Mobile and Wireless Communications

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The Networked Future:
Mobile and Wireless
Communications
A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet. It can be accessed
through the Europa server http://europa.eu
Luxembourg: Office for Publications of the European Union, 2006
ISBN:92-79-02366-7
© European Communities, 2006
Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged
Printed in Belgium
The Networked Future:
Mobile and Wireless
Communications
INDEX
02
INTRODUCTION
3
New and integrated radio access
4
Seamless mobile services
6
Addressing the R&D Challenges of the next Decade
8
Flexibility for the networked world
12
Satellite convergence
14
Personalised services on the move
18
Making a reality of ambient networks
20
New radio technologies for better mobile services
22
A think-tank for future wireless communications
26
Wireless gets personal
28
Communications for public safety and security
30
Mobile TV:unlimited audience,coverage and usage
32
SPICE
36
Projects List
40
Capturing Ambient Intelligence for Mobile
Communications through Wireless Sensor Networks
38
INTRODUCTION
Digital mobile communications is one of the great success stories of recent years,offering people
levels of mobility and services never available before.The new 3G services will push mobile even
further,opening up opportunities for true broadband mobile services.
This is not the end of the road for mobile,however.On the contrary,we are still only at the
beginning of the mobile revolution.Already the requirements for the next generation of mobile
and wireless communications technology are emerging.
Future systems must put user needs centre stage - seamlessly integrating the many different
communication systems we see emerging today so as to deliver personalised enhanced services
to users.In addition,they will require open interfaces and architectures to allow different players
to inter-work and offer new services.Such an open approach will be essential for players to
compete in a market where users are increasingly mobile and their requirements continually
changing.Digital rights management and content management will also be important considerations.
Future mobile and wireless networks will need to combine different access networks and
technologies - satellite as well as terrestrial – and get them to work together so as to optimise
different services requirements and operational conditions.This brings many new research
challenges:in particular solving interoperability issues across multiple networks and a variety of
connected devices.We will need new solutions to accommodate a wide range of requirements
on data rate,quality of service,security,availability and price according to users’ expectations.
This brochure describes IST research on Mobile and Wireless Communications,showing the
integrated nature of European research in this domain.It presents profiles of specific research areas
holding a promising future,together with selected project descriptions to exemplify and illustrate
key on-going research and technology development.
Research here aims to enable users to access advanced services and applications in the most
optimal way catering for different services requirements and operational environments.These
systems may include the personal level (personal,body area/ad hoc networks),the local/home
level (W-LAN,UWB),the cellular level (GPRS,UMTS),and the wider area level (DxB-T,BWA).
A satellite overlay network (e.g.S-DMB) complements the resulting access landscape.The work
aims to arrive at a consolidated European approach to technology,systems and services,including
location-based services,as well as contributions to standards and future spectrum requirements.
The brochure is one of six in The Networked Future series,describing European funded
research for Network and Communication Technologies.
03
New and integrated radio access
Research on new and integrated radio access technologies is oriented to meet
the exacting requirements of future mobile and wireless systems.
04
The success of future mobile and wireless communica-
tions systems depends on meeting,or exceeding,the
needs,requirements and interests of users and society as
a whole.It seems likely that this will require an increase in
spectral efficiency to allow high data rates and high user
capacities far beyond those of second or third generation
systems.Moreover,flexible resource allocation will play a
key role in future mobile radio networks.
In recent years,much research has been carried out in
increasing the performance and efficiency of various air
interface components like coding or detection.Also new
air interface concepts based on either single carrier or
multi-carrier transmission have been proposed which
show promising performance results.To design the next
generation mobile radio systems,a clear understanding
of the requirements on these systems is necessary and
a comprehensive overview of new air interface
technologies is required to really choose between the
best available technologies.
These new and integrated radio access technologies are
being addressed as part of IST’s research for Mobile and
Wireless Systems and Platforms Beyond 3G.The work
aims to arrive at a consolidated European approach to
technology,systems and services,including location-
based services,and contributions to standards.It also
aims towards a clear European understanding of
spectrum requirements and novel ways of optimising
spectrum usage for “systems beyond 3G”.
Requirements for Future Radio Systems
Future mobile radio systems will have to meet exacting
requirements.Data rate per user is expected to
increase significantly,but could also vary substantially
between the peak vs typical.With data traffic dominating
over voice transmissions,the demands in data rate
between downlink and uplink are becoming asymmetric.
Quality of service – a complex parameter which can be
defined in several ways – is of particular interest to
mobile users.And with many future services likely to be
location based,mechanisms will be necessary to derive
the user’s location or other context.
Although hidden from the user,one of the most
important issues is the integration of packet-switched
and IP-based traffic.
Network operators have made significant investments in
building IP core networks based on internet system
architectures.Further efforts are needed to optimise
these and ease the integration of fixed and wireless
networks.
Frequency spectrum and bandwidth allocation will
be important considerations.Radio spectrum is scarce,
and therefore expensive,and hence future systems will
have to be very efficient in how they use the limited
spectrum available.Alternative methods of spectral
allocation and use could also be considered.The system
must be able to dynamically change the allocated
resources as users’ requirements and available
capacities change.
Particular attention should be paid to how the air
interface might affect terminal,base station and other
infrastructure costs.Also regulatory authorities are
specifying mandatory limits for the maximum power
consumption and radiation for both the base station
and the mobile terminal.
European excellence for smart antennas
Antennas are essential to the functioning of wireless
communication systems.IST’s Antenna Centre of
Excellence (ACE) aims to improve the performance
of antennas in future wireless systems.
The ACE Network of Excellence undertakes a variety
of activities.It is compiling a list of antenna software
tools and providing education and training on antenna
design,integration and manufacturing.Network
members are also able to share antenna measurement
and testing facilities.All types of antenna are covered:
millimetre and sub-millimetre waves;smart antennas for
mobile phones and other small terminals;wideband and
multi-band antennas;and planar and conformal arrays.
ACE:www.ist-ace.org
05
Further Information
www.cordis.lu/ist/ct
Air Interface Technologies
Various air interface technologies are candidates to fulfil
the challenging requirements for next generation mobile
radio systems.These include:
• Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM):
The principle of OFDM is to modulate a high rate serial
data stream into multiple parallel data streams.
The parallel subcarriers are spaced such that the
parallel signals are orthogonal to each other and do not
interfere.This has a number of attractive features,
including high spectral efficiency,relatively simple
receivers and high flexibility in terms of subcarrier
allocation.Its main weakness is a higher peak-to-average
power ratio compared to single-carrier modulation.
• Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA):
is a strong candidate for the downlink of future mobile
radio systems since it combines the advantages of
OFDM and CDMA.The principle is to map the
chips of the spreading code on different subcarriers.
Advantages are high spectral efficiency,low inter-
ference and relatively simple detection.
• MIMO OFDM:Multiple antennas are one of the most
important contributors to reliable communications
especially in hostile environments.The presence of
several antennas is usually exploited to provide some
sort of diversity.MIMO OFDM systems offer the
potential to exploit the advantages of both MIMO
and OFDM techniques.
• Ultra-wideband:Ultra-wideband (UWB) radio technology
(RT) is an emerging technology for short-range radio
communication,which potentially solves many of the
current problems in spectrum management and radio
systems engineering.UWB systems operate by spreading
very small amounts of effectively radiated average power
– typically less than 0.5 mW – across a very wide band
of frequencies relative to their centre frequency.
The key factors for any air interface are coverage,
capacity,and cost.Only if a new air interface technology
can significantly improve coverage and/or capacity for a
given cost with respect to second generation (GSM) and
third generation (UMTS) systems,will it have a market.
Known measures to increase the efficiency are for
example macro/network diversity,power control and
soft handover.Recently,powerful techniques to
guarantee QoS and increase the system efficiency have
been developed.These exploit the spatial dimension –
for instance through multiple antennas (see box) - as
well as the design of robust error correction schemes.
Seamless mobile services
Personalisation and seamless access will be key features in making future mobile
services and devices easier to use and offering greater added value.
06
Mobility has become a central aspect of the lives of
European citizens in business,education,and leisure.
While developments in the mobile arena bring many
benefits,the bewildering array of new systems and
services can be confusing for end users.
Already,the average citizen has difficulties in under-
standing all these new systems,let alone using them
effectively.Not only will this slow down the deployment
of new services,it will contribute to the digital divide,
making it difficult for certain users to benefit from new
developments.In addition,network operators have to
deal with the complexity of a multi-access networking
environment.The enhancement of existing technologies
and development of new Beyond 3G systems will
increase this complexity even more.
To make the most of the opportunities offered by new
technologies,future mobile services and devices will
need to be much easier to use.
Services Everywhere
“Services” has a very general meaning:it covers
everything from communications to computing facilities,
from home/building/public-space functionality to security
related tasks.
Services may be as simple as remote control of an
entertainment device (e.g.a television) via a wireless
link,or access control to a building.Conversely,services
may be very complex,and may require location
awareness,quality-of-service (QoS) support,message
exchanges with network databases,structured
interaction with remote networking devices (e.g.,media
gateways),etc.The emergence of new research areas,
such as pervasive computing,will further increase the
diversity of the devices and services with which users
have to deal.
Currently,to exploit such “services”,users must
frequently use different devices,and configure each of
them in different ways.These devices must be recognised
and authenticated using different procedures,be charged
with different means and must use heterogeneous
access technologies and protocols.This places an
enormous burden of complexity on users and,often,
implies the physical burden of carrying different devices.
Such complexity is likely to limit the effective
exploitation of the wide range of access technologies,
virtual reality,ambient intelligence and context –aware
solutions currently under study and development.
Personalisation and seamless access will be key features
in making future mobile services and devices easier to
use and offering greater added value.To make the most
of the opportunities offered by new technologies,future
mobile services and devices will need to be much easier
to use.The user can be anywhere,at home,on the
move and still able to access his customised services.
Continuity of service from fixed to mobile access and
seamless roaming of services across operators,
heterogeneous networks and terminals,country and
cultural boarders should become a reality.
Smart cards for mobile networks
UBISEC is aiming at solutions for context-aware and
personalised authorisation and authentication services
in heterogeneous networks,based on smartcards.
UBISEC foresees automatic customisation being
provided through a set of user,device and application
profiles which are secure and situation-dependent.
Access control and authentication,as well as
personalised content delivery,will be administered
automatically by smartcards through a set of advanced,
distributed network services.Directory,discovery and
provisioning services support the mobile user while
moving across heterogeneous networks.
The work focuses on advanced personalisation and
localisation technologies with high security so as to
maintain privacy and protect computing devices,their
software components,and personal user data including
user profiles.
UBISEC:www.c-lab.de/ubisec/
07
Personalised Access
Personalisation will be an important feature of future
services.It will ensure users receive services most
suited to their needs and situation (context),while also
safeguarding their privacy and protecting their personal
data.
An important lesson learned from 2G wireless systems
(GSM) is the portability of the user identity through
different mobile phones.In future systems such an
approach could be extended to cover a variety of
different networking technologies and devices.
Each user would be provided with a personalised profile
to be used for different services,eventually using
different classes of terminals.
To create and maintain a personalised user profile,
behavioural information would be processed
automatically.However,the user should at least have the
possibility to control the information gathered about
them;they may also wish to control how their personal
information is used.Hence security of information and
user privacy are key issues here.
Simplifying user access
The SIMPLICITY project aims to simplify the process
of using actual and future “services”.Specifically,it will
design and deploy a brokerage level able to:
• Personalise service delivery as a function of user
preferences and needs;
• Allow seamless portability of services and running
applications/sessions through heterogeneous terminals
and devices;and
• Smoothly adapt service delivery to the underlying
networking and service support technologies and
capabilities.
The project will describe user scenarios and business
models,and explore new brokerage mechanisms and
policies in a multi-access networking environment.
These will inform the design of a universal multi-
application device to provide users with a simple and
uniform mechanism for customising services and
terminals which will be validated in a test-bed.
SIMPLICITY:www.ist-simplicity.org
Further Information
www.cordis.lu/ist/ct
Addressing the R&D Challenges of the next Decade
Drawing on the collective expertise of the sector actors –
the eMobility Specific Support Action
08
In the context of the Lisbon goals,sector actors
established the eMobility Technology Platform to
develop a Strategic Research Agenda for the mobile and
wireless communications sector including broadband
communication.As such,it provides a focus for the
concerted effort of all concerned sector actors.It is a
common platform for the multi-sectorial and multi-
disciplinary work required to enable advances in mobile
and wireless technology,serving the needs of citizens in
the global context.
In order to support the activities of eMobility
Technology Platform,the eMobility Specific Support
Action is designed to assist the open consultation and
participation of a broad spectrum of stakeholders in
defining the objectives,scope and approach to future
mobile,wireless and broadband systems and their use.
With the growing emphasis on a user-centric vision,the
range of stakeholders in the eMobility Technology
Platform concerned expands beyond manufacturers,
network and service providers to include content
providers and application providers,R&D centers and
universities.Academia and leading edge users play an
important role in identifying strategically important
research issues,new technology options as well as
technical and non-technical requirements.
The eMobility SSA covers the additional efforts required
for this extended participation of stakeholders to
provide the EU with a well founded Vision and Strategic
Research Agenda.
The Membership of the eMobility Technology Platform
includes,as of June 2006,312 organisations from 34
countries,including 88 industry organisations,95 SMEs
and 129 members from research organisations.
The results of the work so far are reflected in four
Strategic Research Agenda reports for eMobility
(http://www.emobility.eu.org/).
The Strategic Research Agenda for
eMobility
By the year 2020,mobile and wireless communications
will play a central role in all aspects of European
citizens’ lives,not just telephony,and will have a major
influence on Europe economy,wirelessly enabling every
conceivable business endeavour and personal lifestyle.
After only a decade of mobile service being available in
Europe,3
rd
Generation mobile services,wireless access
to the Internet and the Internet itself are maturing and
attention is focussing on consolidation and on looking
beyond the current Internet to future systems.The
scope of activities includes the use of broadband and
wireless to enable innovation in other sectors
(transport,energy,health care,education,etc.as well as
looking at architectures which support “beyond IP”
concepts to achieve broadband for everyone.
The following vision statement articulates the essence
of the future aims and vision:“The improvement of
the individual's quality of life,achieved through
the availability of an environment for instant
provision and access to meaningful,multi-sensory
information and content”.Realisation of this vision
demands a major shift from the current concept of
“anywhere,anytime” to a new paradigm of “any
network,any device,with relevant content and
context in a secure and trustworthy manner”.
The future system will be complex,consisting of a
multitude of service and network types ranging across
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN),Personal Area,Local
Area,Home Networks,Moving Networks to Wide Area
Networks.The increasing dependency of society on such
communication infrastructure requires new approaches
and an emphasis in European research captured here in a
new concept called the “SET Concept” that
underscores the need for a 3-dimensional vision of
research activities that will deliver Simplicity,Efficiency
and Trust.
09
Set Concept
The SET Concept is designed to
overcome potential technical,
business and psychological barriers to
the adoption and acceptance of new
technologies and services.It takes
into consideration the interests of
users,network operators,service
providers,and manufacturers,and
provides a challenging research
agenda for all.
Simplicity- It emphasises research
into new solutions for managing
complexity seamlessly on behalf of
service providers and for hiding
complexity from a user in accessing,
using and creating services.Complexity is delegated
from a user to the communication system which must
adapt to the individual’s life stage preferences and
situation,and a variety of other contexts.
Efficiency- Solutions which result in efficient use of
spectrum and network resources,and higher
throughputs,through appropriate cooperation and
adaptation techniques.The new target is not necessarily
higher bit rates as in the past.Autonomous self
organisation is needed to continuously operate at the
optimum point under dynamically varying conditions,as
well as capabilities to easily incorporate (as yet
unconceived) future services and requirements.
Trust- Wireless communications will enable an always-
connected environment,facilitating services to support
private and professional life of individuals,families,and
special interest groups.Intelligent services will be based
on sensitive personal information,context and profiles
traversing different network types,and multiple business
and administrative domains.Any successful adoption and
use of future services and networks in all walks of life,
imposes the creation of a trust environment.This is
necessary to overcome possible psychological barriers
through building a sense of trust in the integrity,privacy,
security of information and networks,as well as to
protect society against malicious,criminal or terrorist
activity.
Research Challenges
Simplicity
• Ubiquitous connectivity and session continuity
through auto-connectivity between legacy and new
types of networks:WSN,PAN,LAN,Home
Network,Moving Networks,Wide Area Networks
and techniques which facilitate self-(configuration,
organisation,healing) and management of
heterogeneous and dynamic networks and services.
• A network agnostic service execution platform that
interacts with networks and terminals and also
facilitates the deployment,adaptation and
management of services on the various (including
mobile) devices.
• Innovative services based on a user’s ambient
intelligent and streamlined context classifications
methodology
• Enabling techniques for user-created content
facilitating peer-to-peer communication
• Smart user interfaces and interactions with learning
capabilities
• New mobile device form factors,included embedded
wireless chip connectivity
• Radically simplified mechanisms and technologies for
context capturing,processing,distribution and
integration into intelligent services.
• New and efficient search engines with automatic
zero-configuration and complexity management
(including the management of privacy and trust).
Addressing the R&D Challenges of the next Decade
10
• Intelligent customer care and provision of smart
support in real-time in case of technical difficulties.
Efficiency
• Joint optimization of coverage,capacity and quality
techniques through cooperation and adaptation
techniques
• Efficient mechanisms for joint exploitation and
operation of available diversities in
time/space/frequency/code/power domains
• Investigation of alternative deployment concepts and
system architectures beyond the classical cellular
approach
• Efficient cross-layer operation and optimization
• Intelligent resource (frequency,battery,power,
hardware,software) discovery and management
techniques
• End-to-end content and media adaptation techniques
such as time-shifting,intelligent catching,
opportunistic transport/transmission,rate/quality
adaptation.
• Centralised and de-centralised self-organising
network topologies for both operator-based and
operator-less radio access network concepts for
special application areas (e.g.,disaster relief and
campus networks)
• Seamless convergence between fixed and mobile at
both service and network levels,exploiting
broadband optical technologies.
• Innovative transceiver architectures and jointly
optimized RF and baseband hardware designs,
matching the nano-electronics roadmaps and
exhibiting new degrees of scalability,flexibility,
security,energy-aware performance,cost efficiency
and design productivity.
• Evaluation of Network Information theoretical limits
of cooperative and self-organising networks and
research into advance coding design and signal
processing schemes to achieve these limits.
• Investigation of the impact of new frequency bands
for future systems on the radio propagation and
specification of appropriate output power levels to
ensure compliance with relevant guidelines and
regulations related to human exposure to radio
frequency electromagnetic fields.
• New methods of frequency usage,coexistence,
cooperation and sharing techniques for/between
exiting and newly identified frequency spectrum and
radio access technologies,based on cognitive and
spectrum-agile radios to select the most appropriate
radio access technology for a given environment.
Trust
• Secure data management,and synchronization and
private exchange of user profile and context
information
• Efficient encryption and cryptographic mechanisms
and algorithms suitable for different types of devices
and networks
• Identity management & privacy
• Secure and dependable end-to-end network
protocols and applications enabling a simple-to-use
trusted transaction environment
• Unified Digital Rights Management
• Transparent and flexible Service Level Agreements
• Combined multi-layered mobility support and
authentication/authorization across diverse networks
and support of simultaneous use of multiple access
technologies.
• Secure software and execution environment
including O/S
• Device and network protection against (virus,trojan,
DoS attacks) and intrusion detection
• Safe and secure software download enabling
networks and device re-configurability
11
Building on Europe’s strengths
As was achieved with GSM,the SET
Concept offers new opportunity for
Europe to be the leader in adopting a
holistic and balanced approach to
realisation of the future mobile and
wireless communication system.The
SET Concept will result in efficient and
usable technologies and was developed
taking into great consideration users’
interest and needs as well as recognising
the important role of wireless
communications in Europe’s economy.
The research programmes will need to
be focused on enhancing the axis of
research (Simplicity,Efficiency,Trust) in
the SET Concept through innovative
techniques and technologies and targeted
towards a system that comprises multiple network
types.The SET framework offers a useful means to
measure the relevance and output of research
programmes,also facilitating faster standardisation
processes and reducing time to market.Supporting
measures to evaluate the evolving European policy
environment against the SET framework are also
needed,if effective and timely research exploitation is to
be secured.
As a further step to ensure such exploitation,the most
relevant research results should be integrated and
demonstrated in an open infrastructure for research and
education purposes that facilitates joint optimisation of
different sub-systems under the same conditions.These
include,for example,use of different and new frequency
bands,new spectrum sharing methods,interworking and
seamless mobility solutions,new security techniques,
cognitive paradigms,ambient intelligence,and new
usages and context aware services.This infrastructure is
expected to act as a European showroom of advanced
mobile technology and services highlighting
achievements from leading projects,and an open test-
bed to host SMEs and students through partnerships
with Universities,research centres and through
international cooperation.
Further Information
www.cordis.lu/ist/ct
Flexibility for the networked world
By making devices and systems smarter and more flexible,future mobile
communications systems will be easier to use,deploy and maintain.
12
As technology develops,users are faced with an ever-
broadening range of ICT devices and network-based
services,along with a bewildering array of configuration
procedures,access technologies and protocols.
Excessive complexity places an enormous burden on
users,service providers and network operators and
risks slowing down the deployment of new
technologies.In these circumstances,there is a danger
that Beyond 3G applications will not exploit the full
potential of ambient intelligence,context-aware services
and novel access technologies.
One solution is to make wireless devices and systems
smarter and more flexible.Engineers call this
“reconfigurability” and have pursued such an approach
for a number of years.It is now recognised that this
reconfigurability needs to extent throughout mobile
communications systems,from the user device right
through to the network infrastructure.
This so-called “end-to-end reconfigurability” is seen by
many in the wireless industry as a key enabling technology
for systems beyond 3G.It has the potential to revolu-
tionise wireless just as the PC revolutionised computing.
Challenges for New Architectures
Reconfigurable equipments and systems will generally
provide much higher flexibility,scalability,configurability
and interoperability.Reconfiguration will stretch over all
network layers and be implemented on open platforms.
There are three major challenges here:
• Transforming embedded flexibility into end-to-end
reconfigurability:The protocol stacks used to run the
system should be partly or fully defined in software
so that they can be downloaded,reconfigured and
executed.These protocols are on the terminal,access
network entities and associated procedures/protocols,
and may cover one or more air interfaces.
• Capturing the newly enabled reconfigurability functionalities
into sizeable benefits:The corresponding optimisation of
resources (spectrum,radio systems and equipment),
and reconfiguration functions (discovery,negotiations,
control and triggering).
• Finding right balance between integrated versus distributed
approaches:The reconfigurability functions,architectures
and intelligence may either be integrated - logically or
physically - in one equipment,or distributed depending
on the requirements,constraints and availability of
enabling technologies.
These axes drive the definition of an architecture and
design of reconfigurable and flexible system concepts that
enable seamless and transparent communication across
heterogeneous environments.An active cooperation
between end users,operators,service providers and new
comers is needed to firm up the definition of the most
appropriate distribution of intelligence between
reconfigurable terminals and networks.
Benefits of Reconfigurable Architectures
The advent of end-to-end reconfigurability will influence
the structure of the industry,creating new markets and
new employment opportunities,notably in the area of
content creation,new services and service/content
creation tools but also in wireless information
technology administration (WIT).
Industry,end-users and standards will benefit through:
• Efficient,Advanced and Flexible End-User Service Provision:
The reconfigurability management of the network and
systems will serve the optimal provision of end-user
services and applications.This aspect of end-to-end
reconfigurability encompasses the tailoring of application
and service provision to user preferences and profile,
taking into consideration the network/terminal
capabilities,configuration and profile,as well as
service/charging/security profiles and related context.
• Efficient Spectrum,Radio and Equipment Resources
Utilisation:In collaboration with the regulatory
authorities and local regulators,the resulting
technologies will offer flexible use of spectrum
resources and associated security issues.Such an
approach would simplify the process of optimizing
resource usage.For instance,with equipments and
systems capable of operating in such a situation,a
private user could be granted access to a portion of
bandwidth that is unlicensed.
13
• Reduced Cost to Upgrade Fielded Systems:The
communications standard used by a device will be field
upgradeable through software downloads,e.g.over the
air.The economics of expensive infrastructure systems
will be improved,since the cost of the hardware and
deployment could be amortized over a longer lifetime,
• Multi-Standard Platforms:A single hardware platform
will be shared dynamically amongst multiple applica-
tions,with channel resources shifting among different
communications standards as the load shifts.This will
significantly reduce the cost of infrastructure to
support a mixture of legacy and newly-deployed fixed-
standard radio devices.
• Better Support for Customised Solutions:A developer will
be able to modify the communications standard of a
device without investing in a new hardware design.
Users who need relatively small volumes of devices,
for whom the cost of custom hardware is currently
prohibitive,will gain the ability to improve their
operations with devices optimised to their specific
needs.
• Reduced Standards Risk:An operator will be able
to deploy expensive infrastructure or large numbers
of mobile devices without locking in the communications
standard that will be used.This insulates the operator
from potential changes in the standard and from market
uncertainty.
Further Information
www.cordis.lu/ist/ct
End-to-end reconfigurability
The End-to-End Reconfigurability (E2R) integrated project aims to bring the
full benefits of the valuable diversity within the radio eco-space,composed
of a wide range of systems such as mobile,wireless local area (W-LAN) and
broadcast.The consortium includes key European players in
reconfigurability,software defined radio (SDR) and cognitive radio (CR).
E2R will devise,develop and test architectural designs of reconfigurable
devices and supporting system functions.Activities address end-to-end
development (stretching from the users’ devices to Internet Protocol),
services and reconfigurable architecture.In particular it focuses on intrinsic
functionalities such as management and control,download support,
spectrum management,regulatory framework and business models.
Benefits will include an expanded set of operational choices for users,
application and service providers,operators and regulators for
heterogeneous mobile radio systems.
E2R:http://e2r.motlabs.com/
Satellite convergence
Convergence of broadcast and mobile communications is opening up new markets
for satellite-based services,which will make a significant contribution to future
wealth creation.
14
Satellites today provide both direct access to,and the
backbone of European and Worldwide digital
information broadcast networks,as well as interactive
and subscription TV services,mobile services to ships,
aircrafts and land-based users,and data distribution
within business networks.Satellites are also a key
element in the Internet backbone,and enable both
broad and narrowband Internet access services from
remote and rural locations.Satellite services provide an
essential component of disaster relief activities
worldwide,offering reliability,instant and long-term
availability,over very wide areas.In addition to civil
applications,the unique coverage advantages of satellite
systems position them as key players for risk and crisis
management for institutional,government and defence
applications.
Satellite-delivered broadcast,broadband and mobile
services are converging.The moves towards location
based services stimulated by Galileo and the increasing
interest in environmental monitoring and security means
that future satellite systems and technologies are fully
capable of delivering a broad mix of features,as and
when required.Telecommunication satellite services may
be seen as the supporting infrastructures to other
applications such as Earth Observation satellite services,
Navigation satellite services.
Next steps will put emphasis on developing solutions
that further ease the integration and convergence
between satellite communications systems and
terrestrial systems,thus making it far more appealing
and ubiquitous for the user.
Hybrid networks,in which satellite complements
terrestrial technologies rather than compete,must be
developed.Satellite can then be seamlessly integrated
into hybrid systems,and its contribution will evolve in
line with the progress of technology during the lifetime
of the satellite.Ultimately,satellite should have the
capability to serve as a universal overlay of any
terrestrial network,fixed or mobile,as well as being able
to deliver service where satellite has clear advantages
(e.g.in remote and rural areas).
Seamless service provisioning across networks is among
the key targets of innovation,with increasing focus on
the design of end to end wireless systems for
heterogeneous connectivity solutions that are
increasingly being considered for several market and
crisis management scenarios.
Multimedia via satellite
Future mobile satellite systems (MSS) could potentially
fill three roles:
• Extension of existing mobile satellite services:especially in
increasing capacity and achievable bit rates,focused on
niche markets (the “evolutionary approach”).The
convergence of broadcast and point-to-point
connections,and the advent of concepts like multicast,
opens new possibilities for the MSS market.Different
solutions seem to be possible,especially in the
integration of the network elements,be it either
satellite or terrestrial based.
• Convergence of broadcast with MSS services and the
advent of multicast services.In contrast to the
evolutionary approach,the aim here is to come to a
solution with the highest possible integration of the
satellite and terrestrial systems.One promising
candidate in this direction is the IMT-2000/UMTS-
vision of a fully integrated system,even to the extent
of using the same (dual-mode) terminals.
• Coverage extension for mobile terrestrial networks,
resulting in a higher integration of satellite networks
with terrestrial networks and the internet.
15
Co-operation for future satellite
communications
Developments in satellite communications in Europe
are guided by the Task Force on Advanced Satellite
Mobile Systems (ASMS-TF).The Task Force was formed
in March 2001,at the initiative of the European
Commission and the European Space Agency (ESA).
This industry-led initiative aims to create a European
vision of the future of mobile systems,from both
technological and economic perspectives,and to identify
critical standardisation and regulatory issues.It is
building on earlier results generated under the Frame-
work Programmes and on on-going activities sponsored
by ESA and the IST Programme.
Members include manufacturers,operators,service
providers,research organisations,academic institutions,
mobile industry specialists,and car manufacturers.
ASMS-TF:http://asms.wss.bcentral.com/default.aspx
Research for Satellite Communications
The IST Programme’s work related to satellite
communications is largely consistent with this
evolutionary picture anticipated by the industry.
IST-sponsored activities do not target space-specific
equipment,such as payloads or platform technologies,
nor the ground equipment used exclusively in a satellite
context.These activities are the remit of the European
Space Agency (ESA).Rather,IST projects take terrestrial
systems and networks as a starting point,with a view to
validating the related technologies and services in the
mixed satellite-terrestrial environment that is likely to
emerge in future.
Most projects include a satellite and a terrestrial
network component,and aim at optimising inter-
operability within this heterogeneous environment.
Further Information
www.cordis.lu/ist/ct
Satellite convergence
16
Building European excellence in satellite
communications
SatNEx is a Network of Excellence in satellite commu-
nications.Bringing together twenty-two of Europe’s
foremost universities and research institutions,the
Network aims to establish a long-lasting,durable
integration of European research in satellite commu-
nications and develop a common knowledge base.
The partners have established a Joint Programme of
Activities (JPA) addressing research as well as the
integration and training needs.Integrating Activities
bring together the Network’s researchers,research
tools and test-beds into a Europe-wide collaboration
platform.
The joint research strategy provides a focus for
research activities,including system studies and research
trials.Training,dissemination,knowledge transfer and
standardisation activities help to spread this knowledge
across the wider research and industrial communities.
Under the Sixth Framework Programme,work on
satellite RTD is seeking to identify a coordinated
European view of the role that advanced mobile satellite
communication systems may play in 3G and future
“systems beyond 3G”.Activities are carried out in
coordination with the thematic priority on "Aeronautics
and Space",and are clearly placed in the context of
related ESA efforts.
Research topics include:
• Convergence of multicast / broadcast and
telecommunication services:covering issues such as
commonality with terrestrial technologies;integration
with terrestrial networks;simulation tools;and
application-enabling technologies.
• Increasing spectral and power efficiency:considering
aspects such as adaptive modulation and coding
techniques,fade countermeasures,dynamic spectrum
allocation,and multi-user detection techniques.
• Multimedia satellite system (MSS) terminals:covering a
full range of equipment,from palmtop and handhelds,
to laptops,vehicular,maritime and aeronautical.
• Services and network architecture:including solutions
for stand-alone networks,integrating the terrestrial
and satellite portions of 3G networks (T-UMTS and
S-UMTS),and extending T-UMTS to broadcasting.
Support to standards activities remains an important
outcome of this work.
Integral Satellite Initiative
The Integral Satellite Initiative (ISI) Technology Platform
brings together a unified,industry-led forum all research
and technology aspects related to satellite
communications,including mobile,broadband,and
broadcasting applications.The purpose is to foster and
develop the entire industrial sector,maximise the value
of European research and technology development,and
contribute to EU and ESA policies.
Satellite communications is the most mature and
economically important (up to 70% of the revenues) of
the space applications in terms of European space
industry.Europe has world-class competence and
capacities in satellite communications and is a strong
global player.
Satellite communications constitute a strategic sector
for Europe,with significant economic impact and high
societal relevance.They are instrumental for European-
wide and international broadcasting,mobile
communications,broadband access,bridging the digital
divide,safety,crisis management,disaster relief,and dual
use applications.
ISI aims to be instrumental in achieving and maintaining
European leadership and competitiveness on a European
and global level,fostering the entire industrial sector,
and maximising the value of related research and
technology development.ISI embodies the critical mass
required to pursue the above objectives considering
short term priorities,medium-term evolutions,and long-
term strategic directions.
17
The specific challenges of the Strategic Research Agenda
of ISI are described in the following non-exhaustive list:
• Surpass the state-of-the-art in system
architecture design and implementation
• Overcome technical limitations with
European solutions
• Largely improve marketing conditions for
European Industry
• Remove international regulatory barriers
• Strongly pursue open standardisation of
technology
ISI is an open platform,whose membership embraces all
relevant and interested private and public stakeholders,
altogether currently more than 145 organisations from
24 counties participate.ISI intends to collaborate and
cooperate with the European Commission,the
European Space Agency (ESA),the EU and ESA Member
States and Associated States,the National Space
Agencies,International Organizations,User fora,and
other European Technology Platforms.ISI fosters
international cooperation under a global perspective.
Further Information
www.cordis.lu/ist/ct
Personalised services on the move
By integrating mobile network and broadcast communications DAIDALOS will open
the way to a new generation of personalised and pervasive end-to-end services for
mobile users.
18
Background
Imagine leaving home to go on a business trip and being
able to take your personal communication services with
you.All the e-mails you studied on your PC at home will
also be available on the terminal in your car,where they
are read to you by your handheld device while you
drive.This seamless handover from broadband internet
connection at home to digital broadcast connection in
the car is one of the research results by EU project
DAIDALOS.
The central problem tackled by DAIDALOS is the
increasing number,and complexity of,access
technologies.Rapid technological and societal changes,
together with the bewildering emergence of numerous
new services have created a complex environment for
network operators and a confusing situation for end
users.The enhancement of existing technologies and
development of new “Beyond 3G” systems will increase
this complexity even more.
A major challenge for these future networks will be to
provide ubiquitous access to an unlimited set of IP-
based services at reduced costs for both the users and
operators.One solution is through wireless “hotspots”
that are already being installed in various locations.
These wireless LANs (WLANs) have limited coverage,
however.By marrying up broadband internet with
mobile networks (3G) and broadcast communications
(DVB-T) the operator is able to increase coverage
without investment in new infrastructure.With their
multi-hop characteristics,these so-called mobile ad-hoc
networks are more flexible,making them especially
suited to provide increased radio coverage at low cost.
Focus
DAIDALOS will fundamentally improve the usability of
European telecommunication technologies by integrating
mobile network and broadcast communications.It aims
to seamlessly integrate heterogeneous network
technologies so as to allow network operators and
service providers to offer new and profitable services
for voice,data and multimedia.
DAIDALOS’s vision is of a world in which:
• Mobile users can enjoy a diverse range of personalised
services - seamlessly supported by the underlying
technology and transparently provided through a
pervasive interface.
• Mobility has been fully established through open,
scalable and seamless integration of the various
network technologies.
• Network and service operators are able to develop
new business activities and provide profitable services
in such an integrated mobile world.
To realise this vision the project is developing a solution
called Intelligent Interface Selection.This will enable
users to benefit from the comprehensive features of
several telecoms networks without having to choose
between 3G,WLAN,or broadcast access technologies
each time they use a voice,data or multimedia service.
The communication device automatically selects the
optimal network interface and access technology
according to the user preferences,such as cost,speed,
or specific capabilities.
Project Activities
At a technical level,DAIDALOS aims to develop and
demonstrate an open architecture based on a common
network protocol (IPv6).This is being realised through
four technical objectives:
• Design,prototype and validate the necessary
infrastructure and components for efficient
distribution of services over diverse network
technologies beyond 3G;
19
• Integrating complementary network technologies to
provide pervasive and user-centred access to these
services;
• Developing an optimised signalling system for
communication and management support in these
networks;
• Demonstrating the results of the work through strong
focus on user-centred and scenario-based
development of technology.
DAIDALOS will present a number of innovations that
will provide users with a new quality of mobile
communication.These include:the integration of
heterogeneous networks;a seamless real IPv6
infrastructure which will also allow for broadcasting;and
pervasive systems offering context-aware and
personalised applications.
Theoretical results are being verified against two
technical scenarios.In the DAIDALOS Mobile University
students studying abroad have access to their personal
set of services and can dynamically discover local
services and devices.In the second demonstrator,the
DAIDALOS Automobile scenario,supporting services
are delivered in and around the vehicle through features
such as personal multimedia,ad-hoc mobile networking
and session mobility.
Impact and Exploitation
DAIDALOS has the potential to revolutionise mobile
communication,enabling European citizens to shape
personal mobile services to their individual needs.In
these future communication services the interaction
between humans,communication terminals,cars,and
related infrastructures will become more natural and
intuitive.
Automobiles are a particularly exciting application for
these ad-hoc networks.Cars’ onboard networks will
communicate with ad-hoc sensors on the road to send
and receive messages in real-time.Areas of application
include services like safety warnings,traffic information,
and real-time information on road conditions.For
instance,the project has already demonstrated the
seamless use of a personalised communication service,
such as e-mail or digital video,while moving from a
fixed-line internet connection to mobile broadcasting via
DVB-T in a car parked in front of the building.
Further Information
Project Name:
Designing Advanced Interfaces
for the Delivery and
Administration of Location
independent Optimised per-
sonal Services (DAIDALOS-II)
Project Reference & Type:
IST-026943 (Integrated Project)
Website:
www.ist-daidalos.org
Duration:
Jan 2006 - Dec 2008
(36 months)
Project Funding (EC/total)
€13.8 / €22.1 million
Project Contact:
Riccardo Pascotto,
Deutsche Telekom AG,
riccardo.pascottot-systems.com
DG INFSO Contact:
www.cordis.lu/ist/directorate_d/
cnt/index.htm
Making a reality of ambient networks
Focusing on the dynamic relationships between different access networks,Ambient
Networks aims towards new solutions that will enable users to be connected
anywhere and anytime.
20
Background
Over recent years the concept of “ambient intelligence”
has emerged to describe interactions between a multitude
of network-enabled devices,services and
artefacts.In this ambient intelligence
world technology will be almost invisible,
embedded in all kinds of objects and
everyday environments,such as the home,
office,car and train.Users’ access to
applications and services – many of which
will be delivered within mobile
environments – will be simple and
effortless.
This vision presents many challenges from
the network point of view.For instance,it
requires that different access systems,
including new radio interfaces,be
integrated on a flexible network platform.
Different interoperable systems will need
to be optimised for particular applications
and environments and to allow scalable
deployment of system capacity according
to the demands of operators and end-
users.And it will require end-to-end
reconfigurable communication,based on an open
architecture supporting fast creation of services and
content.
Difficult technical questions arise here.How should the
networks surrounding the user be activated? How can we
empower the players for competition and cooperation?
What is the best means to support heterogeneous air-
interface and service technologies so as to deliver
seamless services and ease the service provider role? And
how can we achieve a modular and scalable functionality
in one common framework?
Focus
The Ambient Networks project is addressing these issues.
It has set out to create scalable and affordable network
solutions for mobile and wireless systems
beyond 3G.Its approach will provide rich
and easy-to-use communication services
for all,ensuring the user is able to be
instantly best connected at any place and
at any time.
Ambient Networks offers a fundamentally
new vision based on the dynamic
composition of networks to avoid adding
to the growing patchwork of extensions
to existing architectures.This will provide
access to any network,including mobile
personal networks,through instant
establishment of inter-network
agreements.It is geared towards
increasing competition and cooperation in
an environment populated by a multitude
of user devices,wireless technologies,
network operators and business actors.
The project is coupled to two other FP6
projects:End-to-End Reconfigurability research (E2R),
dealing with reconfigurable network architecture,and
WINNER,dealing with future radio interfaces.The three
projects were jointly launched by the Wireless World
Initiative (WWI),an international cooperation
representing industry,academia and governments,with the
aim to develop long-term technologies for global wireless
communication.
Project Activities
Researchers are investigating a number of design
paradigms for horizontally structured mobile systems
that offer common control functions to a wide range of
different applications and air interface technologies.Such
a radical change requires the definition of new interfaces
and a multitude of standards in key areas of future
media- and context-aware,multi-domain mobile
networks.
21
The work focuses on the transient and spontaneous
merging – composition - of different types of networks
and network resources and the management of the
resulting common control space.Imagine,for instance,
that you take your wifi-enabled PC onto a train.For
constant internet access,the PC will need to
communicate with the train’s wireless network,
which in turn will need to communicate with
different cells within the mobile (3G) network.
Service delivery requires a negotiation and
rearrangement of the control layer functionality
between these different networks.
The project’s results comprise a complete and
coherent wireless network solution;an architecture
for self-configuring network components that
reduces deployment and operational costs;and a
complete protocol suite for network composition
evolved from IPv6.The results will facilitate
incremental market introduction of new services and
will stimulate sustainable growth in the European mobile
communications sector.
Impact and Exploitation
Personal communications and services have been major
driving forces in the growth of the European economy
in the last decade.New wireless technologies will
continue to be key drivers for new competitive
economies,enabling a healthy applications sector.New
market opportunities will open up,as mobile and
wireless technology becomes as pervasive as
microprocessors are today.Ambient Networks’
technologies should enable a competitive,
heterogeneous and modular wireless world.
Ambient Networks has the potential for a fundamental
and sustainable impact on the development of future
mobile networks.The project will shape the future
telecommunications arena and extend it into other
areas like IT services and content delivery.In so doing,it
will bring the vision of ambient communications one
step nearer reality.
The project will also create new business opportunities
for wireless access and network service provisioning.It
will foster the emergence of new businesses by allowing
users and small enterprises to connect their own
networks and introduce their own new services.And it
has both the determination and the critical mass
necessary to create industry and market consensus so
as to make a decisive impact on standards.
Further Information
Project Name:
Ambient Networks
Project Reference & Type:
IST-027662 (Integrated Project)
Website:
www.ambient-networks.org
Duration:
Jan 2006 – Dec 2007
(24 mths)
Project Funding (EC/total):
€12.8 / €22 million
Project Contact:
Henrik Abramowicz,Ericcson,
henrik.abramowiczericcson.com
DG INFSO Contact:
www.cordis.lu/ist/directorate_d/
ct/index.htm
New radio technologies for better mobile services
22
Improvements in radio access technologies being explored by WINNER will be crucial
for enabling new mobile services and applications anytime and anywhere.
WINNER Overall Objectives
The key objective of the WINNER project is to develop
an innovative concept in radio access in order to
address high flexibility and scalability with respect to
data rates and radio environments.The future
converged wireless world requires in the long-term
perspective a ubiquitous radio system instead of
disparate systems for different purposes (cellular,
WLAN,short-range access etc.).
The vision of a ubiquitous radio system concept is
providing wireless access for a wide range of services
and applications across all environments,from short-
range to wide-area,with one single adaptive system
concept for all envisaged radio environments.It will
efficiently adapt to multiple scenarios by using different
modes of a common technology basis.
The concept will comprise the optimised combination
of the best component technologies,based on an
analysis of the most promising technologies and
concepts available or proposed within the research
community.The initial development of technologies and
their combination in the system concept will be further
advanced towards future system realisation.
Compared to current and evolving mobile and wireless
systems,the WINNER system concept will provide
significant improvements in peak data rate,latency,
mobile speed,spectrum efficiency,coverage,cost per bit
and supported environments taking into account
specified Quality-of-Service requirements.
Objectives of WINNER I to III in a
phased approach
The WINNER vision results in the overall objectives for
all the WINNER Phases as follows:
• To develop a ubiquitous scalable radio access system
based on common radio access technologies that will
adapt to and be driven by different user needs and
scenarios,by utilising advanced and flexible network
topologies,physical layer technologies and frequency
sharing methods.
• To base the design of the WINNER I and II radio
system on a horizontal integration for different radio
environments and spectrum conditions in terms of
frequency range and carrier bandwidth with respect
to spectrum availability.
• To make efficient use of the radio spectrum in order
to minimise the cost-per-bit by utilising and combining
the technologies researched within WINNER I and II
in an efficient way.
• To define the system in such a way that it can be
realised through cost competitive infrastructure and
terminals.
In recent years tremendous advances have been made in
radio technology research.The design of new radio
systems provides the unique opportunity to combine the
best of the recent advances in order to maximise their
benefits from the perspective of defining new and
improved radio interfaces using a systematic investigation
and development approach and to feed the results into
the international standardisation and regulatory process.
The combination of new technologies,which are mutually
optimised,is the key for significant performance leap.
The ubiquitous WINNER radio system will be realised
through a phased approach (Figure 2-2),each Phase is
characterised by a major milestone and a basic
objective.These are described below.The expected
duration of all Phases is six years.Each of the three
Phases with a specific focus will has a duration of two
years to allow an adaptation to actual developments in
technology,international standardisation,regulation and
the political environment.This Annex I is addressing
Phase II.
23
In Phase I a scenario analysis was performed to capture
the user requirements.Additionally,a set of technical
assessment criteria was defined,which will serve as a
basis for the assessment of potential enabling
technologies and the selection of the most promising
ones,as well as the definition of suitable building blocks.
From this assessment,a first concept for a ubiquitous
system was defined with respect to the deployment and
propagation conditions in the potential target frequency
ranges,and its basic performance has been evaluated in
Phase I.
Phase II is focussed on the detailed system design,
optimisation,validation (through limited trials) and
preparation of further trials in Phase III.This translates
into the following WINNER II objectives:
G1 To design and optimise the new ubiquitous radio
access system,whose parameters can be scaled
or adapted to the requirements of a
comprehensive range of mobile communication
scenarios.From a coverage area point of view
wide-area,metropolitan and short-range scenarios
have to be supported.The radio access system
should be capable of supporting variable bit rates,
with peak data rates of up to approximately 100
Mb/s for medium to long-range heavy traffic areas
with high mobility,and up to approximately 1
Gb/s for hot spots and short-range scenarios.
G2 To continue the identification and analysis of
challenging user scenarios and corresponding
usage scenarios in concordance with all WWI IPs
based on WINNER I.To derive requirements for
the WINNER II radio interface and to evaluate
and refine the scenarios based on the evaluated
radio interface performance and other external
developments.
G3 To define the detailed radio interface
technologies needed for the ubiquitous radio
system concept,including the following
items:adaptive transmission schemes,duplex
schemes,multi antenna concepts,and
enhanced radio protocols,including Medium
Access Control (MAC)/ Radio Resource
Management (RRM) protocols for multi
antenna configurations in order to develop a
system specification.
G4 To develop in detail radio network topologies
and deployment concepts capable of
providing a ubiquitous radio coverage area,
for example by the use of fixed or mobile
relays,feeder systems,ad-hoc networking.The
definition includes the functionality and
external interfaces of the different network
elements,communication protocols for
information exchange between them and
Radio Resource Management (RRM)
algorithms to assign the available radio
resources to the corresponding elements.This
will be part of the system specification.
G5 To define the detailed radio level cooperation
mechanisms between different Radio Access
Networks (RAN).The choice of mechanisms will
include,but will not be limited to,handover
between new RANs or between new and legacy
ones,combined Radio Resource Management
(RRM) and concurrent/ complementary use of
different RANs.This will be part of the system
specification.
G6 To investigate missing cases for the propagation
conditions and to continue from WINNER I the
development of related channel models including
path loss,multipath propagation and direction of
arrival models in the identified potential target
frequency ranges.
G7 To define functionalities that implement efficient
and flexible spectrum use and sharing as part of
the system specification.
G8 To contribute to the international standardisation
and regulatory process – in particular to the
development of the necessary reports and
recommendations in ITU-R in the preparatory
phase of WRC 2007 – and where appropriate to
other international bodies,where WINNER II can
provide technical input.One example might be
Requirements Analysis
Technology assessment
System concept design
Requirements Analysis
Technology assessment
System concept design
Month 1 Month 24 Month 48 Month 72
• Scenario Analysis
• Requirements Capture
• Definition of Assessment Criteria
• Identification of Key Technologies
• Technology Evaluation &
Selection
• Definition of System Concept
• Performance Estimation
• Complexity Estimation
• Input to Regulation
• Detailed System Concept Design
• Evaluation of Interdependencies
• Optimisation & Validation by
Simulations
• Evaluation of new Technologies
• Detailed Performance Estimation
• Detailed Complexity Estimation
• Contributions to Standardisation
• Input to Regulation
• Limited trials
• Preparation of more extensive
Trials
• Investigation of
Implementation Issues
• Hardware Validation
• Refinement of System
Concept
• Including Feedback from
Trials
• Increased Contributions to
Standardisation & Regulation
towards a Global Standard
Detailed System Design
Optimisation Validation
Limited Trials
Detailed System Design
Optimisation Validation
Limited Trials
System Refinement
Key Components
Validation in Trials
System Refinement
Key Components
Validation in Trials
Phase I
Phase II Phase III
Requirements Analysis
Technology assessment
System concept design
Requirements Analysis
Technology assessment
System concept design
Month 1 Month 24 Month 48 Month 72Month 1 Month 24 Month 48 Month 72
• Scenario Analysis
• Requirements Capture
• Definition of Assessment Criteria
• Identification of Key Technologies
• Technology Evaluation &
Selection
• Definition of System Concept
• Performance Estimation
• Complexity Estimation
• Input to Regulation
• Detailed System Concept Design
• Evaluation of Interdependencies
• Optimisation & Validation by
Simulations
• Evaluation of new Technologies
• Detailed Performance Estimation
• Detailed Complexity Estimation
• Contributions to Standardisation
• Input to Regulation
• Limited trials
• Preparation of more extensive
Trials
• Investigation of
Implementation Issues
• Hardware Validation
• Refinement of System
Concept
• Including Feedback from
Trials
• Increased Contributions to
Standardisation & Regulation
towards a Global Standard
Detailed System Design
Optimisation Validation
Limited Trials
Detailed System Design
Optimisation Validation
Limited Trials
System Refinement
Key Components
Validation in Trials
System Refinement
Key Components
Validation in Trials
Phase I
Phase II Phase III
Figure 2-2:Project Phases and major areas of activity
New radio technologies for better mobile services
24
the 3G evolution study item in 3GPP on special
topics depending on the detailed workplan in
3GPP.
G9 To perform limited trials in Phase II in order to
proof the concept of basic functionalities of the
WINNER II system.
G10 To prepare the trial campaign in Phase III by the
selection of the hardware and software platform
of the trial system and preparatory activities
towards the application of a frequency test
license.
G11 To disseminate results via international
conferences,reputable journals and the
organisation of workshops as part of a global
harmonisation process.
WINNER III will be focussed on system refinement,key
components and validation in trials.Therefore,the
following focus areas will be addressed in the following
Phase III:
• Adaptation to external developments such as
upcoming specification and standardisation activities,
e.g.after the potential identification of new spectrum
in WRC 2007.
• Nearly real world/practical system investigations such
as implementation complexity,deployment and
business aspects etc.
• Dissemination and external promotion of the
WINNER II results and specifications in an
international harmonisation process as part of pre-
standardisation and standardisation activities.
• Validation and proof of system in more extensive
trials of key components in the intended Phase III.
The WINNER I and II vision of a
ubiquitous radio system
The users do not consider the underlying technology,
but will perceive the “look and feel” of the services,
usefulness of contents,the quality of service cost and
the user-friendly device (i.e.user interface,compatibility,
power consumption/on time,form factor).Therefore,
Quality-of-Service and user experience are essential
selling points.The capabilities of the radio systems are
usually a physical bottleneck in the overall network
infrastructure.Therefore,the vision of WINNER I and II
for mobile radio communications is a ubiquitous radio
system covering the full range of scenarios from local
area to wide-area,which provides a significant improve-
ment compared to current systems in terms of perfor-
mance,efficiency,coverage and flexibility.In view of:
• further enhancement of 3G systems,such as 3G
evolution activities in 3GPP
∑ different international research activities
• new developments,especially in the wireless IT sector
(IEEE specifications)
• future re-farming of currently allocated frequency
bands to mobile and wireless communications
The new radio system has to be scalable to different
carrier bandwidths and carrier frequency ranges in
order to overcome a likely fragmentation in the market.
Achievements of WINNER I
The overall objective of Phase I was to develop a system
concept adaptable to meet a wide range of scenario
requirements.This objective was achieved and a flexible
system concept has been proposed based on the
combined results from activities mainly conducted
within the following five principal areas:
• Definition of requirements:The WINNER I system
concept is user centric.To reflect this system concept,
requirements defining the overall design and
performance goals of the WINNER II air interface and
radio access network were defined based on both
technical and user oriented system requirements.The
former type of requirements were based on physical
limitations and the anticipated state-of-the-art
performance of systems beyond IMT-2000 whereas
the latter type of requirements were derived based
on fundamental results obtained from user scenario
analysis.
• Significant contributions to the international
regulatory process:WINNER I has contributed
significantly to the work of ITU-R WP8F.It has covered
the development of the ITU-R methodology for
estimating the spectrum requirements for systems
beyond IMT-2000 and significant work on Radio
Aspects.For example during WINNER I the WP6 has
prepared and submitted total over 60 regulatory
contributions to ECC PT1,ECC TG3 and ITU-R WP8F
meetings.All contributions submitted to PT1 were
agreed with minor modifications by PT1 and they
became agreed European contributions to ITU.The
contributions to the ITU were very successful:a major
25
part of the current ITU-R WP8F methodology working
document and the Tool based on the methodology and
intended for doing the actual calculations both
originates from WINNER I.In the Draft ITU-R WP8F
Radio Aspects report major content such as the list of
required radio parameters,most of their values and the
view about the preferred frequency range including it's
justifications originate from WINNER I.
• Identification of key technologies and system
concept design:The WINNER I system concept is
based on state-of-the-art technologies and procedures.
Such technologies and procedures have been identified
within several key areas such as advanced radio-link
technologies,duplex arrangements,multiple access
schemes,advanced beamforming and MIMO
technologies and methods for enhanced radio
protocols.New deployment concepts based on fixed
relays have also been identified.Based on the Modes
Convergence Manager the Modes Convergence
Reference Model has been established as a concept to
represent any scenario specific WINNER I protocol
stack and also to handle the problem how to switch
between different stacks.A concept on how to mesh
base stations and fixed relay stations into an existent
cellular system in a plug and play manner has also been
developed.Furthermore,a framework for cooperation
architectures between WINNER I RAN and legacy
RANs,including the cooperation architecture entities
and the mapping of the cooperation functionalities
(mobility management,admission control,location
based handover,scheduling / load control and QoS
management) in these new entities has been defined.As
spin-off of the activities in this area,a large number of
scientific papers has been prepared and submitted to
international conferences and magazines.
• Assessment of key technologies and system
concept proposals:The justification of identified and
selected key technologies and system concept
components was a central activity in Phase I.Such
assessments were conducted both on the link and
system levels as well as on the network levels.To
support those activities different channel models were
developed.Initially channel models based on existing
models were selected and adapted for early assessment
use.In parallel,acquisition of measurement data for
diverse outdoor and indoor environments at both 2
GHz and 5 GHz frequency ranges considering an RF
bandwidth of 100 MHz were conducted in order to
provide wide-band channel models for final assessment
use.
• Feasibility studies:
The implications of the
technology concepts
chosen for the
WINNER I system
concept have been
studied in terms of
feasibility and
complexity.The
feasibility of multi-
bandwidth transmission
was verified.It has also
been established that
fixed (L1/L2/L3) relays
are useful in both,short-
range/hot area and
wide-area scenarios to
increase the capacity of
a radio cell substantially
as well as to increase
the range of coverage of
a base station
substantially.Moreover,
sharing,co-existence
and flexible spectrum
use have also been
studied and analysed
extensively and suitable
ways how to employ by
the WINNER I system
concept to improve the
overall spectrum
efficiency,ease the
possible spectrum
identification and
deployment of the
networks has been
proposed.
Further Information
Project Name:
Wireless World Initiative
New Radio I (WINNER I)
Project Reference & Type:
IST-507581 (Integrated Project)
Website:
www.ist-winner.org
Duration:
Jan 2004 – Dec 2005 (24mths)
Project Funding (EC/total):
€11.8 / €21.2 million
Project Contact:
Dr Werner Mohr,Siemens AG,
werner-mohrsiemens.com
Project Name:
Wireless World Initiative
New Radio II (WINNER II)
Project Reference & Type:
IST-027756 (Integrated Project)
Website:
www.ist-winner.org
Duration:
Jan 2006 – Dec 2007 (24mths)
Project Funding (EC/total):
€12.5 / €22.4 million
Project Contact:
Dr Werner Mohr,Siemens AG,
werner-mohrsiemens.com
DG INFSO Contact:
www.cordis.lu/ist/ct
A think-tank for future wireless communications
By bringing together the best brains in Europe within a virtual campus,NEWCOM
is probing the frontier of future wireless communications systems.
26
Background
Digital mobile communications is one of the great
success stories of recent years,offering people levels of
mobility and services never available before.The new 3G
services will push the mobile opportunities even further.
This is not the end of the road for mobile,however.
On the contrary,we are still only at the beginning of the
mobile revolution.
Future mobile networks will need to combine different
access networks and technologies - satellite as well as
terrestrial – and get them to work together so as to
optimise different services requirements and operational
conditions.This brings many new research challenges:in
particular solving interoperability issues across multiple
networks and a variety of connected devices.We will
need new solutions to accommodate a wide range of
requirements on data rate,quality of service,security,
availability and price according to users’ expectations.
Focus
NEWCOM - Network of Excellence in Wireless
COMmunications – is creating a European network
linking a large number of leading research groups with
expertise relevant to future wireless communications.
Its vision is to:
• Strengthen,develop and integrate research in the field
• Empower groups and individuals via dissemination
activities
• Ensure effective use of the knowledge produced via
exploitation,commercialisation,and standardisation
strategies.
NEWCOM effectively acts as a decentralised university,
organised in a matrix fashion.It is implementing an
elaborate plan of initiatives which together constitute
a Virtual Knowledge Centre.
The Network will contribute to future research
challenges within the Strategic Objective "Mobile and
wireless systems beyond 3G",a frontier research area
in the IST Priority.
Project Activities
NEWCOM’s activities are organised according to a
matrix approach.One dimension of the matrix is
characterised by basic research organised on well-
established topics and grouping leading European
researchers active in the field.These “departments”
are looking at:
• Analysis and Design of Algorithms for Signal Processing at
Large in Wireless Systems:including defining and
implementing common software/hardware platforms.
• MIMO Radio Channel Modelling for Design Optimisation
and Performance Assessment of Next Generation
Communication Systems:including development of best-
practice rules,benchmarks and databases to support
channel measurement and modelling.
• Design,Modelling and Experimental Characterisation of RF
and Microwave Devices and Subsystems:Specifically,the
aim here is to integrate research in the areas of basic
RF front-end building blocks such as power amplifiers,
oscillators,and filters,so as to identify the key features
of devices and subsystems for the physical layer
performance.
• Analysis,Design and Implementation of Digital
Architectures and Circuits:Aiming to fill the growing gap
between functional requirements coming from system
designers and hardware/software capabilities offered
by available technologies.
• Source Coding and Reliable Delivery of Multimedia
Contents:Gathering know-how and developing tools
and recommendations for robust transmission of
multimedia contents over wireless networks.
• Protocols and Architectures,and Traffic Modelling for
(Reconfigurable/ Adaptive) Wireless Networks:The focus is
to develop a new protocol suite better tailored to the
needs of the mobile environment,e.g.maximizing
performance while decreasing cost in terms of battery
and network resource consumption.
• QoS Provision in Wireless Networks:Addressing aspects
such as mobility,security and radio resource
management.
27
Cutting across these in the other dimension are the
NEWCOM Projects.These address important "hot"
problems whose solution requires multidisciplinary skills
drawn from NEWCOM “departments”.The five
NEWCOM projects focus on future solutions and
research needs in:
• Ad hoc and sensor networks;
• Ultra-wideband communication systems;
• Functional design aspects of future generation wireless
systems;
• Reconfigurable radio for interoperable transceivers;
and
• Cross-layer optimisation.
The Joint Programme of Activities also involves
researcher exchanges,organisation of workshops and
conferences,and the broad dissemination of scientific
results.Graduate courses are also offered,delivered via
high-speed networks.
Impact and Exploitation
NEWCOM has a strong commitment to dissemination.
As well as publication in respected scientific journals and
conferences,the project makes particular efforts to
engage in industry events.A Best Paper Award is presented
to the author(s) of the paper(s) chosen by the Advisory
Board as having made the most significant contribution to
the wireless communication area at large.
Also for industry,the project organises NEWCOM Days
where the main research results of the year are
presented to invited representatives from the
telecommunications industry.SMEs are seen as an
important target,both for encouraging joint research
programmes and exploiting the Network’s results
through joint agreement of IPR exploitation.
NEWCOM also emphasizes the promotion of
entrepreneurship among its researchers,by encouraging
them to register and exploit their IPR,and supports
them in a number of ways.Researchers have the
opportunity to submit their ideas and results to the IPR
Manager for a first evaluation,and even to postpone
publication so as to allow a possible patent application.
The Consortium includes several incubators to facilitate
the creation of start-ups.In addition,the project has
prepared a summer school on IPR exploitation and is
launching a business plan competition for NEWCOM
researchers and PhD students.
Further Information
Project Name:
Network of Excellence in
Wireless COMmunications
(NEWCOM)
Project Reference & Type:
IST-507325
(Network of Excellence)
Website:
http://newcom.ismb.it
Duration:
Mar 2004 – Aug 2006
(30 mths)
Project Funding (EC/total::
€8.00 million
Project Contact:
Stephen Sadler,Istituto
Superiore Mario Boella,
sadlerismb.it
DG INFSO Contact:
www.cordis.lu/ist/ct
Wireless gets personal
MAGNET targets personalised and user-centric solutions for future mobile and
wireless communications.
28
Background
There is a common belief that new technologies should
be centred on the user,improving the quality of life and
adapting to the individual without the user needing to
be aware of technical details.To achieve this,future
communications environments must provide context-
aware services and support personalisation and
ubiquitous access.Users should be
able to create a personal profile
that,according to the situation and
moment,will allow them to access
the most relevant information via
the most suitable means of
communication.
The concepts of Personal Area
Networks (PANs) and Personal
Network (PN) have emerged as
means of connecting a person’s
devices to provide wireless access
to data and services.PNs consist
of communicating clusters of
personal and foreign digital
devices,possibly shared with
others,and connected through
various suitable communications
means.They are configured in an
ad-hoc fashion,as the opportunity
and the demand arise to support
personal applications.
At the heart of a PN is a core personal area network,
which is physically associated with the owner of the PN.
Unlike PANs which have limited geographical coverage,
PNs have an unrestricted span and may incorporate
devices into the personal environment regardless of
their geographic location.To extend their reach,they
need the services of infrastructure-based,and possibly
also ad-hoc,networks.
Focus
MAGNET focuses on this new generation of adaptive
personal networks.Through research it aims to develop
environments that are smarter,more responsive,and
more accommodating to the needs of the individual
without jeopardizing privacy and security.
In its vision,support for professional and private
activities takes place through the user's own personal
network consisting of a core personal area network
extended with clusters of remote devices which could
be private,shared,or public and able to adapt to the
quality of the network accessed.In addition to the
technological aspect,MAGNET is
also addressing socio-economic
issues necessary for the concept
to make sense from a business and
user perspective.
MAGNET’s mission is to enable
commercially viable personal
networks that are attractive,
affordable and also beneficial for
the end-users in their everyday
life.What makes the MAGNET
project particularly interesting is
that it constitutes a systems
approach to what is expected to
be one of the most important
telecom-related growth markets of
the future:the personal area
network.
Project Activities
Achieving the MAGNET objectives
requires the solution of a number of technological
issues related to networking aspects,coexistence and
inter-working between a multitude of different network
interconnection schemes,wireless technology for PNs,
security and privacy.These solutions will be validated
through demonstrators.
Specifically,the work focuses on:
• User Requirements:The introduction of PN services
along with the associated technologies will constitute
a paradigm shift.Currently,there are no business
models or scenarios for PNs.Hence,a better
understanding and knowledge of possible business
solutions,as well as market and socio-economic
aspects,are necessary to achieve the full benefits of
the PN concept.
29
• Networks and Interworking:Addresses various system
aspects that are important for PN networks:
middleware for mobile distributed systems,resource-
and context discovery,addressing and routing,self-
organisation,and mobility management of sub-
networks and other PN components.
• Air Interfaces:Is investigating adaptive and scalable air
interfaces for PNs,through evaluation of user
requirements,measurements and modelling of the
channel and analysis of several physical and medium
access control layer techniques in a PAN environment.
• Security and Privacy:Uses a multi-layered security
concept addressing not only the security and privacy
requirements of users and businesses,but also how to
establish a secure PN in an inter-provider and multi-
hop communication scenario.It also addresses the
security and privacy aspects of PN applications.
• Flexible Platforms and Prototypes:Activities here are
evaluating the implementation challenges and assessing
the performances of results from the other work
packages.In addition,field trials are planned with
industrial prototypes to demonstrate the entire
PAN/PN architecture.
The project also plans to make a major contribution to
the standardisation bodies and fora.
Impact and Exploitation
MAGNET produces a framework for future PN
technologies and architectures.Results will be made
available for wide dissemination and the aim is to push
this framework as a basis for further industry
exploitation.
MAGNET’s results will form the basis for a new market
around the PN concept.This market will encompass
new equipment and software (e.g.for the PAN core of
the PN),as well as additional use of existing and
emerging services,and development and deployment of
new services to PNs and for interconnecting PNs.
This new personal networks market will result in:
additional employment within the ICT industry;the
creation of new service providers and spin-off
companies;additional revenues in equipment
manufacturing and software;and new value added
services for users.
Further Information
Project Name:
My Personal Adaptive Global
NET (MAGNET),and its
extention MAGNET beyond
Project Reference & Type:
IST-507102 (Integrated Project)
& INFSO-IST-027396
Website:
www.ist-magnet.org
Duration:
Jan 2004 – Dec 2007
(48 months)
Project Funding (EC/total):
€20 million
Project Contact:
Prof.Dr.Ramjee Prasad,
Aalborg University,
prasadkom.auc.dk
DG INFSO Contact:
www.cordis.lu/ist/directorate_d/
cnt/index.htm
Communications for public safety and security
WIDENS aims to realise flexible and scalable broadband communications networks
capable of being rapidly deployed by the civil and emergency services.
30
Background
Radio communications are widely used by the police
and other emergency services and are central to the
effective handling of any emergency situation.A number
of these professional mobile radio (PMR) communications
systems are in use in Europe but technical constraints
often mean they are not capable of operating together
at regional,national and international levels.
Focus
WIDENS is investigating next generation public safety
communication systems based on ad-hoc broadband and
wireless networks.
Rapid deployment is a key feature of the WIDENS
system.Its networks could be deployed in areas where
there is no available communication infrastructure to
support emergency or peacekeeping operations.
They could also be used as a stand-alone system to
provide communications in remote areas while being
connected to backbone network and/or a command-
and-control centre via satellite or airborne platform.
In addition,WIDENS systems could be used as a back-
up in areas where there is a lack of network capacity to
support emergency-related traffic or where
communications infrastructure has been destroyed.
The project is developing a network with broadband
communication capabilities and that supports
communication between nodes with a wide range of
mobility levels.It thus contributes to the evolution of a
number of different wireless systems and technologies.
Project Activities
From a technical perspective,WIDENS focuses on
providing a communications “hot spot” with high data rate
(2 Mbit/s) and capable of inter-operating with existing
infrastructure networks (TETRA,Tetrapol).The WIDENS
ad-hoc network is composed of “terminodes” – a versatile
software defined radio communication node with mixed
and enhanced features for terminal handset and IP router.
The terminode plays the role of:
1.A wireless node to extend the coverage area,supporting
advanced ad-hoc relaying features,up to the IP layer.
2.An end-user terminal when it runs an application,
delivering enhanced services (voice,data,images).
3.A gateway toward a backbone network or other
terminals.
Key research areas in WIDENS to realise such a
solution include:
• System architecture design:for a rapidly deployable and
scalable communication system based on ad-hoc
network technologies.It must meet user requirements
with respect to robustness,reconfigurability,
performance,QoS support,security,and
interoperability with existing systems.
• Scalable configurable ad-hoc network:Development of
the IP network layer focusing on issues of ad-hoc
routing,quality-of-service,and management and
reconfigurability.
• Ad-hoc MAC/PHY layers adaptation:Development of
physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC)
layers to support the ad-hoc mode.
• Integration and evaluation:Integration of the results
within end-to-end applications as an example of the
services that can be added to the network.In addition,
one of the key challenges is to demonstrate the
benefits of the tight vertical integration of the various
layers of the terminode in terms of the scalability,
reliability and efficiency of mobile ad-hoc networks.
Significant contributions to standardisation are also
expected,including through MESA,an EU-US initiative
on public safety communications standards.
31
Impact and Exploitation
The WIDENS broadband communications capabilities
will enable new emergency communication applications
and services.These will include:
• Real-time video transmission for applications such as
telemedicine,surveillance,remotely-controlled
robotics and small remotely-controlled flying platforms
for access to hazardous or dangerous areas.
• Fast download and transmission of large files that
could include:fingerprints,X-rays and geographical
data.
Europe has an important role in PMR equipment
manufacturing:WIDENS will help to maintain the
competitiveness of European industry in a global market
by setting the technological agenda for next generation
systems.In this way public safety,emergency and
disaster applications will be enhanced with high data
rate solutions that are interoperable with existing
communications infrastructures used by Europe’s
emergency services (TETRA,Tetrapol…).
Through discussion with public safety users’,WIDENS is
helping to achieve better understanding of their vision
and needs in rapidly deployable broadband
communications systems and services.It is also helping
to mobilise the joint efforts of European public safety
officials,regulators,industrial and research organisations
towards harmonising international standards in this field.
Further Information
Project Name:
Wireless Deployable Network
System (WIDENS)
Project Reference & Type:
IST-507872 (Specific Targeted
Research Project)
Website:
www.widens.org
Duration:
Feb 2004 – Jan 2006
(24 mths)
Project Funding (EC/total):
€2.9m / €5.1m
Project Contact:
Vania Conan,Thales
Communications,
vania.conanfr.thalesgroup.com
DG INFSO Contact:
www.cordis.lu/ist/ct
Mobile TV:unlimited audience,coverage and usage
Harnessing satellite and terrestrial network assets to optimise
the delivery of Mobile TV service to mobile users in a cost
effective way
32
Background
Mobile TV is expected to become a killer application
and to generate revenues of several billion euros by
2010 in Europe for the media and mobile industry.
Several market surveys have shown that around a third
of mobile subscribers are ready to pay a 5-15 euros
monthly flat fee to watch TV on their mobile.
Several 3G network operators already propose a Mobile
TV service to their customers in streaming mode.It
consists in a multi channel offer made of general and
thematic programs to satisfy most of users’ interests.It
attracts a growing number of
subscribers,however the
service quality is adversely
affected by a high cellular
network traffic load and/or a
high audience level since the
TV programs are delivered on
dedicated radio resources to
each terminal (unicast).
To develop further Mobile TV
market in Europe,there is a
need to develop new
solutions that would overcome
these current limitations.To this end,a combined
broadcast/unicast solution is well adapted to deliver
mainstream TV programs as well as specialty contents
to an unlimited audience without any constraints on the
usage scenarios.
Among the possible broadcast solutions,a hybrid
satellite/terrestrial digital mobile broadcasting system
makes an attractive complement to terrestrial 2G & 3G
cellular networks.This system operates in the
worldwide available ITU primary satellite frequency
allocation in the S-band (2GHz) adjacent to the
terrestrial UMTS band.It is a cost effective solution
when targeting global coverage.Satellite offers wide
geographical coverage and it is ideally complemented by
terrestrial gap-fillers in urban environment to allow
good quality reception to mobile users at home and
inside buildings.
Focus
MAESTRO is the latest in a series of European research
projects aiming to realise this innovative satellite based
solution implementing a broadcast/multicast layer
complementary to the existing 2G and/or 3G cellular
networks.MAESTRO has built on the results of earlier
European RTD projects under FP5,such as MoDiS,
SATIN and RELY as well as research activities supported
by ESA and CNES that have contributed significantly to
the overall feasibility of the proposed concepts.
The MAESTRO project has
assessed the potential market
benefits,contributed to
prepare the regulatory
framework,demonstrated via
standardisation the
coexistence of the system
with the T-UMTS system,
demonstrated the business
relevance and finally validated
the system architecture and
performance with a test bed
in laboratory and field
conditions.
The project mainly focused on the use of 3GPP-defined
WCDMA radio interface technology for both satellite
and terrestrial component since it was considered an
asset to privilege a marginal cost impact onto 3G
handset terminals (0 euros in volume production) than
a delivery capacity (0.16 bit/s per Hz).However,the
project also investigated the use of OFDM based radio
interfaces to boost capacity to reach an spectrum
efficiency up to 1 bit/s per Hz at a relatively higher cost
impact on 3G handset terminals (few euros on Bill of
Material).
The project showed that the required site density for
terrestrial repeaters is comparable with 3G site density
allowing cost effective deployment since site acquisition
is costly and affect time to market.
33
Project Activities
The project has contributed to the definition and
validation of the most critical services,features and
functions of satellite system architectures,so as to
achieve the highest possible degree of integration with
cellular network infrastructures.It has not only assessed
the satellite systems’ technical and economical feasibility,
but has also highlighted their benefits in complementing
cellular network for the delivery of rich multimedia
services.The project achievements can be summarised
as follow:
• Assessment of the commercial services relevant for
this hybrid infrastructure with a service demonstrator.
Three focus group involving more than 160
participants have been invited to react to various
service types and QoS;
• Consolidation of the business model with partners
acting in the business chain to determine the most
profitable business scenarios;
• Definition of the mission requirements as well as the
system architecture supporting key functions and
performances;
• Validation of the key functions and performances with
a consistent set of simulations at different layers as
well as an end to end test bed in laboratory and field
conditions;
• Detailed simulation of the radio interface physical
layer with respect to all possible impairments in the
transmission chain as well as terrestrial and satellite
propagation conditions;
• Characterisation of the satellite signal propagation in
outdoor (to verify recent models) as well as indoor
(1st time in the world) environments with an
extensive measurement campaign using in orbit
satellite;
• Performance assessment with simulation of different
algorithms for the radio resource allocation,packet
scheduling and admission control implemented at the
access layer;
• Evaluation of different security architectures adapted
to the different business scenarios identified and test
on the test bed;
• Specification,development and characterisation with a
simulator of a robust stream and file protection
protocols adapted to the system to improve the
quality of service;
Mobile TV:unlimited audience,coverage and usage
34
• Dimensioning and cost estimate of the system to
sustain the business models;
• Development and integration of an end to end test
bed for the validation of the system functions and
performances.About 300 scenarios have been tested;
• Assessment of OFDM based radio interface for the
system;
• Definition and dimensioning of a direct satellite return
link to support for example public protection disaster
relief missions;
• Regulatory activities at National,European and world
level to prepare for the deployment of the system.It
resulted mainly in a EC mandate issued in October
2005 and a draft ECC decision issued in March 2006
on the subject.A set of 25 regulatory contributions
have been submitted.;
• Standardisation activities carried out at ETSI TC-SES S-
UMTS and 3GPP RAN which resulted in the
demonstration of possible coexistence with UMTS
system as well as adoption of the WCDMA radio
interface as a Satellite Radio Interface at ITU level.47
standardisation contributions have been submitted.
• Promotion of the system concept and project results
in various workshop and conference as well as
scientific publications (90 publications among which 3
best award papers) in Europe and Asia not to mention
face to face meeting with mobile,satellite and media
operators as well as government institutions.
• Five tutorials have been organised in different
workshop and conference in Europe and America.
Impact and Exploitation
Based on the promising MAESTRO project results,
Alcatel created Alcatel Mobile Broadcast,an Internal
Venture whose remit is to promote and lead the
development of a hybrid satellite/terrestrial mobile
broadcast system called “Unlimited Mobile TV”
(“Télévision Mobile Sans Limite” in French).This
research & development project has received public
support from the French Agency for Industrial
Innovation (“Agence de l’Innovation Industrielle” in
French),pending acceptation of this support at the
European Union level.
As the project leader,Alcatel federates companies like
Philips and Sagem Communication (SAFRAN Group),as
well as several innovative SMEs:DiBcom,an expert on
integrated circuits for mobile TV reception,TeamCast,a
specialist in DVB (Digital Video Broadcasting) standards
modulators used for fixed and mobile Digital Terrestrial
TV,and UDcast,an Internet video transport and
distribution specialist.French university research
centers,such as CNRS,INRIA and CEA-LETI are also
involved in the project,which opens the door for work
with laboratories throughout Europe (e.g.the
Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS in
Germany).
This solution would be using an evolution of the DVB-H
standard in the S-Band (2GHz),which is currently being
standardized within the DVB Forum.Thanks to the full
availability of the S-Band in all European countries,the
solution would allow to deliver up to 45 mobile TV
channels in broadcast mode anywhere in Europe at
256kb/s in average with a high image quality,including
inside buildings for the areas covered by terrestrial
repeaters.First elements of this solution could
potentially be rolled out by 2008 for the terrestrial part
of the system,followed by a full-scale deployment that
would include satellite,potentially by 2009.
35
First analyses of terrestrial deployment cost of the
solution based on S-Band show that this solution would
be significantly more cost effective than in the UHF
band,thanks to the possibility of co-siting terrestrial
repeaters with existing cellular sites and sharing
antennas with 2G or 3G base stations.Furthermore,the
S-Band being
widely available
throughout
continents,the
innovative
solution
stemming from
the MAESTRO
project could as
well be used
outside Europe
in large countries
like China,India,
or Brazil.
Further Information
Project Name:
Mobile Applications & sErvices
based on Satellite & Terrestrial
inteRwOrking (MAESTRO)
Project Reference & Type:
IST-507023 (Integrated Project)
Website:
http://ist-maestro.dyndns.org
Duration:
Jan 2004 – February 2006
(26 months)
Project Funding (EC/total):
€5.20 / €10.3 million
Project Contact:
Nicolas Chuberre,
Alcatel Alenia Space,
nicolas.chuberrealcatelalenia-
space.com
DG INFSO Contact:
www.cordis.lu/ist/ct
Project partners
Alcatel Alenia Space France F
Motorola SAS F
LogicaCMG UK Limited UK
AGILENT TECHNOLOGIES BELGIUM S.A.B
Ascom (Suisse) AG CH
University College London UK
University of Bologna I
The University of Surrey UK
Fraunhofer Gesellschaft zur Förderung der
angewandten Forschung e.V.D
UDCAST F
SPACE HELLAS S.A.EL
ERCOM ENGINEERING RESEAUX
COMMUNICATIONS F
AWE COMMUNICATIONS GMBH D
GFI CONSULTING F
SES GLOBAL L
BRITISH TELECOMMUNICATIONS PLC (*) UK
E-TF1 F
BOUYGUES TELECOM F
Alcatel CIT F
Alcatel SEL AG D
SPICE
The project SPICE (Service Platform for Innovative Communication Environment) is
addressing the still unsolved problem of designing,developing and putting into
operation efficient and innovative mobile Service creation/execution platforms for
networks beyond 3G.
36
Background
Mobile communications and Internet services have
become an essential part of everyday life of European
citizens.However,most end-users today consider
mobile communication and Internet as totally separated
ICT facilities.Voice telephony and SMS are the
dominating communication services in mobile
communication.For a number of reasons,despite the
good availability of broadband radio technologies,the
business of mobile services has not yet taken off.
Examples of these reasons are:
• Time to market for new
services developments is
too long
• Integration and deployment
cost are too high due to the
inherent complexity and
heterogeneity of service
execution environments
• Users own many different
communication devices and
are surrounded by many
access technologies but they
usually cannot handle the
complexity of accessing
their services via several of
these devices.
• Service provisioning involves more and more parties -
Telco,content/service providers,third party networks
and service providers,and even end-users - increasing
the complexity of the environment for service
operation.
• Continuity of service from fixed to mobile access and
seamless roaming of services across operators and
network is far from being a reality.
Focus
The SPICE consortium acts on this by developing a
method for rapidly generating new services that hides
the complexities of the new communications
environment and allows commercial services to be
developed and deployed efficiently and economically.
To achieve this ambition,the SPICE consortium
integrates the competence and knowledge of leading
European telecom operators/service providers and key
IT and telecommunications suppliers.SPICE also includes
SMEs and research institutes
with appropriate specialist
knowledge in the project
team.SPICE is co-ordinated
with several established
Integrated Projects via the
Wireless World Initiative
organisation.WWI represents
a major joint effort from
industry,academia and
government in Europe
investing several hundred
million Euros in research to
lay the foundations for the
long-term future of global
wireless communications.
WWI is a new approach of
international research cooperation with more that
100 organisations and about 700 colleagues working
together.
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Project Activities
SPICE will research,prototype and evaluate an extendable
overlay architecture and framework for rapid creation and
deployment of intelligent and personalised Mobile
Communication and Content /Information Services.
Project activities aim:
• To provide end-users with communication means and
tailored applications anywhere,anytime and on any
device;
• To provide service providers and non-professional users
with service enablers that facilitate and quicken
application development.
• To allow operators to take up the role of Service
Provider
• To build a user-transparent infrastructure that hides the
complexity of services and applications crossing over
different access domains and copes with the various
access network technologies and offering a diversity of
services.
Impact and Exploitation
For end-users,operators and service providers,the
SPICE project will turn today’s confusing heterogeneity
into an easily manageable and rich service environment
by exploiting the diversity of device capabilities and
fostering service adoption.The SPICE approach will
broaden business opportunities in the communications
and associated business sectors.The SPICE solution will
benefit the Service developer community in giving them
opportunities for multiple sales or royalties from service
components;it will benefit network and service
operators in that the cost of generating,deploying and
operating new services will be reduced;and it will
benefit the society and the user community in that
socially beneficial and enjoyable services will be widely
available at an affordable cost level.The SPICE Service
Platform and open service architecture with innovative
enablers will facilitate easy and fast creation and
deployment of mobile services by non-professional
users and service providers.
Further Information
Project Name:
SPICE
Project Reference & Type:
IST-027617 (Integrated Project)
Website:
http://www.ist-spice.org
Duration:
January 2006 – June 2008
Project Funding (EC/total):
€12 million/ €22.1 million
Project Contact:
Christophe Cordier,
France Telecom R&D
christophe.cordierorange-ft.com
DG INFSO Contact:
www.cordis.lu/ist/ct
Capturing Ambient Intelligence for Mobile Communications
The objective is to provide heterogeneous wireless sensor network solutions to
enable Context Capture for Ambient Intelligence,in particular for mobile and
wireless systems beyond 3G;thus enabling truly multi-sensory and personal mobile
applications and services,as well as assisting mobile communications through
sensor information.
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Technological Roadmap
The wireless communications will play a central role in
our lives,mainly in the domains,such as healthcare,
business,security,leisure,sports and home.Proactive
sensor networks,communicating with others and with
the environment are needed.
A lot of sensors are being developed,for example for
healthcare,including positioning sensors,motion sensors
and physiological sensors.Current sensor based systems
are mainly stand alone and provide very specific
applications.The challenge is to integrate these systems
to provide reusable information for many applications.
Little ”intelligence” is embedded on sensors,so that
centralised computing is necessary.The power
consumption of embedded sensors and of course RF
transmissions should be as low as possible.The auto
energy concept is a promising possibility.
Ambient Intelligence
Ambient Intelligence is a key
component in the next epoch of
mobile and wireless communication
systems.However,the enabling
technology that provides systems with
information to allow for Ambient
Intelligence has been neglected and
currently consists of many independent
modes of input,mainly relying on active
user interactions or specialised sensor
systems gathering information.
Therefore the Integrated Project e-
SENSE proposes a context capturing
framework that enables the
convergence of many input modalities,
mainly focussing on energy efficient
wireless sensor networks that are
multi-sensory in their composition,
heterogeneous in their networking,either mobile (e.g.
Body Sensor Network) or integrated in the
environment e.g.from single sensors to thousands or
millions of sensors collecting information about the
environment,a person or an object.This framework will
be able to supply ambient intelligent systems with
information in a transparent way hiding underlying
technologies thus enabling simple integration.
Confrontation of invisible technologies with the
usual techniques
The “invisible” things…
Thinking about “capturing ambient intelligence for
mobile communications through wireless sensors
networks leads to analysing the user’s acceptance of
using a variety of technologies as in the following
illustration:
Figure 1:Sensorised Environment
through Wireless Sensor Networks
39
In this perspective,studying the user’s acceptance of
technology leads obviously to consider user relation to
sensor networks as essential.However considering
mobile communication issues,the question of the
mobile phone as the appropriate terminal is not so
obvious and should be considered.
Even if the main characteristic of the innovativeness of
ubiquitous computing relies on the sensors spread in
the environment,thinking about application to be
proposed to users in mobile communications implies
thinking about the appropriate devices to provide
services to user in mobile situations.
Obviously the mobile phone appears to be the most
appropriate device for providing user with WSN based
services in mobile situations because it is already the
most popular communication device.Moreover,if we
consider its current mutations (smart phone) and
alternatives (PDA),the mobile phone appears to be the
ideal device because of its computing and networking
features which are compatible with ubiquitous
computing applications.This is exploited by the strep
MOTIVE.
Expected Impact
Improving the efficiency and the intelligence of the
Wireless Sensor Network technology is expected to have
impact in areas such as;Work and the Networked Home,
Personal,Family and Society support,Personal,Family and
Society support,Health and Safety and Personal Security
as well as on EU competitiveness in this fast growing area
and also an impact on EU and International Wireless
standards.
Projects List
To date,the following projects relevant to Mobile & Wireless Communications have been supported under FP6.
These are funded under the Strategic Objectives:
• IST-2002-2.3.1.4 Mobile and Wireless Systems Beyond 3G
• IST-2004-2.4.5 Mobile and Wireless Systems and Platforms Beyond 3G
They also include General Accompanying Measures.
Further information on each of the projects is available at the URL shown.
40
Project No.Project Acronym Project Website Project No.Project Acronym Project Website
Integrated Projects
026943 DAIDALOS-II www.ist-daidalos.org
027714 EZR www.e2r.motlabs.com
027227 e-SENSE www.ist-e-sense.org
507023 MAESTRO ist-maestro.dyndns.org
027396 MAGNET-BEYONDwww.ist-magnet.org
027617 SPICE www.ist-spice.org
027756 WINNER www.ist-winner.org
027664 WWI AMBIENT www.ambient-networks.org
NETWORKS
Networks of Excellence
026957 ACE www.antennasVCE.org
027738 CRUISE http://www.telecom.ece.
ntua.gr/cruise/
507325 NEWCOM http://newcom.ismb.it
027393 SatNEx www.satnex.org
Specific Targeted Research Projects
507039 4MORE www.ist-4more.org
027567 AROMA http://www.aroma-ist.upc.edu/
507607 B-BONE b-bone.ptinovacao.pt
027423 C-MOBILE
027234 COMET
027002 ENABLE www.ist-enable.org
001858 EVEREST www.everest-ist.upc.es
027675 FIREWORKS
026905 MASCOT www.ist-mascot.org
026459 MDS
027055 MIDAS www.ist-midas.org
027659 MOTIVE
027965 ORACLE www.ist-oracle.org
001812 PHOENIX www.ist-phoenix.org
026955 PLASTIC www.ist-plastic.org
026851 RESOLUTION
507558 SIMPLICITY www.ist-simplicity.org
027610 SIMS www.ist-sims.org
027187 SURFACE www.ist-surface.org
506926 UBISEC
026906 UNITE www.ist-unite.org
027960 URANUS
507872 WIDENS www.widens.org
506746 WINDECT www.windect.ethz.ch
027402 WIP
Specific Support Actions and Coordination Actions
027215 3GWEB http://www.w3.org/2006/
3GWeb/
015811 ALIPRO www.eurescom.de/alipro/
026924 eMobility www.emobility.eu.org
511743 MOCCA mocca.objectweb.org
507557 MOSSA asms.wss.bcentral.com/mossa
507104 SIDEMIRROR www.sidemirror-ist.org
507627 SPECTRUM www.telecom.ece.ntua.gr/
spectrum/
027297 SPORT VIEWS
015774 VAS CHINA www.VAS-CHINA-project.org
For further information please contact:
European Commission
Information Society and Media Directorate-General
Communication Technologies Unit
BU29/4 - B-1049 Brussels
URL: cordis.europa.eu/ist/ct