4. e-Working in Romania and Poland - Research Project of ...

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1


IT
S
ystems
in Work and e
-
Work

Laurentiu Marian Neagoe, Ramona Carmen Vamesu, Zdzisław Pólkowski

E
-
mails: laurentiumarian.neagoe@yahoo.ro; ramona.nisu@yahoo.com;
z.polkowski@dwspit.pl

International Research Project, Polkowice, Poland, 01

July



30 September

2013


Abstract


As we all know, IT
1

is considered to be one of the latest fields, used in our daily life, but also
for research and development
. There aren’
t too many aspects in which IT has no appliance.
The IT systems are all around us: from credit card
s to mobile phones and computers. Almost
all electronic devices are functioning according to an Operating System

(OS)
, which was
conceived by someone using a computer
, from designing the circuit board, assembling, till
installing the OS and shipping the pa
ckage
. And that computer, at
its’

turn, was running its


own OS and containing components developed
by other people, with their tools


computers.
Everywhere we may
go,

we can hear words like: Microsoft, Windows, Apple IPhone, IPod,
PC, PC tablet, Android,

Linux, Nokia, Symbian, HTC, BlackBerry,
Samsung, LG,
mp3
player, Firefox, Opera, Google, Yahoo, Networking,
Skype,
GPS, mobile internet, Facebook,
websites, messenger
, car’
s board computer

and the list can go on and on…

So, we can talk about a chain of ev
ents that work in both ways, in which one of the elements
has an influence on the other.
We can also talk about a huge network that covers the entire
planet and everyone that has access to an IT system can reach to another one that has the same
means in th
e matter of seconds or minutes.

Considering this, many companies chose
, for reasons like increasing productivity, improving
customer service or lowering their employees’ relocation costs to adopt solutions like e
-
Working.
That’s why the purpose of this

paper is to analyze
the current

state of development



1

Information Technology

2


of e
-
Working systems in
T
he World, and in
especially

in Poland and Romania. In the first part
of the paper, we will focus on explaining the meaning
of e
-
Working and related terms, like
“telecommuting” o
r “telework”. Then, we will analyze the state of e
-
Working systems by
comparing what is happening in The European Union, on one side and in the rest of The
World. In the last part, we will compare the e
-
Work methods in Poland and Romania.

This study is dev
eloped by Romanian students and Polish university teachers because we will
analyze our
countries; we

will use references in our native languages, not only in English and
will be easier to show the differences, if there are any.

Key words:
IT systems, e
-
w
orking, Poland, Romania















3


1.

Introduction and definition
s


As we previous saw, the IT systems are involved in the most part or our normal life. In fact, IT
and electronics improved and made our life easier. In this paper, we will debate the using
of IT
systems in
the relation between employees and their companies or between them and their
customers, so about e
-
Working.

In this document, we will begin by explaining the meanings of the terms “e
-
Working”, but
also “telecommuting” or “telework”, which
are related. Then, we will analyze the state of e
-
Working systems by comparing what is happening in The European Union, on one side and in
the rest of The World. In the last part, we will compare the e
-
Work methods in Poland and
Romania.

It seems that for
the

term

“e
-
Working” or “eWorking”
, there are multiple definitions.

In the
handbook

entitled
An Employer’s Guide to eWorking. A support handbook on managing the
remote employee,

e
-
Working is
described as
working at any location outside the office and at a
distance from colleagues, using Information and Communications Technology (ICT) to access
and deliver work.
From the document, we can also find out that e
-
W
orking is also known as
home
-
based working, telecommuting or teleworking.
2

Another definition can be

that

e
-
Work

describes a broader meaning than telework/telecommuting, which many people
associate in particular with home
-
based working. It means work, electronically mediated.

From the same source, we can say that

the term “telecommuting” is used pretty

much
interchangeably with teleworking, and has been the more common term in the USA. The
conceptual emphasis is on replacing the commute journey through electronic access to the
workplace. As for “telework”, we can emphasize that it’s a catch
-
all term, de
scribing any way
of working at a distance using a combination of computers and telecommunications. More, it
is often associated with home
-
based working, but includes site
-
to
-
site electronic working,
mobile working, etc.
3

As Brenda Barrett and Malcolm Sarge
ant are underlying in their
research paper,
The European Union
define “teleworking” as a form of organizing and/or
performing work, using information technology, in the context of an employment



2

http://www.ideasbank.ie/files/eWorkingEmployersGuide.pdf
, p 3

3

http://www.flexibility.co.uk/helpful/glossary.htm


4


contract/relationship, where work, which could also be perform
ed at the employer’s premises,
is carried out away from those premises on a regular basis.
4

Mr Thomas B. Cross, in the
e
-
book

entitled
Telecommuting 2013. The Future Technology of
Working
Green

underlines that “telecommuting” means performing job
-
related w
ork at a site
away from the office, then electronically transferring the results to another location.
Telecommuting usually supplements other office activities, although many jobs can be
handled entirely in this way. Also, he describes that “telecommuting”

is similar to “remote
work”, “home office work”, “telework”, “location
-
independent tasks”, and "home
-
distributed
data processing".
5

Telecommuting

can be also defined as an arrangement by which people work at home using a
computer and telephone, accessing
work
-
related materials at a business office, or transmitting
materials to an office, by means of a
n Internet connection
. Telecommuting hours can range
from the occasional morning or afternoon to nearly ful
l
-
time wor
k
.
6

To summarize
, e
-
Working
includes tele
commuting and

teleworking
and
is
used

to describe a
way of working with information technologies
,

independent of any geographical location.

E
-
Work

is not a job but a

method of
working.
According to Mr John Dunne, this

activity can
take different forms
:

• e
-
Worker
-

at home full
-
time/part
-
time
;

• Telecommuter
-

part
-
time at home or part
-
time in office
;

• Mobile
-

on the move
.

7

The e
-
Working process can take place from different locations
, by different electronic means
of communications

between the workers a
nd the headquarters

(HQ)
.
:





4
https://www.google.pl/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=4&cad=rja
&ved=0CEUQFjAD&url=http
%3A%2F%2Fwww.bollettinoadapt.it%2Fsite%2Fhome%2Fpubblicazioni%2Fworking
-
paper
-
adapt%2Fdocumento6129.html&ei=pAoaUrLGMca14ATPvYDICw&usg=AFQjCNHjygh
-
CR
-
pX6IR47joFVjw2nvkZQ&sig2=fuRJVM0WWr2NfXHz6W7cPw&bvm=bv.51156542,d.bGE
, p 1

5

http://techtionary.com/books/telecommuting/index.pdf
, pp 7
-
8

6

http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/E
-
work


7

http://www.djei.ie/publications/trade/2000/ework.pdf
, p 7

5


HQ
Worker
'
s
home
Off
-
premice
offices
Hotel
/
motel
/
hostel
/
spa
Library
Client
'
s
office
Restaurant
Car
/
bus
/
train
Internet cafe
Park
/
leasure
center
e
-
Working process sites


Figure 1: e
-
Working process sites

The e
-
Working process can be accomplished by using different means

of communication
:

HQ
Laptop
Smartphone
PDA
Desktop
computer
Tablet
Audio
conference
Video
conference
Fax
Hybrid
communication
devices
e
-
Working tools
Other smart
devices
,
like smart
TVs
,
smart foto or
video cameras


Figur
e 2: E
-
Working tools

6


We are considering that telecommuting and teleworking represent previous stages of e
-
Working, because the latest involves the use of computers and Internet, which were developed
later. In our opinion, e
-
Working is a modern way of worki
ng, that can be very easily used by
young people, considering the fact that many of them want to work, but don’t have a job.
Besides that, the majority of youngsters have a high level of skills and knowledge in the field
of Information Technology, because
they are using computers with Internet access since they
are 5 or 6 years old.

2.

Research methodology


As

we previously described,
the e
-
Working methods have evolve over time. To describe the
meaning and the evolution process, we used different sources, li
ke books,
research papers
and
websites covering this domain. The main purpose of this study is to show
the current state of
e
-
Working
process

in the world, by choosing a few important countries in terms of economic
power, like USA, Japan and China, and als
o the European Union. Because we are coming
from Romania and Poland, we will use this opportunity to compare the development of this

method of working, by using official data and statistics from different sources, including those
written in Romanian or Pol
ish languages.
Also, we want to forecast
the evolution of

e
-
Working
, by taking into account multiple factors that are directly influencing this kind of
working method.


3.

The evolution of
e
-
Work
methods

and the current state in the World


Although some tel
ework arrangements

date

back

to the 60s’, the phenomenon arose in
California, driven by the Oil Shock of 1973, because that region of USA was dependent on
private vehicle transport. So, the idea was to replace the people transport to their job with
working

from home via telecommunication between workers and their headquarters. The
phenomenon was named “telecommuting”. Then, in the 1980s, in the same state, the issue of
air quality
drove the promotion of home
-
based telework and center
-
based telework. One
7


sig
nifying role played the USA economic recession. In the same time, this working style
appeared in Finland and Japan, because those countries tried to revitalize their rural
communities.
In the late 80s’ the IT revolution created a fast moving global economy
. The IT
systems were more and more used by companies. Now
,
we can talk about
the bases of
e
-
Working. In the 90s’, the e
-
Working drivers were the need for society to respond to natural or
manmade disasters; the implementation of new technologies and
, the m
ost important,

the
usage of Internet at the global scale, that
also
caused changes in the management of human
resources. In the next decade,
the catalysts for e
-
Working were the sustainability of society in
terms of ecology

and the protection against new v
iruses / pandemics
; economic development
and risk management; the
fast evolution

of IT systems throughout innovation and creativity.
8

According to Mr Wendy A. Spinks, the evolution of the phenomenon can be sketched like
this:
9




8

Sonia Boiarov, Wendy Spinks, Francisco Ortiz Chaparro, Gil Gordon, Andrew Gaudes, Harri Virolainen,
Alvaro Mello, Vera Regina Alexandr
e Boscatte, Adriano Bandini T. Campos, Jorge Llubere, Cristian C. Salazar,
Claudia Giraldo Gallo, Eduardo Alfrodo Castillo Builes, Mario Thorp, Luis Miguel del Aguila Umeres
-

Telework Argentina. Telework For Sustainable Development,

El Cid Editor, United

States & Argntina, 2011,
Page 9
-
12 (
http://www.teletrabajolegal.org.ar/libros/libroingles.pdf
)

9

http://www.utas.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/174838/The
-
Evolution
-
of
-
Telework.pdf
, p 2

8


1970
-
1979
1980
-
1989
1990
-
1999
2000
-
2009
2010
-
2019
Society
Workplace
Technology
Telecommuting
Teleworking
Oil Shock
Revitalize rural communities
e
-
Working evolution catallysts
Economic recession
IT revolution
Economic recession
Cloud Computing
Cable Internet revolution
Globalization process
Changes in MHR
Air qualiry
Spread in Europe and Asia
2010
-
2019
E
-
Working
Globalization process

PCs evolution in hardware and software
(
desktops and then laptops
)
„Smart” devices
(
smartphones
,
PDAs
,
tablets
,
e
-
readers etc
.)
Whireless Internet connectio spreading
.
Multiplication of free Wi
-
Fi hubs
Natural
/
manmade disasters
Implementation of the latest technologies
,
based on IT systems
Sustainability
New viruses and pandemics
Exponential evolution of the IT systems
Social networks
Network clusters
Less working hours
More free time
Progress of virtualization process

9


Figure

3
:

The evolution of e
-
Working
(
based on
Wendy A. Spinks,
Telework: Its Evolution &
Quake Implications
, 2011,
http://www.utas.edu.au/__data/assets/
pdf_file/0004/174838/The
-
Evolution
-
of
-
Telework.pdf
)

From what we can see, e
-
Working methods
have
been
developed in strong relation with the
evolution of the IT systems

in general and Internet, in particular
. We can consider that without
the IT systems, e
-
Working would not be possible.
The explosive evolution of the Internet in
the 90’s made possible
for an increasing number of companies to use this kind of approach.



But it wasn’t the only reason.
In the
document

entitled
Why Telecommuting Works
10
, it is
s
tated that there are many benefits not only for the employers, but also for employees and
community
. The main benefits are
:


Benefits of using e
-
Working methods

Employer

Community

Employee

Employees’ increased
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10

http://www.italladdsup.gov/downloads/Winter_TelecommutingFl
yer.pdf


10


distractions

Improved planning ability


Ability to design and control
work environment

Reduced real estate costs due
to less, or more flexible, need
fo
r office space


Increased job satisfaction

Lower employee
-
relocation
costs, because work is not
location dependent


Reduced commute
-
related
costs
(
gas, tolls/tickets,
parking, maintenance, and
depreciation
)

Better customer service as
employees stay longe
r and
become more proficient


Reduced personal expenses,
including clothing, grooming,
and food costs

Table 1: Benefits of using e
-
Working methods
(according

to
Why Telecommuting Works

brochure)

We can add that reasons like higher productivity, more flexi
ble use and better retention of
experienced staff are also important.
11


All this aspects made e
-
Working a very successfully method.
In the case study from 2013,
entitled
Does Working from Home Work? Evidence from a Chinese Experiment,
Nicholas
Bloom, James

Liang, John Roberts

and Zhichun Jenny Ying show that in the United States,
about 10% of the workforce reports working from home at

least one day a week
, while the
proportion that primarily work from home has almost doubled over the past 30 years
, from
2,
3% in 1980 to 4,
3% in 2010.
12

Moreover, in the
e
-
book

Telecommuting 2013
,

the author
presents that about 50 million people from around the world are currently working at home, at
least part time.
But

that number is expected to grow because the number of com
puter users in
increasing.
13

From
Mrs
Kate

Lister and

Mr Tom
Harnish
n

paper, entitled
Th
e State of
Telework in the U.S
. How Individuals, Business, and Government Benefit
,

we can underline



11

Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy,
Next Generation Telework: A
Literature Review,

Deloitte Access Economics, Commonwealth of Australia, July 2011, p 20

12

htt
p://www.stanford.edu/~nbloom/WFH.pdf
, p 2

13

http://techtionary.com/books/telecommuting/index.pdf
, p 7

11


that in
February 2011
14

Fort
une Magazine reported that 82%
of companie
s
from the “100 Best
Companies
to Work For” list allow em
ployees to telecommute or work
at home at least 20%
of the time
.
15

According to
www.globalworkplaceanalytics.com
, the increasing of people
invol
ved in e
-
Working in considerable:
16


Total
employe
e e
-
Workers

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

1.819.35
5

2.296.26
5

2.476.03
7

2.826.37
8

2.929.23
3

3.023.02
8

3.148.31
3

Total
telework
growth

2005 to
2006

2006 to
2007

2007 to
2008

2008 to
2009

2009 to
2010

2010 to
2011



26.2%

7.8%

14.1%

3.6%

3.2%

4.1%

Total
telework
growth
multi
-
year

2005 to
2011

2006 to
2011

2007 to
2011

2008 to
2011

2009 to
2011

2010 to
2011

73%

37.1%

27.2%

11,4%

7.5%

4.1%

Table 2: Evolution of e
-
Working in USA 2005
-
2011 (acc
ording to
www.globalworkplaceanalytics.com
)




14

Kate Lister and Tom Harnish
,
The State of Telework in the U.S. How Individuals, B
usiness, and Government
Benefit,

Telework Research Network, USA,

June 2011, p 22
(
http://www.google.pl/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CDgQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%
2Fwww.workshifting.com%2Fdownloads%2Fdownloads%2FTelework
-
Trends
-
US.pdf&ei=YTciUtqYD82FhQeis4GgCQ&usg=AFQjCNEIgTPWvNSi7TBgNLiSFPi1kAHfBA&bvm=bv.5149
5398,d.ZG4&cad=rja
)

15

http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/bestcompa
nies/2011/benefits/telecommuting.html


16

http://www.globalworkplaceanalytics.com/telecommuting
-
statistics

12




Figure 4: Evolution of e
-
Workers in USA

In Japan, in 2002, there were

4
.
08 million people (representing 6
.
8% of total workers) engaged
in paid work, wh
o used IT for work purposes outside their normal place of work, for 8 or more
hours
per

wee
k

(narrow)
, and 10
.
42 million people (representing 15
.
6% of total workers)
engaged in paid work, who used IT for work purposes outside their normal place of work

(br
oad)
. In 2008 there were
10
million

(representing 15
.
2% of total workers) in the first
category
(narrow)
and 30
.
3 million (
representing 46% of total workers) in the second category

(broad)
.

17




17

http://www.utas.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/174838/The
-
Evolution
-
of
-
Telework.pdf
, p 6

13



Figure 4: Evolution of teleworkers in Japan 2002
-
2008 (Accordi
ng to Wendy A. Spinks,
http://www.utas.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/174838/The
-
Evolution
-
of
-
Telework.pdf
)

In China, the e
-
Working process is promo
ted by big multinational companies, but
, as Mrs
Sumita Raghuram is presenting in the study
Telecommuting in China: Supervisory power as a
determinant of use
,

they encountered difficulties caused by the culture of relations between the
supervisor and the su
bordinate
, which

has a very important consideration

in this country
.
The
managers are used to control or monitor physically their subordinates

and the
last ones

are
afraid to assume an autonomous role
. Additionally, the Chinese people view the transition t
o
e
-
Working as a personal threat to their identity, esteem, and power.
18

The Stanford University
study
released in 2013
(and mentioned above)

-

Does Working from Home Work? Evidence
from a Chinese Experiment

used a Chinese travel agency (CTrip) with over 160
00 employees
as its base, and concluded that working remotely actually does noticeably increase
performance.
19

But, u
ntil now, we couldn’t find any statistics released by the Chinese
Government.

In the European Union, the
evolution to e
-
Working in not so sh
arp like in Japan. From the
2010 report of The European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working
Conditions (in which they included also Norway) we can find out that the highest percentage



18

http://www
.industrystudies.pitt.edu/pittsburgh11/documents/Papers/PDF%20Papers/5
-
6%20Raghuram.pdf

19

http://www.stanford.edu/~nbloom/WFH.pdf
, p 21

14


of employees involved in e
-
Work was observed in the Cze
ch Republic, where 15.2% of
employees were doing this activity for a quarter of the time or more, and in Bulgaria we have
the lowest percentage, only 1.6% of workers using e
-
Working.
20

Country

% involved in telework at

least “a quarter of the time”
or more

% involved in telework
“almost all of the time”

Malta

0.0

0.0

Bulgaria

1.6

0.0

Portugal

1.8

0.4

Italy

2.3

0.5

Romania

2.5

0.7

Hungary

2.8

0.5

Ireland

4.2

0.5

Luxembourg

4.8

0.0

France

5.7

1.6

Cyprus

5.7

0.0

Slovenia

6.7

1.9

Germany

6.7

1.2

Lit
huania

6.8

0.7

Spain

6.9

1.5

Slovakia

7.2

3.4

Greece

7.2

1.4

United Kingdom

8.1

2.5

Austria

8.6

3.2

Sweden

9.4

0.4

Norway

9.7

1.3

Poland

10.3

2.3

Finland

10.6

1.6

Estonia

11.8

1.4




20

http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/docs/eiro/tn0910050s/tn0910050s.pdf
, p 4

15


Netherlands

12.0

1.9

Belgium

13.0

2.2

Latvia

13.0

1.8

Denmark

14.4

2.6

Czech Republic

15.2

9.0

EU 27

7.0

1.7

Table 3: The state of e
-
Working in European Union (according to 2010 report of The
European Fo
undation
for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions,
http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/docs/eiro/tn0910050s/tn0910050s.pdf
, page 4
-
5)

By comparing the 2008
Expert Report on the Implementation of the Social Partner’s
Framework Agreement on Telework
,
released by the University of

Amsterdam,

with the data
from
above, we can have a picture of the e
-
Working evolution:
21



Figure 5: The evolution of e
-
Working in EU 2000


2005




21

Jelle Visser and Nuria Ramos Martin
,
Expert Report on the Implementation of the Social Partner’s Framework
Agreement on Telework
,

Amsterdam, January 2008,
http://dare.uva.nl/document/181576
, pp 36
-
60

16


From this comparison we can affirm that in 1
6

countries, the
number of e
-
Workers has

increased and

in 7

member countries (and also in Norway), the percentage has decreased.
We
also have to notice that, for the same year, the numbers are close, for the same year, in the two
studies
-

Cyprus, 2005 (5,4% and 5,7%), but in Bulgaria’s case, there is a notic
eable difference
(3,8% versus 1,6%).

Also, we can say that

the number of people working from home is on the increase in the UK,
according to the CBI
22
. A total of 59% of employers who responded to a survey in 2011 were
offering teleworking, up from 13% in 2
006.
23

We have to notice that the implementation of e
-
Working is not so easy in
certain

domains. For
example, some companies are reluctant to e
-
Working because they believe that the workers
will not have the same efficiency as working at the office.
Other f
ears may be generated by the
insecurity of the network and unwontedly intrusions of hackers. On the other hand,

som
e
workers, especially the elder ones
, are skeptical to this approach
, mainly because they don’t
know how to use some IT

systems and they aren
’t willing to learn new things.

Also, some of
the people
beli
e
ve

that without direct contact with the company, they may be scammed and get
their payment late or no payment at all. Another
aspect

is that they must
,

sometimes
,

work
more than 8 hours per day.

This aspect is also exposed in a study conducted by the University
of Texas and released in 2012. Mrs Mary C. Noonan and Mrs Jennifer L.
Glass

showed that
over 50% of the people involved in e
-
Working, across the United States are working more
than 40 hour
s per week.
24

Another report from the USA showed that the total number of
people who worked from home or remo
tely for
an entire day at least

once a month in
2010 was
26.2 million, down from 33.7 million in 2008.
25

Other disadvantag
es can be the
following:
26
,
27
,
28



decreased human interaction, the e
-
Workers can feel isolated from their colleagues;



the blending between work and personal life, the e
-
workers can be distracted;




22

The Confederation of British Industry (CBI) is one of the UK's leading independent employers' organization

23

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine
-
21588760


24

http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2012/06/art3full.pdf
, p. 8

25

Andrea
Ozias
, Editor,
Telework 2011. A WorldatWork Special Report
,

WorldatWork
,
US, 2011

26

http://www.das.state.ct.us/hr/regs/telecommuting.pdf
, pp 6
-
7

27

http://www.csupomona.edu/~jis/1999/preiser
-
hou
y.pdf
, pp91
-
92

28

http://www.flexjobs.com/blog/post/telecommuting
-
advantages
-
and
-
some
-
disadvantages
-
for
-
good
-
measure/

17




it can be difficult to demonstrate how many hours the person w
orked;



there may be contract issues, caused by the lack of regulations for e
-
workers in a large
number of countries;



dissatisfactions can appear when some employees are selected to do this kind of job,
and other are not;



every human has his own rhythm of w
orking, so some frustrations can immerge by
trying to set up meetings or deadlines with e
-
workers;



there can be significant costs to set up and maintain the e
-
workers with the latest
technologies;



some e
-
W
orkers are hard to manage.

Moreover, we can affirm

that big companies

involved in IT, like Google and Yahoo prefer the
normal way of work, in the office, for their employees.
29

The advantages of e
-
Working made this method to evolve in many democratic countries, but
the disadvantages caused a not so rapidly

increase in the number of e
-
Workers around the
world.


4.

e
-
Working in Romania and Poland


Romania and Poland have become recently members of the European Union

(Poland
-

2004
30
;
Romania
-

2007
31
)
. In spite of this, the economic climate is different: Poland b
arely felt the
economic crisis, whereas Romania is still struggling with the recession.
We have to mention
that in Romania, the minimum Gross Wage per month is 800 RON
32

(about 179 EUR
33
), but
that means that the worker

will receive the Net Wage of 601 RON
34

(about 136 EUR)
. In such



29

http://www.morganjones.co.uk/2013/04/working
-
from
-
home
-
is
-
it
-
good
-
or
-
bad
-
for
-
your
-
career/


30

http://europa.eu/about
-
eu/countries/member
-
countries/poland/


31

http://europa.eu/about
-
eu/countries/member
-
countries/romania/index_en.htm


32

http://www.antena3.ro/romania/in
-
sfarsit
-
vesti
-
bune
-
pentru
-
romani
-
salariul
-
minim
-
pe
-
economie
-
se
-
majoreaza
-
de
-
la
-
1
-
iulie
-
219599.html

33

http://businessday.ro/07/2013/cat
-
mare
-
este
-
salariul
-
minim
-
economie
-
comparatie
-
romania
-
versus
-
alte
-
tari/

34

http://www.calculatorsalariu.ro/?action=calcs2&suma=800

18


conditions, Romania takes 26
th

place from 2
8

countries

(Croatia become member in July
2013
35
).
36



Figure 6: Minimum wages in
the majority of
EU Member States, Turkey and the USA, July
2013, in EUR (according to
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu
)

In Poland, as we can see above, the minimum wage is about 369 EUR per month.
But in
Romania, the prices are higher

than in Poland
, especially

for food
37
:




35

http://www.intrastat.ro/di_due.php

36

http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/Minimum_wage_statistics

37

http://businessday
.ro/03/2013/raportat
-
venituri
-
avem
-
cele
-
scumpe
-
alimente
-
uniunea
-
europeana/

19


Figu
re
7
: Food prices versus
wages

(ac
cording to
www.businessday.ro
)

From statistics conducted by the European Union, we can affirm that in 2011, just over seven
out of every ten individuals in the EU
-
27, aged between 16 and 74 years, used a computer,
while a similar proportion used the Internet.
38

We can observe that the
figures are smaller in
Romania than in Poland: 43 people out of 100
were using computers, 40 had internet access
and only 27 used
I
nternet for finding information on goods and services;

whereas in the
second country, 64 people
out of 100 were using computers, 62 had Internet access and 44
used internet for finding information on goods and services.

Country / zone

Computer use

Internet use

Used Internet for
finding information
on goods or

services

2009

2010

2011

2009

2010

2011

2009

2010

2011

EU
-
27

69

71

73

65

69

71

52

56

57

Euro area (1)

69

72

73

66

69

72

55

58

58

Belgium

76

79

82

75

78

82

59

62






38

http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/Info
rmation_society_statistics

20


Bulgaria

44

45

49

42

43

48

17

26

28

Czech Republic

64

69

72

60

66

70

50

53

56

Denmark

87

89

90

86

88

90

74

78

72

Germany

81

83

84

77

80

81

69

72

70

Estonia

71

75

77

71

74

77

54

61

54

Ireland

68

70

76

65

67

75

54

57

53

Greece

47

48

54

42

44

52

33

36

39

Spain

63

67

69

60

64

67

47

54

47

France

74

76

78

71

75

78

63

63

67

Italy

49

53

55

46

51

54

33

35

41

Cyprus

53

57

59

48

52

57

39

47

48

Latvia

65

67

70

64

66

70

50

57

52

Lithuania

60

62

64

58

60

64

44

48

55

Luxembourg

88

90

91

86

90

90

75

78

66

Hungary

63

64

69

59

62

66

48

55

54

Malta

60

64

69

58

62

68

48

52

53

Netherlands

90

91

92

89

90

91

79

82

82

Austria

75

77

81

72

74

79

54

58

62

Poland

59

62

64

56

59

62

29

39

44

Portugal

51

55

58

46

51

55

40

44

41

Romania

42

41

43

33

36

40

12

26

27

Slovenia

65

70

70

62

68

67

49

57

54

Slovakia

74

78

76

70

76

74

50

62

54

Finland

84

88

89

8
2

86

89

73

74

76

Sweden

91

92

93

90

91

93

77

82

75

United Kingdom

84

86

87

82

83

85

64

63

66

Croatia

50

56



47

54



33

43



21



Table 4:

The use of ICTs
39

and use of online services, 2009
-
2011(according to Eurostat,
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/Information_society_statistics
)

Another important factor in e
-
Working represents the level of Internet access for
the
companies. From data collected from Eurostat
,
we can affirm that in

Romania, in January
2011, 79% of companies had Internet access and only 34% had a website. In Poland, the
situation is much better: 94%
of companies had Internet access and

65% had the
ir own
website. We should take into account that in the percentages in European Union are 95% in
the first category and 69% in the second.
40


Country / zone

Internet
access

Fixed
broadban
d
connectio
n

Mobile broadband connection

Website or
homepage

All s
ize
classes

Small

Medium
sized

Large

EU
-
27

95

87

47

43

66

85

69

Euro area
(1)

96

89

51

47

73

88

69

Belgium

96

86

29

25

45

71

77

Bulgaria

87

68

34

30

47

67

45

Cze
ch Rep.

96

87

25

20

41

61

77

Denmark

98

91

47

42

68

81

89

Germany

97

88

57

52

79

93

81

Estonia

96

90

48

45

58

71

73

Ireland

93

90

46

41

65

85

70

Greece

93

76

38

35

54

62

64

Spain

97

96

47

43

71

85

64

France

96

92

60

56

80

92

60

Italy

94

84

47

43

75

89

63

Cyprus

91

88

32

27

49

81

56

Latvia

92

82

23

21

32

53

53




39

Information and communication technologies

40

http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/Inform
ation_society_statistics

22


Lithuania

98

87

49

45

64

84

68

Luxembourg

97

93

27

23

37

66

75

Hungary

89

84

38

33

57

77

60

Malta

95

94

41

37

52

74

73

Netherlands

100

91

41

36

55

75

82

Austria

98

82

65

60

87

97

83

Poland

94

73

24

19

38

73

65

Portugal

95

83

39

35

60

85

54

Romania

79

54

15

13

22

54

34

Sl
ovenia

97

92

50

45

63

88

74

Slovakia

97

76

38

35

51

71

76

Finland

100

96

77

74

90

95

93

Sweden

96

94

67

64

85

95

89

UK

95

92

52

47

75

91

79

Croatia

96

80

41

34

48

74

66


Table 5: The use of ITCs in European Union plus Iceland, Norway, Croatia, Macedo
nia and
Turkey (According to Eurostat,
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/Information_society_statistics
)

As for e
-
W
orking, we can say that the social partners in Romania have no
t yet reached any
agreement on e
-
Work
, nor is there an official act to define
e
-
Work
.
Moreover, the

only
existing definition
is of

telework

,
used by the National Institute of Statistics
(
INS)
in its
sur
vey on the “Information society”
, which was carried out in 2006 and
2007. According to
this survey,
employed people performing telework are employees who work full time or part
time in workplaces other than the premises of their enterprise, usual
ly at home, using products
and services from information and communication technology.
41

From this definition, we can
conclude that the terms “e
-
Working” and “teleworking” are equivalent.




41

http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/eiro/2007/12/articles/ro0712019i.htm

23


According to the survey


The Living Conditions Survey


(Condiţiile de viaţă ale populaţiei
din România, ACOVI), published by INS in 2006,
the
people working at home accounted for
13.7% of total employment.
42

The repartition of this workers was the following:


Figure 8: T
he distribut
ion of persons working at home

in Romania, 2005 (according to Mr
Constantin Ciutacu
,
http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/eiro/2007/12/articles/ro0712019i.htm
)


5.

Forecasting the e
volution of e
-
Working


Like we previous saw, the e
-
Working has evolved over time and, in our opinion, will evolve
even more because we have many reasons to believe so.
In the first place, the IT systems will
evolve more and more
and the people want to have

an easier and confortable life.

As we illustrated in Figure 3 (Chapter 3), t
he advances in technology are on a higher and
higher level, and the number of devices connected to the Internet is increasing.
Many
applications related to e
-
Work, such as video
-
c
onferencing
and
big

size

file transfer, means
that there is
necessary

a constant and reliable high

bandwidth
I
nternet connection.

At the
beginning, in the early ‘90s, the connections were made by telephone cables and the
computers needed a fax/modem adapto
r. The maximum speed was 56 kbps, so if you wanted
to download an mp3 file, you needed between 5 and 15 minutes, depending of the file size.



42

Idem

24


Then,
ISDN
43

technology

appeared
, which allows
double transfer speed.
After that,
ADSL
44

technology
came into power
,
offering speeds of up to 4096

kbps and always
-
on connections
that allow users to be constantly connected.

The fiber opti
c

made possible speeds of 10 and
then
,

100 Mbps.

Moreover, Google is implementing now data technology speeds of 1000Mbps
(1Gbps).
45

Also,

the

modems have evolved into integrated routers with multiple capabilities,
including Wi
-
Fi, routing, VPN (Virtual Private Network), firewalls, and so on.
46


In the same
time, the Internet started to be provided by mobile phone networks
, using technologies

like
GPRS
47
, EDGE
48

and then, 3G
49
. Now, the networks are starting to use Mobile WIMAX
50

and
4G
51

technologies, offering download speeds up to
128 Mbp
s
. So
, we can observe that now,
not only computers have the capability to connect to the Interne
t, but also ma
ny devices, like
smartphones, tablets, PDAs’, gaming consoles, smart TV’s, even video or audio
cameras.
We
are appreciating that in the future, the number of “smart” devices will increase, all having the
possibility to connect wirelessly to the Internet.
In the document entitled
Future Internet
2020: Visions of an Industry Expert

Group

the authors are stating that “
the idea that we have a
network that rea
ches out to terminals will fade
away. Rather, we are going to see that objects,
including t
erminals, wi
ll have their local
connectivity halo and this will be able to connect
wi
th other halos of connectivity,
including the backbones, access

rings,

radio drops, etc. The

Internet will be the sum of it
all


by 2020 these ne
tworks will be both laid out as
public

infrastructures and dynamically created by the obj
ects connecting to one another.
The content
and services

they facilitate will be all around

us, always on, everywhere, all
the time

52

If we talked about Internet and devices that can connect to it, we have

to mention the
recently

introduced

system of

C
loud
C
omputing, that
is

involving virtual servers,
53

on which all



43

Integrated Services Digital Network

44

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line

45

https://fiber.google.com/about/

46

http://mybroadband.co.za/news/columns/11855
-
the
-
evolution
-
of
-
internet
-
connectivity.html

47

General Packet Radio Service

48

Enhanced Data for Global Evolution

49

The Third Generation Of Mobile Telecommunications Technology

50

Worldwide Int
eroperability for Microwave Access

51

The Fourth Generation Of Mobile Phone Mobile Communication Technology

52

Jean

Charles Hourcade, Yrjö Neuvo, Reinhard Posch, Roberto Saracco, Wolfgang Wahlster,
Future Internet
2020: Visions of an Industry Expert Group
, Belgium, 2009, p. 2 ,
http://www.future
-
internet.eu/fileadmin/documents/reports/FI_Panel_Report_v3.1_Final.pdf


53

http://www.infoworld.com/d/cloud
-
computing/what
-
cloud
-
c
omputing
-
really
-
means
-
031

25


electronics

mentioned above can connect for data transfer or audio and video streaming
,

facilitating the e
-
Working process
.

In our opinion, th
e concept of
C
loud
C
omputing can be described like in the next figure:

Cloud Computing
Tablet
Laptop
SMEs network
server
Smart TV
PDA
E
-
Reader
Desktop PC
Gaming
console
Smart
camera
Sma
rtpho
ne


Figure 9: A model of
C
loud
C
omputing and compatible devices

On a previous research paper, entitled
Cloud Computing i
n S
MEs i
n Poland
,
Mr
Zdzisław
Pólkowski

show
ed

that this technology helps not only the individuals, but also the companies.
The
big
IT companies enable Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs)
, which do not have
special departments or enough money,

to quickly set up useful IT syste
ms with no need for
technical skills. Many of these work in a public or private
C
loud. Internet
-
based Cloud
Computing
services
(CC)

are provided by companies like Google, Amazon, Microsoft or
26


Lenovo.

In the CC environment
,

SMEs
have to

pay
the services pro
vided by the IT company
for development and maintenance, but is less than having their own system
.
54


It what it concerns the future of Cloud Computing, we will head toward a G
lobal
C
loud
E
cosystem, due to a growing interest of
ordinary people,
industry and

academia, as well as a
specific requirement for location specific resource infrastructures. Such
G
lobal
E
cosystems
would be useless without the capability to easily switch between providers / resources and
without ensuring that specific legislation and po
licies are met.
55

Additionally, in the study
The future of cloud computing
, the authors showed that 72% of the
experts believe that “b
y 2020, most
of the
people won't do their

work with software running
on
a general
-
purpose PC. Instead, they will work in
In
ternet
-
based
applications such as
Google Docs
, and in applications run from
smartphones. Aspiring applicati
on developers will
develop for
smartphone vendors and compani
es that provide Internet
-
based
applications,
because most innovative work will be
done i
n that
domain, instead of designing

applications
that run on a PC
operating system.

56

Another group of 50 experts, in the study
IDC Predictions 2012: Competing for 2020

predicted that
:



b
y 2020, at lea
st 80% of the industry's growth

will be driven by these
third platf
orm
technologies
, that today are generating only 20%,

as well as an
explosion of new
solutions built on the new
platform and rapidly expanding
consumption of all o
f the
above in emerging markets;




there will be
battles to lead the larg
er and rad
ically different ICT
marketplace of
2020
.
57




54

Zdzisław Pólkowski,
Cloud Computing in SMEs in Poland,

2012

55

Expert Group Report, Keith Jeffery, Burkhard Neidecker
-
Lutz,
THE FUTURE OF CLOUD COMPUTING.
Opportunities for European Cloud Computing Beyond 2010
, p 49 (
http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/ict/ssai/docs/cloud
-
report
-
final.pdf
)

56

Janna Quitney Anderson and Lee Rainie,
The future of cloud computing,

Pew Research Center’s Internet &
American Life Project, USA, 2010, p 8
(
http://pewinternet.org/~/media/Files/Reports/2010/PIP_Future_of_the_Internet_cloud_computing.pdf
)

57

Frank Gens,
TOP 10 PREDICTIONS. IDC Predictions

2012: Competing for 2020,

December 2011, pp. 2
-
3
(
http://cdn.idc.com/research/Predictions12/Main/downloads/IDCTOP10Predictions2012.pdf
)

27


Additionally, HP Company pointed out that
Cloud Computing implementation will be
critical for a company to innovate and to succeed. By 2020, they expect that over 40% of
the enterprises will implement Cloud
-
based
data delivery models. For this to happen there
is a need for improving
the security of Cloud Computing

systems
. Also, they believe that

the
way

to the
C
loud requires a hybrid deli
very environment consisting of
traditional IT as
well as private, managed and

public cloud offerings.
58

Regarding other aspects related to the e
-
Working method, our opinion is that the
technology will continue to evolve, and to have a positive effect on the way of living and
working.

All those innovations, in our opinion, are contr
ibuting to the evolution of e
-
Working
methods and we are expecting that new technologies will emerge, that can find
applications for this domain. Additionally to that, we have to mention that e
-
Working can
offer solution for problems like over pollution of

cities by cars, low number of parking
slots, companies’ expenses with their employees, commute
-
related costs, the low response
time for some customer services, the ageing of the population in highly developed
countries in Europe (it doesn’t matter the age

if you are skillfully in IT systems and you
are willing to have an e
-
job) etc.





58

HP News Advisory
,
HP Research: The Future of Cloud Is Hybrid. Enterprises need holistic approach to cloud
management
,
2012, pp. 1
-
2
(
http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/newsroom/press
_kits/2012/convergedcloud2012/NA_Research.pdf
)