Wall

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26 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Wall


Wall

is

a

continuous,

usually

vertical

structure,

thin

in

proportion

to

its

length

and

height,

built

to

provide

shelter

as

an

external

wall

or

divide

buildings

into

rooms

or

compartments

as

an

internal

wall




Prime

function

of

an

external

wall

is

to

provide

shelter

against

wind,

rain

and

the

daily

and

seasonal

variations

of

outside

temperature

normal

to

its

location,

for

reasonable

indoor

comfort
.

Functional Requirements


Strength and stability


Resistance to weather and ground moisture


Durability and freedom from maintenance


Fire safety


Resistance to passage of heat


Resistance to airborne and impact sound


Security

Strength and stability


The strength of the materials used in wall
construction is determined by the strength of a
material in resisting compressive and tensile stress,
and the way in which the materials are put
together.



The stability of wall may be affected by
foundation movement, eccentric loads, lateral
forces(wind) and expansion due to temperature
and moisture changes.

Resistance to weather and ground moisture


Moisture which includes water
vapour

and liquid water
may penetrate a wall by absorption of water from the
ground that is in contact with foundation walls or through
rain falling on the wall.



To prevent water, the impermeable layer (damp proof
course) is built in about 150mm above ground level.

Durability and freedom from maintenance

Durability of a wall is indicated by the frequency and extent of the work necessary
to maintain minimum functional requirements and an acceptable appearance.

Fire safety

The Building Regulations has set the standards for means of escape, limitation
of spread of fire and containment of fire.


The requirements of
Part B of Schedule 1
to the
Building Regulations
are
concerned to:
-



Provide adequate means of escape


Limit internal fire spread (linings)


Limit internal fire spread (structure)


Limit external fire spread


Provide access and facilities for the fire services

Resistance to passage of heat


The interior of buildings is heated by :
-



Conduction
-
the transfer of heat from heaters and radiators to air,


Convection
-
the circulation of heated air


Radiation
-
the radiation of energy from heaters and radiators to surrounding colder
surfaces.



This internal heat is transferred through colder enclosing walls, roofs and floors by
conduction, convection and radiation to colder outside air.



For insulation against loss of heat, lightweight materials with low conductivity are
more effective than dense materials with high conductivity.



Dense materials have better thermal storage capacity than lightweight materials.

Resistance to airborne and impact sound


Sound is transmitted as airborne sound and impact sound



Airborne sound is generated as cyclical disturbances of air from a radio (example), that
radiate from the source of the sound with diminishing intensity.



The vibrations in the air caused by the sound source will set up vibrations in enclosing
walls and floors which will cause vibrations of air on the opposite side of walls and
floors.



Impact sound is caused by contact with a surface. Example, the slamming of a door or
footsteps on a floor which set up vibrations in walls and floors that in turn cause
vibrations of air around them that are heard as sound.



Effective insulation against airborne sound is a dense material barrier such as a solid
wall, which absorbs the energy of the airborne sound waves.

Walls

may

be

classified

as

solid

or

framed
.


Frame

wall


constructed

from

a

frame

of

small

sections

of

timber,

concrete

or

metal

joined

together

to

provide

strength

and

rigidity

over

both

faces

or

between

the

members

of

the

frame
.

Solid

wall

(masonry

wall)


constructed

using

brick

or

blocks

of

stone,

or

concrete

laid

in

mortar

with

the

block

laid

to

overlap

bonding

(monolith)


Solid

wall

of

bricks

or

blocks

may

be

termed

as

block

wall(masonry)


Continuous

solid

wall

of

concrete

called

as

monolithic

wall
.


Each

of

the

two

types

of

wall

may

serve

as

internal

or

external

wall

and

as

load

bearing

or

non
-
load

bearing

wall
.

External Wall

Any wall that does not
have a separation
function between
dwellings

An outer wall of a building not
being party wall (partition) and
also means a wall next to an
interior open space of any building

Internal Wall

External wall

Superstructural

(above ground)

Substructural


(under ground)

Curtain wall & Cavity wall

Retaining wall

-
Gravity wall

-
Piling wall

-
Cantilever

-
Anchored wall


Superstructure (above ground)

Curtain wall

Wall and window
system (cavity wall)


Cavity

walls

consist

of

two

'skins'

separated

by

a

hollow

space

(cavity)
.

The

skins

are

commonly

masonry

such

as

brick

or

concrete

block
.

Masonry

is

an

absorbent

material,

and

therefore

will

slowly

draw

rainwater

or

even

humidity

into

the

wall
.



A

curtain

wall

system

is

an

outer

covering

of

a

building

in

which

the

outer

walls

are

non
-
structural,

but

merely

keep

the

weather

out

and

the

occupants

in
.



A

curtain

wall

is

designed

to

resist

air

and

water

infiltration,

sway

induced

by

wind

and

seismic

forces

acting

on

the

building,

and

its

own

dead

load

weight

forces
.

Substructural

(under ground)

Retaining wall


Retaining

walls

are

structures

designed

to

restrain

soil

to

unnatural

slopes
.




The

structure

designed

and

constructed

to

resist

the

lateral

pressure

of

soil

when

there

is

a

desired

change

in

ground

elevation

that

exceeds

the

angle

of

repose

of

the

soil

Gravity wall
-
standard wall type that holds
the earth mainly through its own weight.
Can pivot and topple easily, as the internal
leverage of the earth pressure is high.

Typical types of retaining wall:
-

Anchored

wall


this

wall

keeps

itself

from

toppling

by

having

cables

driven

into

soil

or

rock,

fixed

by

expanding

anchors(can

be

combined

with

other

types

of

wall)

Cantilever

wall


uses

the

same

earth

pressure

trying

to

topple

it

to

stabilize

itself

with

a

second

lever

arm
.

Piling

wall


Using

long

piles,

this

wall

is

fixed

by

soil

on

both

sides

of

its

lower

length
.

If

the

piles

themselves

can

resist

the

bending

forces,

thick

wall

can

take

high

loads
.

Internal wall

Structural

Non
-
structural

Shear Wall & Core wall

Partition Wall

Structural Internal Wall : Shear Wall

Shear

wall

is

a

wall

composed

of

braced

panels

(also

known

as

shear

panels)

to

counter

the

effects

of

lateral

load

acting

on

a

structure
.


So,

in

order

to

prevent

any

deformation

which

may

occur

in

wooden

buildings,

it

is

important

to

either

(
1
)

attach

"diagonal

bracings"

between

two

columns,

or

(
2
)

attach

"structural

wall

boards"

with

screws

to

frames
.


Functions

of

shear

wall
:
-


Strength


Shear

walls

must

provide

the

necessary

lateral

strength

to

resist

horizontal

earthquake

forces
.

Stiffness


Shear

walls

also

provide

lateral

stiffness

to

prevent

the

roof

or

floor

above

from

excessive

side
-
sway
.


Stiffness

will

prevent

floor

and

roof

framing

members

from

moving

off

their

supports
.


Also,

buildings

that

are

sufficiently

stiff

will

usually

suffer

less

nonstructural

damage
.

Structural internal wall : Core Wall


A

"core

wall"

is

a

temporary

reinforced
-
concrete

structure

located

in

the

center

of

a

building

designed

to

absorb

the

potential

horizontal

forces

generated

by

an

earthquake
.



The

core

acts

as

a

cantilever

beam

coming

from

the

basement

and

it

stabilizes

the

building

mainly

with

regard

to

horizontal

forces

like

wind

and

earthquake
.





A

"load

transferring

frame,"

is

set

up

in

a

column

in

four

corners

where

the

core

wall

is

enclosed
.



If

an

earthquake

occurs,

the

core

wall

and

the

above
-
ground

part

of

the

steel

frame

combine

to

provide

earthquake

resistance
.

The

system

also

includes

safety

systems

such

as

a

seismograph

and

an

earthquake

warning

system
.

NON STRUCTURAL INTERNAL WALL

PARTITION WALL


A

partition

wall

is

a

wall

for

the

purpose

of

separating

rooms,

or

dividing

a

room
.

Partition

walls

are

usually

not

load
-
bearing



Partition

walls

may

be

constructed

with

bricks

or

blocks

from

clay,

terra
-
cotta

or

concrete,

reinforced,

or

hollow
.

Glass

blocks

may

also

be

used
.



Wall

partitions

are

constructed

using

beads

and

tracking

which

are

either

hung

from

the

ceiling

or

fixed

into

the

ground
.

The

panels

are

inserted

into

the

tracking

and

fixed
.



END