanner D and Tanner L, Curriculum Development; McMillan Publishing Company,
New York

7.

T
owney, D., Curriculum Evaluation Today: Trends and Implications, MacMillan
Education Ltd., London.

8.

Wilson Bob (1997), The Systematic Design of Training Courses , Vol. I. Parthenon
Publishing































Microelectronics and VLSI Design




SEMESTER
-

3























Microelectronics and VLSI Design


CME
-
604


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY



L T C










4 0 4










Max. Marks: 60









Contact Hours : 48


Course Objectives:












Formulize the research / project proposals.



Analyse the parameters involved in the research.



Test the hypothesis formulated.

Unit


I


Introduction:

Nature and objectives of research,
Types of research,
, Research methods
vs
Methodology, Types of research , Descriptive
vs
. Analytical, Applied
vs
. Fundamental,
Quantitative
vs
. Qualitative, Conceptual
vs
. Empirical
criteria of good research, defining the
research problem,

Preparation and presentation of research proposals, Selec
tion of thrust area
of research, defining scope of the research problem.






(7)



Research Formulation

and Design
:
D
efining and formulating the research problem, selecting
the problem, Necessity of defining the problem, Importance of li
terature review in defining
a problem,
Research Design:

Meaning and need for research design, Features of a good design,

important concepts relating to research design , Observation and Facts, Laws and Theories,
Prediction and explanation, Induction, Deduc
tion, Development of Models. Developing a
research plan, Exploration, Descript
ion, Diagnosis, Experimentation,
Determining
experimental and sample designs.











(9)


Unit


II


Sample

Design
s
:
Sampling and its need
,
criteria of
selecting a sampling procedure,
characteristics of a good sample designs, Diffe
rent types of sample designs.
Data Collection
and analysis:
Collection of Primary data and secondary data, Data Processing and Analysis
strategies













(7)





Introduction to Statistical Analysis:

Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion,
Random
Variables and Probability
, Mathematical Expectation, Probability distributions, Binomial,
Poisson, Geometric, Exponential, Normal and log
-
norm
al distributions.







Hypothesis Testing:

Tests of Significance based on normal, t and chi
-
square






distributions, Analysis of variance technique
s.




Correlation and Regression:

Introduction to growth curves and multiple regression,
Linear
regression, Least square principle and fitted models, Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient, Rank
Correlation, Lines of regression










(11)




Unit


III


Reporting writing:
Structure and components of scientific reports,

types of report
,
technical
reports and thesis
, significance
, different steps in the preparation,

layout, structure a
nd
Language of typical reports
, Illustrations and tables
-

Bibliography, referencing and footnotes
,
Microelectronics and VLSI Design


oral presentation Planning
,

preparation,

practice,

making presentation, use of visual aids,

importance of effective communication









(9
)


Application of results and ethics


Environmental impacts,

ethical issues,

ethical committees, commercialization Intellectual
property rights

and patent law
, Trade Related aspects of Intellectual Property Rights,

reproduction of published material, plagiarism,

citation and ackno
wledgement
,reproducibility and accountability.





(5)



Recommended Books:

1.

Dowdy, S., Wearden, S. and Chilko, D., Statistics for Research, Wiley Series (2004)

2.

Walpole, R.E., Myers, R.H., Myers, S
.L. and Ye, K., Probability and Statistics for
Engineers and Scientists, Pearson Education (2002).

3.

Kothari C.R., Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques, New Age
International Publishers, 2
nd

Edition.

4.

Bordens K.S., Abbott B.B., Research and Design Me
thods, 6
th

Edition, TMH
Publishing Company Limited.

5.

Johnson, R.A, Probability and Statistics by , PHI
-
2
nd

edition

6.

Trivedi K.S., Probability & Statistics With Reliability, Queuing And Computer
Science Applications , 2
nd

Edition, John Wiley & Sons

7.

Meyer,
P.L., Introduction to Probability & Statistical, Applications, Oxford, IBH

8.

Johnson, R.A., Probability and Statistics, PHI, New Delhi

9.

Krishnaswami, K.N., Sivakumar, A. I. and Mathirajan, M., Management Research
Methodology, Pearson Education: New Delhi

10.

Zikm
und, W.G., Business Research Methods, 7
th

Edition, Thomson South
-
Western

11.

Cooper, D. R. and Schindler, Business Research Method , P.S Tata McGraw Hill,
New Delhi

2
nd

edition (2010)


















Microelectronics and VLSI Design


CME
-
603


EDUCATION TECHNOLOGY



L T C











3 2 4









Max. Marks: 60









Contact Hours : 48


Course Objectives:












Understand the concept of educational technology.



Understand the usage of print and non print materials
for effective teaching.



Understand the concept, design of various learning modules for normal as well as
virtual class room teaching

UNIT
-
I

Educational Technology:

Definition, distinction between hardware and software approach,
combination approach. Technology of education and technology in education.













Print materials
-

Text books, Laboratory manuals,

Self learning modules, Handouts
-

Plannin
g, designing and development. Evaluation of print materials.




Non print materials
-

Power point presentations, video films, multimedia packages and
animation & Simulation
--

Planning, designing and development. Evaluation of non
-
print
materials.












(1
6
)


UNIT
-
II

Designing Online courses:
Principles of planning online courses, Learning

Management
Systems
-

Moodle.

Video conferencing and tele
-
conferencing





(16
)


UNIT
-
III

Virtual Classrooms and laboratories:
Concepts and consideration for virtual classroom and virtual
laboratories.










Use of Digital Resources:
Open courseware
-

NPTEL, MIT, Youtube, coursera, etc. National
Knowledge networks,
E
-
Repository
,
Digital libraries.




Integration of print and non print materials in teaching
-
learning process.


(16
)











Microelectronics and VLSI Design


Recommended Books

1.

Sampath, K et al., Introduction to Educational Technology, New Delhi:
Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd.,

1981.

2.

Dale, Edgar, Audio Visual Methods in Teaching. Hinsdale, Illinois: The
Dryden Press Inc.

3.

Brown, JW: Lewis, RB and Harcleroad, FF, AV Instruction


Technology
Media and Methods, New York: Mc Graw Hill Book Company

4.

Sodhi, GS and Dutt, S. Teaching


L
earning


A Process Approach,
Chandigarh: Samir Publishers

5.

Wittich, WA and Shuller, CF. Instructional Technology


its nature and use,
New York : Harper & Row Publishers

6.

Kemp, JE and Smellie, DC; Planning, Producing and Using Media’. Sixth
Edition. NY:

Harper and Row, Publisher, Inc..

7.

Horton, Williams Designing Web Based Training. John Wiley and sons, 2003

8.

Khan, Badrul Web Based Training. Educational technology Publication, 2000

9.

Kevin K Fiedler Web Based training. Southwest Research Institute, 1999

10.

NIIT, Interactive Communication through Multimedia. Prentice Hall of India
Pvt. Ltd., 2004






























Microelectronics and VLSI Design









ELECTIVE I & II


















Microelectronics and VLSI Design


ECT
-
515

IC FABRICATION TECHNOLOGY

L T
C





4 0 4

Max Marks: 60

Contact Hours : 48


Course Objectives



To understand various stages of IC fabrication in depth.



To understand techniques and procedures involved at each stage.



To appreciate sub micron process techniques

UNIT I

Crystal Growth and Wafer Preparation:
Electronic Grade Silicon, Czochralski
Crystal
Growing, Silicon Shaping, Processing Considerations.





(4)

Epitaxy:
Vapour Phase Epitaxy
-

Basic Transport Processes and Reaction Kinetics, Doping
and
Auto
-
Dopin
g, Equipments and Safety Considerations, Buried Layers, Epitaxial
Defects,
Molecular Beam Epitaxy
-

Equipment Used, Film Characteristics, SOI Structures.














(8)

UNIT II

Diffusion:
Models of Diffusion in Solids, Fick's laws for Diffusion, Measurem
ent
Techniques,
Fast Diffusion in Silicon, Diffusion in Polycrystalline Silicon and SiO2.














(5)

Oxidation:
Growth Mechanism and Kinetics, Silicon Oxidation Model, Interface
Considerations,
Orientation Dependence of Oxidation Rates Thin

Oxides. Oxidation
Technique and Systems
-

Dry and Wet Oxidation, Plasma Oxidation, Masking Properties of
Si02.













(
9
)

UNIT III

Lithography:
Optical Lithography
-

Optical Resists, Contact and Proximity Printing,
Projection
Printing, Electron Lithography
-

Resists, Mask generation, Electron Optics
-

Roaster Scan and Vector Scan, variable beam shape, X
-
ray lithography
-

Resists and
Printing, X
-
ray sources and
masks, Ion
-
Lithography.





(10
)

Etching:
Reactive plasma
etching, AC and DC plasma excitation, plasma properties,
chemistry and surface interactions, feature size control and an isotropic etching, ion
enhanced and induced
etching, properties of etch processes. Reactive
-

Ion
-

Beam


Etching, Specific etch proce
sses: PolySi/Polycide, Trench etching, SiO
2

and Si3N4.

(10
)

Sub
-
micron Process Techniques; ULSI Technology; Nano
-
Fabrication.



(2)


Microelectronics and VLSI Design


Recommended Books

1.

Sze, S.M.,
VLSI Technology, Tata McGraw Hill (2008).

2.

Plummer, J.D., Deal M.D. and
Griffin P.B.,
VLSI Technology:
Fundamentals,
Practice, and Modeling, Prentice Hall
(2000).

3.

Nagcliodhari, D., Principles of Microelectronics Technology,
A
H Wheeler
998).

4.

Gandhi, S.K., VLSI Fabrication Principles, John
,

Wiley
(2003)
2I
ed.




Microelectronics and VLSI Design


ECT
-
516


SYNTHESIS USING HDLS

L T C








4 0 4

Max Marks: 60

Contact Hours : 48

Course Objectives



To appreciate the use of HDLs for synthesis of
digital circuits.



To introduce various operators, libraries and tools for synthesis.



To facilitate the student with detailed information about need and results of each step.

UNIT I

Introduction:
Concepts of Hardware Description Languages and logic synthesi
s.



(
1)

Logic synthesis:
Design cycle, types of synthesizers, design testing and verification,
design
optimization
.

techniques, technology mapping, VHDL design hierarchy,
objects, types and
subtypes, design organization, VHDL design cycle.




(
5
)

RTL Level Design:
RTL design stages, VHDL description of the RTL design.



(2
)

Combinational Logic:
Design units, entities and architectures, simulation and synthesis
mo'del,
signals and ports, simple signal assignments, conditional signal as
signments,
selected signal
assignment.













(5)

Types: Synthesizable types, standard types, standard operators, scalar types, records,
arrays,
attributes.











(3)

UNIT II

Operators:
standard operators, operator precedence, Boolean
operators, comparison
operators, arithmetic operators, concatenation operators.








(1)

Package std_logic_arith:
std_logic_arith package, making the package visible, contents of
std_logic_arith, resize functions, operators, shift functions, typ
e conversions, constant
values,
mixing types in expressions, numeric packages.








(3)

Sequential VHDL:
Processes, signal assignments, variables, if statements, case statements.













(2)

Registers:

Simulation and synthesis model of regis
ter, register templates, clock types,
gated
registers, resettable registers, simulation model of asynchronous reset,
asynchronous reset
templates, registered variables.







(4)

Hierarchy:
Role of components, using components, component instances,
component
declaration, Configuration specifications, default binding, binding process,
component packages, generate statements.











(4)

Sub programs:
Functions, type conversions, pr
ocedures, declaring subprograms.

(2)


Microelectronics and VLSI Design


UNIT III

Test Benches:
Test benches, verifying responses, clocks and resets, printing response
values,
reading data files, reading standard types, error handling.





(5)

Libraries:
Standard libraries, organising files, library names, library work,
incremental
compilation.










(6
)

Basic principles of
Combinational logic design, sequential logic design, arithmetic circuit
design
and control logic design.









(5
)


Recommended B
ooks

1.

Naylor,
D.
and Jones, S., VHDL: A Logic Synthesis Approach, Springer (1997).

2.

Rushton, A., VHDL for Logic Synthesis, Wiley (1998) 2
.1
Ed.

3.

Ashenden P., The Designer’s Guide to VHDL, Elsevier(3
rd

Ed)










Microelectronics and VLSI Design


ECT 517

ASICs

AND FPGA
s


L T C













4 0 4

Max Marks: 60

Contact Hours : 48


Course Objectives:



To provide a review of concepts and procedures of HDLs.



T
o appreciate the differences between ASIC and FPGA.



To understand the underlying techniques of ASIC and FPGA





UNIT I


Overview:

Digital system design options and tradeoffs, Design methodology and
technology
overview, High Level System Architecture and Specification:
Behavioral modeling and
simulation.









(6)

Review HDLs:
Hardware description languages, combinational and sequential design,
state
machine design, synthesis issues, and test benches.






(4)

FPGA Architectures and Technologies:
FPGA Architectural options, granularity of
function
and wiring resources, coarse
vs.
fine grained vendor specific issues (emphasis on
Xilinx).











(6
)

UNIT II

Logic Block Architecture:
FPGA l
ogic cells, timing models, power dissipation.



(
4
)

I/O block architecture:
Input and Output cell characteristics, clock input, Timing,
Power
dissipation. Programmable interconnect
-

Partitioning and Placement. Routing
resources, delays.











(7)

Applications:
Embedded system design using FPGAs, DSP using FPGAs, Dynamic
architecture
using FPGAs, reconfigurable systems, application case studies.



(5)

UNIT III

ASICs:

Types of ASICs, ASIC design flow, Programmable ASICs, Anti
-
fuse, SRAM,
E
PROM,
EEPROM based ASICs, Programmable ASIC logic cells and I10 cells,
Programmable
interconnects.









(8
)

ASIC Methodologies (classical) and ASIC Methodologies (aggressive).




(8
)










Microelectronics and VLSI Design


Recommended Books

1.

Smith, M.J.S., Application Specific Integrated Circuits, Pearson
education
(2006).

2.

Wolf W, FPGA Based System Design, Morgan Kaufinann (2007).

3.

Ashenden, P., Digital Design using VHDL, Prentice Hall (2008).

4.

Maxfield, C., The Design Warriors's Guide to FPGAs,

Elsevier (2004).





Microelectronics and VLSI Design


ECT 518

SENSOR TECHNOLOGY & MEMS



L T C





4 0 4

Max Marks: 60


Course Objectives:



To provide an overview of microsensors and microactuation.



To understand various design

considerations and tradeoffs.



To introduce CAD tools for MEMS design and simulation.






UNIT I

Overview, Working principle of microsensors & microactuation, Scaling laws
in


geometry, electrostatic &

electromagnetic forces, electricity, fluid mechanics
and heat
transfer.











(9)

Materials for MEMS, active substrate materials, polymers as MEMS
materials.
Considerations for micro fabrication, bulk micro manufacturing, surface
rnicro mach
ining,
LIGA process.









(8)


UNIT II

Micro system packaging, die
-
, devices
-
and system
-
level packaging, interfaces
in


micro system packaging for different applications, signal mapping and transduction.

(7)

Micro system design considerations, process design, mechanical design,
mechanical
design using FEM, design considerations for optical, fluidic, RF and Bio
-
MEMS.












(8)

UNIT III

Overview of CAD tools for MEMS design and simulation.



(
16
)

Recommended Books:

1.

MEMS & Micros ystem
-

Design & Manufacture, Tai
-
Ran Hsu, Tata McGraw
Hill.2002

2.

Fundamentals of Micro fabrication, Marc Madou, CRC press. 1990

3.

Micro system Design, Stephen Senturia, Kluwe
r Academic Publishers. 2000

4.

An Introduction to Micro electromechanical System Engineering, Nadim
Maluf, Artech
House. 1998

5.

Microsensors MEMS and Smart Devices, Gardner and Varaden, John
Wiley & sons.
1995



Microelectronics and VLSI Design















ELECTIVE III, IV & V




















Microelectronics and VLSI Design


ECT 567

DESIGN OF

ANALOG/MIXED SIGNAL VLSI CIRCUITS


L T C





4 0 4

Max Marks: 60

Contact Hours : 48


Course Objectives:



To introduce the concept of analog VLSI.



To understand various converter architectures.



To understand the
design process and challenges of high performance converters.

UNIT I

Introduction:
Device Models, IC Process for Mixed Signal, Concepts of MOS Theory.

(2)

Comparators:
Circuit Modeling, Auto Zeroing Comparators, Differential
Comparators,
Regenerative
Comparators, Fully Differential Comparators, Latched
Comparator.













(7
)

Data Converters:
Requirements, Static and Dynamic P
erformance, SNR

and BER, DNL,
INL













(4)

High Speed AID Converter Architectures:
Flash, Folding
, Interpolating, Piplelined.

(3)

UNIT II

High Speed D/A Converter Architectures:
Nyquist
-
Rate D/A Converters, Thermometer
Coded
D/A Converters, Binary Weighted D/A Converters.






(3)

Design
of multi channel low level and high level data acquisition

systems using ADC/DAC,
SHA and Analog multiplexers, Designing of low power circuits for transducers.

(3)

Sigma
-
Delta Data Converter Architectures:
Programmable Capacitor Arrays (PCA),
Switched Capacitor converters, Noise Spectrum, Sigma
-
De
lta Modulation Method, Sigma
-
Delta AID and D/A'Converters, Non Idealities.








(5)

Key Analog Circuit Design:
Analog VLSI building blocks, Operational
Amplifiers for
converters, advanced op
-
amp design techniques, Voltage
Comparators, Sample
-
and
-
Hold
Circuits.










(6)

UNIT III

Implementation and Design of High Performance AID and D/A Converters:
System
Design,
Digital Compensation, Noise,. and Mismatch, La
yout and Simulation
Technologies for Data
Converters.








(6
)

Design Challenges:
Low Voltage Design, Ultra
-
High Speed Design, High Accuracy Design.















(3)

Advanced Topics:
Multipliers, Oscillators, Mixers, Passive Filter

Design, Active filter
design,
Switched Capacitor Filters, Frequency Scaling, Phase
-
Locked Loops, Device
Modeling for AMS
IC Design, Concept of AMS Modeling and Simulation


(6
)


Microelectronics and VLSI Design


Recommended Books:

1.

Plassche,
Rudy
',Van De, Integrated A
-
D and

D
-
A Converters, Springer (2007)2
nd
ed.

2.

Gregorian, R. and Tellies, C. C., Analog

MOS
Integrated Circuits for Signal
Processing, Wiley (2002).

3.

Baker, R.j.,

Li, H.I.V.
and Boyce,
I).F.,
CMOS: Circuit Design, Layout and
Simulation,
IEEE Press
(2007)2
ND
ed

4.

Gregorian, R., Introduction to CMOS Op
-
Amps and Comparators, Wiley
(1999).

5.

Jespers, P.G. A., Integrated Converters: D
-
A. and
A
-
I.)
Architectures, Analysis
and Simulation, Oxford Press
(2001).




Microelectronics and VLSI Design


ECT 568


TESTING AND FAULT TOLERANCE OF VLSI CIRCUITS

L T C





4 0 4

Max Marks: 60

Contact Hours : 48


Course Objectives:



To understand the need of fault tolerance and its applications.



To understand the concepts of reliability and availability.



To understand detection/correction techniques
and software reliability model.

UNIT I

Motivation of fault tolerance in arithmetic systems, Fault and error models in VLSI
arithmetic
units, Reliability and fault tolerance definitions, Reliability and availability
modeling.












(6
)

Estimation

of the reliability and availability of fault tolerant systems, Fault
diagnosis, Fault
tolerance measurement.










(3
)

Fault tolerance strategies: detection, correction, localization, reconfiguration, Error
recovery,
Error detecting
and correcting codes.






(
7
)


UNIT II


Detection/correction techniques: modular redundancy, time redundancy (e.g.,
RESO, RERO,
REDWC, RETWV, REX0), datacoding (e.g., AN codes, residue codes,
GAN codes, RBR codes, Berger codes, residue number systems)
, algorithm
-
based
techniques, Reconfiguration techniques.







(8
)

Applications to arithmetic units and systems (e.g., convolvers, inner product units,
FFT units,
neural networks), Application levels: unit, processing element,
subsystem, system. Cost/
benefit
analysis Fault
-
tolerant transaction processing systems;
Fault
-
tolerant Networks; Redundant disks (RAID).







(8)

UNIT III

Software reliability models, Software fault
-
tolerance methods: N
-
version programming,
recovery blocks,
rollback and recovery.








(8)

Architecture and design of fault


tolerant computer systems using protective redundancy.














(
8
)



Microelectronics and VLSI Design


Recommende d Books

1.

Pradhan, D.K., Fault Tolerant Computer System Design, Prentice Hall (1996).

2.

Jo
hnson, B.W., Design and Analysis of Fault Tolerant Digital Systems,
Addison
Wesley (1989).

3.

Nelson, V.P. and Carroll, B. D., Tutorial: Fault Tolerant Computing,
IE
EE
Computer Society Press (1990).

4.

Slewiorek, D.P.,
Swarz,
R. S. and Peters AK., Reliable Computer
Systems:
Design and Evaluation, A K Peters (1998) 3
0

ed.



Microelectronics and VLSI Design


ECT 569



MOS DEVICE MODELING

L T C











4 0 4

Max Marks:
60

Contact Hours : 48


Course Objectives:



To refresh semiconductor, quantum mechanics fundamentals.



To understand MOSFET modeling and underlying techniques.



To introduce advanced device technologies.

UNIT I

Semiconductor Fundamentals:
Poisson and Continuity Equations, Recombination,
Equilibrium
carrier concentrations (electron statistics, density of states, effective mass,
bandgap narrowing),
Review of PN and MS diodes.






(7)

Quantum Mechanics Fundamentals:
Basic Quantum Mec
hanics, Crystal symmetry and
band structure, 2D/1D density of states, Tunneling.







(4)

Modeling and Simulation of Carrier Transport:
Carrier Scattering (impurity, phonon,
carrier
-

carrier, remote/interface), Boltzmann Transport Equation, Dri
ft
-
diffusion.



(5)

UNIT II

MOS Capacitors:
Modes of operation (accumulation, depletion, strong/weak
inversion),
Capacitance versus voltage, Gated diode, Non
-
ideal effects (poly depletion,
surface charges),
High field effects (tunneling, breakdown).





(5
)

MOSFET Modeling:
Introduction Interior Layer, MOS Transistor Current, Threshold
Voltage, Temperature Short Channel and Narrow Width Effect, Models for Enhancement,
Depletion Type MOSFET, CMOS Models in SPICE, Long Channel MOSFET Devices, Short
Channel MO
SFET Devices.










(7)

Parameter Measurement:
General Methods, Specific Bipolar Measurement,
Depletion
Capacitance, Series Resistances, Early Effect, Gummel Plots, MOSFET: Long
and Short Channel Parameters, Statistical Modeling of Bipolar and MOS Trans
istors.













(6
)

UNIT III

Advanced Device Technology:
501, SiGe, strained Si, Alternative oxide/gate
materials,
Alternative geometries (raised source/drain, dual gate, vertical, FinFET),
Memory Devices
(DRAM, Flash).








(10
)

Sub
-
micron and Deep sub
-
micron Device Modeling







(4
)


Microelectronics and VLSI Design


Recommended Books

1.

Tsividis,
Y.,
Operation and Modeling of the MOS Transistor, Oxford University
Press,(2008) 2
,2d
ed.

2.

Sze, S.M., Physics of Semiconductor Devices, Wiley (2008).

3.

Mulle
r, R.S., Kamins, TI., and Chan, M., Device Electronics for Integrated
Circuits, John Wiley (2007) 3
rd
ed.

4.

Tour,
Y.
and Ning, T.H., Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices,
Cambridge Universit y
Press (2009).

5.

Massobrio, G. and Antognetti, P., Semiconductor Device Modeling, McGraw
Hill (1998).

6.

Dieter, K.S., Semiconductor Material and Device Characterization, John Wiley (2006)
3
0

ed.

7.

Tor, A., Fjeldly, T.Y., and Michael, S., Introduction to Device Modeling and
Cir
cuit Simulation, John Wiley (1998).




Microelectronics and VLSI Design


ECT 570

OPTICAL VLSI

L T C






4 0 4

Max Marks: 60

Contact Hours : 48


Course Objectives:



To provide overview of
optical communication.



To understand working and need of CMOS optical receivers.



To understand challenges to Mixed mode ICs.


UNIT I

Introduction: Optical communication:
An historical overview, Optical fiber versus
copper
wire, Integration of Optical commu
nication systems. Optical communication link.
(8
)

The CMOS Optical Receiver:
Simple Resistor Optical Receiver, Transimpedance amplifier,
Comparison of transimpedance amplifiers, Multiple
-
Stages feedback amplifiers, Noise
aspects of
the transimpedance
amplifier, Post amplifier.






(8)

UNIT II

Integrated CMOS Optical Receivers:
DC
-
Coupled 0.8um Digital CMOS 155 Mb/s
Optical
receiver; 240 Mb/s 18 THz Optical receiver with rail to rail output swing; 1 Gb/s
0.7um standard CMOS optical receiver;

Performance evaluation.





(9)

Full Integration of a Standard CMOS Optical Transmitter:
LED driver, Integrated
CMOS
optical fiber link, Integrated CMOS photodiodes, Integrated Photodiodes in sub
-
micron CMOS.












(8)

UNIT III


Electrical Interference in Mixed
-
Mode Integrated Circuits:
Aspects of the
electrical
Interference Problem, Switching Noise Generation Reduction, On chip Power
supply Decoupling,
Noise propagation limitation in integrated circuits, The Generalized
use of di
fferential structures
in integrated circuits, Practical implementation.




(1
5
)




Microelectronics and VLSI Design


Recommended Books

1.

Ingels, M. and Steyaert, M., Integrat ed CMOS Circuit s for Optical
Communications, Springer (2008).

2.

Radovanoic, S., Anne
-
Johan, Annema and Bram, Nau
ta, High Speed
Photodiodes in Standard CMOS Technology, Springer (2006).

3.

Muller, P., CMOS Multi
-
channel Single
-
Chip Receivers for Multi
-
Gigabit Optical
Data Communications, Springer(2007)
.


















Microelectronics and VLSI Design


ECT 571


DIGITAL VLSI DESIGN


L T C












4 0 4

Max Marks: 60

Contact Hours : 48


Course Objectives:



To
introduce MOSFET modeling.



To facilitate the student with concepts of dynamic logic circuits.



To study the
effect of technology scaling on CMOS logic styles.

UNIT I

Physics and Modeling of MOSFETs:
Basic MOSFET Characteristics


Threshold Voltage,
Body Bias
concept, Current
-
Voltage Characteristics


Square
-
Law Model, MOSFET Modeling


Drain
-
Source.
Resistance,
MOSFET Capacitances, Geometric Scaling Theory


Full
-
Voltage
Scaling, Constant
-
Voltage
Scaling.












(5)

Fabri cati on and Layout of CMOS Integrated
Circuit s: Overview of Int egrat ed Circuit
Processing


Oxidat ion, Phot olit hography, Self
-
Aligned MOSFET, Is olat ion and Wells


LOCOS, Trench
Is olat ion, CMOS Proces s flow, Mas k des ign and Layout


MOSFET
Dimensions, Design Rules,
Latch
-
up.

(5)

CMOS Inverter:
Basic Circuit and DC Operation


DC Characteristics, Noise Margins, Layout
considerations, Inverter Switching Characteristics


Switching Inte
rvals, High
-
to
-
Low time, Low
t o
-
High
t ime, Maximum Swit ching Frequency, Trans ient Effect s on t he VTC, RC Delay
Modeling, Elmore
Delay, Output Capacitance, Inverter Design


DC Design, Transient Design, Driving Large Capacitive Loads












(6)

UNIT II

Swi tchi ng Properti es of
MOSFETs
:
nMOSFET/ pMOSFET Pas s Trans is t ors, Trans mis s ion
Gate
Characteristics, MOSFET Switch Logic, TG
-
based Switch Logic, D
-
type Flip
-
Flop. (5)

Static CMOS Logic Elements:
Complex Logic Functions, CMOS NAND Gate, CMOS NOR
Gat e,
Complex Logic Gat es, Exclus ive OR and Equivalence Gat es, Adder Circuit s, Ps eudo
nMOS Logic
Oates, Schmitt Trigger Circuits, SR and D
-
type Latch, CMOS SRAM Cell, Tri
-
state O
utput Circuits. (6)

Power Dissipation in CMOS
Digital Circuits
: Dynamic Power Dissipation


Switching Power
Dis s ipat ion,
Short Circuit Power Dis s ipat ion, Glit ching Power Dis s ipat ion, St at ic Power
Dissipation


Diode
Leakage Current, Subthreshold
Leakage Current.








(5)

UNIT III

Dynami c Logi c Ci rcui t Concepts and CMOS Dynami c Logi c Fami l i es
: Charge Leakage,
Charge
Sharing, Dynamic RAM Cell, Bootstrapping, Clocked
-
CMOS, Pre
-
Charge/ Evaluate
Logic, Domino
Logic, Multiple
-
Output Domino Logic, NO
RA Logic, Single
-
Phase Logic.





(5)

Effects of
Technol ogy Scal i ng
on CMOS Logi c Styl es:

Trends and Limit at ions of CMOS
Technology Scaling


MOSFET Scaling Trends, Challenges of MOSFET Scaling


Short
-

Channel
Effects, Subthreshold Leakage Currents,
Dielectric Breakdown, Hot Carrier effects, Soft Errors, Velocity
Saturation and Mobility Degradation, DIBL, Scaling down V
dd
/V
ih
ratio.





(6)

CMOS Differential
Logic Styles
: Dual
-
Rail Logic, CVSL, CPL, DPL, DCVS, MCML.

Issues in Chip Design:
ESD Protec
tion, On
-
Chip Interconnects


Line Parasitics, Modeling of
the
Interconnect Line, Clock Distribution, Input
-
Output circuits.






(5)

Microelectronics and VLSI Design


Recommended Books


1.

Kang, S. and Labelici, Y., CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits


Analysis and Design,
Tata

McGraw Hill(2008)3
rd

ed.

Weste, N.H.E and Eshraghian., K.,CMOS VLSI
Design : A Circuits and Systems Perspertive, Addision Wesley(1998)2
nd

ed.

2.

Weste, N.H.E and Eshraghian., K.,CMOS VLSI Design : A Circuits and Systems
Perspertive, Addision Wesley(1998)2
nd

ed.

3.

Rabaey, J.M Chanderakasen, A.P and Nikolic, B., Digital Integrated Circuits


A
Design Perspective, Pearson Education(2007) 2
nd

ed.

4.

Aker, R.J., H.W and Boyce, D.E.,CMOS Circuit Design, Layout and Simulation,
Wiley

IEEE Press (2004)2
nd

ed.

5.

Weste, N.H.E
., Harris, D. and Banerjee, A., CMOS VLSI Design, Dorling
Kindersley( 2006) 3
rd

ed.






















Microelectronics and VLSI Design


ECT 5
72




LOW POWER VLSI

DESIGN






L T C





4 0 4

Max Marks: 60

Contact Hours : 48


Course Objectives:



To introduce the concept of
Low power microelectronics.



To introduce Low voltage technologies and circuits.



To understand circuit and logic styles.


UNIT I

Low' Power Microelectronics:
Retrospect and Prospect, Fundamentals of power dissipation in
microelectronic devices, Estimation of power dissipation due to switching, short circuit, sub
threshold
leakage, and diode leakage currents.









(16)


UNIT II

CMOS Scaling:
Scaling for High Performance and Low
-
Power,

Low Voltage Technologies an
d Circuits:
Threshold Voltage Scaling and Control, Multiple
Threshold
CMOS (MTCMOS), Substrate Bias Controlled Variable Threshold CMOS, Testing
Issues: Design and test
of low
-
Voltage CMOS circuits.










(16)


UNIT III

Ci rcui t and Logi c St
yl es:
Power
-
conscious logic St yles, Adiabat ic Logic Circuit s. Power
Analysis
and optimization: Power Analysis Techniques, Power Optimization Techniques, Energy
recovery techniques,
Software power estimation and optimization Low
-
Power Memory Circuits
and ar
chitectures.

Power Conscious High
-
Level Synthesis. Silicon
-
On
-
Insulator Based Technologies.




(16)


Recommended Books


1.

Roy, K. and Prasad, Sharat C., Low Power CMOS VLSI: Circuit Design, John
Wiley (2009).

2.

Chandrakasan, A.P. and Broderson, R.W., Low Power Digital CMOS Design,
Kluwer (1995).

3.

Rabaey, J.M. and Pedram, M., Low Power Design Methodologies, Springer
(1996).

4.

Yea, K.S. and Roy K., Low Voltage, Low Power VLSI Subsystems, McGraw Hill
(2004).

5.

Sanchez
-
Si
nencio, E. and Andreou, A. G., Low
-
Voltage/Low
-
Power Integrated
Circuits and Systems: Low
-
Voltage Mixed
-
Signal Circuits, IEEE Press (1999).

6.

Bellaouar, A. and Elmasry, MI., Low
-
Power Digital VLSI Design: Circuits and
Systems, Kluwer
(1995).




Microelectronics and VLSI Design











E
LECTIVE VI









Microelectronics and VLSI Design



ECT 606

RF IC DESIGN



L T C












4 0 4

Max Marks: 60

Contact Hours : 48


Course Objectives:



To understand concepts of RF design
and Communication.



To appreciate various multiple access techniques and wireless standards.



To facilitate the student with knowledge of different types of oscillators, power
amplifiers and frequency synthesizers.







UNIT I

Int
roduction to RF and Wireless Technology:
Complexity comparison, Design bottleneck,
Applications, Analog and Digital systems and choice of technology.



(2)

Basic Concepts in RF Design:
Non linearity and time variance
-

Effects of non
linearity
and
cascaded nonlinear stages, Inter symbol interference, Random Processes and
noise, Sensitivity
and dynamic range, Passive Impedance Transformation.



(3)


Modulation and Detection: General considerations, Analog Modulation:
Amplitude
modulation, phase and frequency modulation, Digital modulation
-

basic
concepts, binary
modulation and quadrature modulation, Power efficiency of modulation
schemes
-

constant and variable envelope signals and spectral regrowth, Noncoherent
detection.














(7)

UNIT II

Multiple Access Techniques and Wireless Standards:
Multiple RF communications,
Multiple
Access Techniques Time and frequency division duplexing. Frequency division
multiple access,
Time division multiple access and Code division multip
le access. Wireless
Standards
-

Advanced
mobile phone services, North American Digital Standard,
Global system for mobile
communicat ion, Qualcomm CDMA and Digit al
European Cordless Telephone.








(6)

Transceiver Architectures:
General considerat
ion, Receiver Architectures, Heterodyne
and
Homodyne receivers, Image reject receivers, Digital IF receivers and Subsampling
receivers; Transmitter Architectures, Direct conversion transmitters and two step transmitters,
Transceiver performance tests.








(4)

Low Noise Amplifiers and Mixers:
Low noise amplifiers
-

General considerations,
Input
matching, Bipolar LNAs and CMOS LNAs; Down conversion mixers
-

General
considerations, Bipolar mixers, CMOS mixers and noise in mixers, Cascaded stages.

(4)



Microelectronics and VLSI Design


UNIT III

Oscillators:
General considerations, Basic LC Oscillator Topologies, Voltage
-
Controlled
Oscillators, Phase Noise
-

Effect of phase noise in RF communications, Q of
an oscillator, Phase
noise mechanisms, noise power trade
-
off, effect of frequency
division and multiplication on
phase
.

noise, oscillator pulling and pushing, Bipolar and
CMOS LC Oscillators, Negative Gn,
oscillators and interpolative oscillators, Monolithic
inductors, Resonat
or
-
less VC0s, Quadrature
Signal Generations, RC
-
CR network,
Havens technique, frequency division, Single sideband
generation.



(9)

Frequency Synthesizers:
General considerations, Phase lock loops
-

basic concepts, basic
PLL,
Charge pump PLLs, T
ypes I and II PLLs, noise in PLLs, phase noise at input,
phase noise of
VCO and frequency multiplication, RF synthesizer architectures,
Integer N architecture,
fractional N architecture, Dual loop architecture and direct digital
synthesis, Frequency divide
rs
divide by two circuits and dual modulus dividers.



(7)


Power Amplifiers:
General considerations, linear and nonlinear PAs, Classification of power
Amplifiers, Class A, B, and C PAs, High efficiency power amplifiers, Large signal
impedance
matching, Li
nearization techniCiues, feedforward, feedback, envelope
elimination and restoration and LINC, Design examples.






(6)





Recommended Books

1.

Razavi, B., RF Microelectronics, John Wiley (2008).

2.

Lee, T.H., The Design of CMOS Radio
-
Frequency Integrated Circuits,
Cambridge University Press (2003) 2
,0
ed.

3.

Tsividis, Y.P., Mixed Analog and Digital VLSI Devices and Technology, World
Scientific (2002).

4.


Baker,

R.
Jacob, Li, H.W. and Boyce, D.E., CMOS Cir
cuit Design, Layout and
Simulation, Prentice
-
Hall of India(2004) 2
nd

ed.








Microelectronics and VLSI Design


ECT 607



HIGH SPEED VLSI DESIGN

L T C





4 0 4

Max Marks: 60

Contact Hours : 48

Course Objectives:



To understand the concept of the method of logic effort.



To appreciate the differences between different Logic styles.



To facilitate the student with various interfacing techniques.

UNIT I

Introduction of High Speed VLSI Circuits Design.








(1)

Back
-
End
-
Of
-
Line Variability Considerations:
Ideal and non ideal interconnect
issues,
Dielectric Thickness and Permittivity.








(3)

The Method of Logical Effort:
Delay in a logic gate, Multi
-
stage logic networks,
Choosing the
best number of stages.










(3)

Deriving the Method of Logical Effort:
Model of a logic, Delay in a logic gate,
Minimizing
delay along a path, Choosing the length of a path, Using the wrong number of
stages, Using the
wrong gate size.










(
9
)

UNIT II

Non
-
Clocked Logic Styles:
Static CMOS, DCVS Logic, Non
-
Clocked Pass Gate Families.













(3
)

Clocked Logic Styles:
Single
-
Rail Domino Logic Styles, Dual
-
Rail Domino Structures,
Latched Domino Structures, Clocked Pass Gate Logi
c.






(4)

Circuit Design Margining:
Process Induced Variations, Design Induced Variations,
Application Induced Variations, Noise.










(3)

Latching Strategies:
Basic Latch Design, Latching single
-
ended logic, Latching
Differential
Logic, Race

Free Latches for Pre
-
charged Logic Asynchronous Latch
Techniques.












(6
)

UNIT III

Interface Techniques:
Signaling Standards, Chip
-
to
-
Chip Communication Networks,
ESD
Protection.











(7
)

Clocking Styles:
Clock Jitter, Clock
Skew, Clock Generation, Clock Distribution,
Asynchronous Clocking Techniques.









(7
)

Skew Tolerant Design.










(
2
)



Microelectronics and VLSI Design


Recommended Books:

1.

Bernstein, K., Carrig, KM., Durham, Hansen, C.M., Hogenmiller, E. I., Nowak
and Rohrer, N.J., High Speed CMOS De
sign Styles, Kluwer (2007).

2.

Sutherland, I.E., Sproul', B.F. and Harris, DL., Logical Effort: Designing Pat

CMOS
Circuits, Elsevier/MK (1999).

3.


Jho
nson, H.W., High Speed Digital Design, Prentice Hall PTR (2008).