# What is Behavioral Economics

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28 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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What is Behavioral Economics

An Illustration: Guess the Number Game

The Decision: Choose a number between 0 and 100

Goal: Win the game by choosing the number closest to 2/3 of the average of
the guesses.

Complete knowledge, Self
-
Interested Nash Equilibrium: All guess zero

Typical average: 19, so a winning guess might be 13 rather than zero.

Best choice depends upon your ability to judge how others will think

One possibility: All pick at random, so average is 50. Then the best guess
for you is 33.

But, you should pick 22 if you think others will pick 33. As in chess,
deeper thinking by others requires even deeper thinking by you for
success.

An Illustration: Hyperbolic Discounting

Which do you prefer?

\$100 today, or \$105 a week from now.

\$100 a year from now, \$105 a year and a week from
now

An Illustration: Frame

Question: Will you have the surgery?

Frame 1:
Of 100 people having
surgery,
90
live through
the post
-
operative period, 68
are alive at
the end of the first year and 34
are
alive
at the end of
five years.

Frame 2:
Of 100 people having
surgery, 10 die during
surgery or the
post
-
operative
period, 32
die by the end of the first
year, and
66 die

by the end of five years.

O

Behavioral
Economics Definitions

Behavioral economics
is the name we give to the research enterprise that seeks
to
augment and amend the
existing body
of classical and neoclassical economic theory to
achieve a more realistic picture
of economic process. (Herbert Simon)

The
introduction of insights drawn from social psychology into (macro)
economic
behavior (
George
Katona

)

A research approach to economics which (1
)
rejects the notion that positivism is the sole
methodological foundation for economic research, (2)
refuses
to accept the use
of
deductive
reasoning as a sufficient basis for a (social) science,
(
3)
dislikes static
analysis
of equilibrium
as representing outcomes relative to disequilibrium processes, and (
4)
object to
the
simplistic economic
model of rational agents exhibiting optimizing
behavior (1984, p. 1).
(
,
Kaish
, and
Loeb)

Behavioral economics
is a school of thought distinguished by
the fact
that it is much less
narrow, rigid, intolerant, mechanical, separate, and individualistic
than mainstream
economics (
Tomer
).

Key Contributors to Behavioral Economics

George
Katona
: Starting in late 1940, used surveys to support the idea that the level of
consumption spending has a highly psychological component. Referred to by some as
the Father of Behavioral Economics.

Herbert
Simon (Nobel Aureate) :
In 1950s, replaced maximization assumption with
satisficing assumption. Limited cognitive capacity typically precludes maximization,
spawning the term bounded rationality. Under bounded rationality, behavior is
determined by a pair of scissors, where one blade is the decision maker’s cognitive
limitations and the other blade is the particular environment.

James March and Richard
Cyert
: Developed a theory of how firms behave using
bounded rationality as the underlying basis.

Gerd

Gigerenzer
: Heuristics are developed that are tailored to particular decision
making environments that effectively allow the decision maker to effectively cope with
limited cognitive capacity.

Reinhard

Selten

(Nobel Aureate) :
Game theory applications of limited cognitive
capacity.

Harvey
Leibenstein
: Applications of bounded rationality to understanding the efficiency
and inefficiency that may exist within a firm.

Daniel
Kahneman

(Nobel Aureate)
and Amos
Tversky
: People predictably violate
rationality axioms when the outcome of a choice is uncertain and when the decision
context changes in certain ways.

Key Contributors to Behavioral Economics

Richard
Thaler
: Identified biases in behavior relative to that predicted by traditional
economic theory. Many practical applications of behavioral economics.

George
Akerlof

(Nobel Aureate) :
Applications of bounded rationality to labor market,
savings, education. A theory showing how identity can influence economic behavior,
connecting economics and sociology.

Vernon Smith (Nobel Aureate) : A pioneer of experimental economics, including much

Richard Nelson and Sidney Winter: Applications of evolutionary theory to explain
development of habits
and routines.

Behavioral Observations

Anchoring

Cognitive Dissonance

Endowment Effect

Mental Accounting

Confirmatory Bias

Hindsight
Bias

Status Quo Bias

Law of Small Numbers Bias

Vivid Information Bias

Framing effects

Learning

Use of Rules of Thumb in Decision
-
Making

Behavioral Observations

Overconfidence

Wishful Thinking

False Consensus Effect

Curse of Knowledge

Preference Reversals

Fairness

Herding

Procrastination

Behavioral
Theories/Models

Loss Aversion

Endowment Effect

Hyperbolic Discounting

Social Preferences

Satisficing

Reference dependent utility

Diminishing Sensitivity

Reciprocity

Efficiency Wage

Internality

Sophisticated versus
Naïve Discounters

Criteria for Evaluating Theories

Prediction Accuracy (Stigler)

Generality (Stigler)

Tractability (Stigler)

Parsimony (Rabin)

Realism (Simon)

Positivism (Hume)

Falsifiability (Popper)

Existence of
a Reasonable Competing
Theory (
Lakatos
)

Sample Applications

Loss Aversion

o
C
onsumers
are more
averse to
lowering consumption in
response
news about income than they are
to increasing
consumption in response
to good news

Fairness

o
Subjects contribute
to public goods more
than can
be
explained by pure
self
-
interest

o
Wage decreases are viewed with a special disdain, implying
wages are sticky in the downward direction, keeping
unemployment from being eliminated

Reciprocity

o
If others conserve water, you are more likely to conserve

o
An employee who feels mistreated is more likely to sabotage
the firm.

Sample Applications

Law of Small Numbers Bias

o
We underestimate how
often a good
financial analyst
will
be wrong a few times in
a row
. and how often a
clueless
analyst will
be right a few times in a
row.

o
People
tend to
generate spurious
explanations for
long
streaks
that are determined by
chance

o
The gambler’s fallacy

Anchoring

o
Overestimate happiness gain from winning lottery

Hindsight Bias

o
Hearing the report of a mass shooting increases the
perceived probability of such an
occurance

o
“I knew it all along,” (but your really did not)

Sample Applications

Hyperbolic Discounting

o
Pay a Gym Trainer

o
Christmas savings clubs

o
In general, act to restrict your options

Confirmatory
Bias

o
We
ignore information that does not support our initial
hypothesis

o
Ambiguous information further affirms our initial
hypothesis

Status Quo
Bias

o
Libertarian Paternalism (Nudge)

Savings plan opt
-
out rather than savings plan opt
-
in

Put fruit in front of higher calorie desserts

Criticisms of Behavioral Economics

Too many behavioral theories with too few
applications

The many assumptions underlying behavioral
models need to be reduced to a smaller number of
more primitive assumptions

Not clear how to identify equilibrium versus non
-
equilibrium behavior

How Economics May Become More Behavioral

Model decision
-
making using learning processes, whereby a
decision maker becomes more sophisticated as learning
occurs.

Environment dependent sophistication (or decision ability)

Less representative agent models, more heterogeneity

More use of our understanding of human cognition in
modeling decision making.

More focus on developing theories that explain observations
(descriptive theories) and less focus on developing theories
that are axiomatically consistent (What
Thaler

calls
normative theories)

More focus on how emotions influence choice

References

Fundenberg
Journal
of Economic
Literature

44, 694

711.

Hosseini
, Hamid (2003). The Arrival of Behavioral Economics: From Michigan, or the Carnegie
School in the 1950s and the Early 1960s?
Journal of Socio
-
Economics

32 (2003) 391

409.

Rabin
, Mathew (March, 1998). “Psychology and Economics,”
Journal of Economic Literature
, 36: 11
-
46

Thaler
, Richard (Winter, 2000). From Homo
Economicus

to Homo Sapiens.”
Journal of Economic
Perspectives

14(1), 133
-
141.

Thaler
, Richard H. and Cass
Sunstein

(2003). “Behavioral Economics, Public Policy, and Paternalism:
Libertarian Paternalism,”
American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings
93: 175
-
179.

John
Tomer
, “What Is Behavioral Economics?,”
Journal of Socio
-
Economics
, 36(3), June 2007, 463
-
479.