Veronica Farhat 10-11229 Rafael Osorio 10-10518

lifegunbarrelcityΠολεοδομικά Έργα

26 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

71 εμφανίσεις

Veronica Farhat 10
-
11229

Rafael Osorio 10
-
10518

Content Table



Basic Concept of Arch


History of the Arch


Construction process


Materials


Positive part


Negative part


Conclusion


References

About the Arch:


The Arch is a crucial structure in

Architecture, why is this?

Arches are designed to

resist heavy loads of weight,

b
ecause of their form the forces are
divided and redirected,

transforming all tension in to

c
ompression. This is thanks to the

open space under the arch; and

the compression stresses eliminate

each other in either sides.

Arch main parts

1.
Keystone

2.
Voussoir

4. Springer.

History

The first arch appearance is natural
arches like the one of the picture.

The Arch as a human made structure
date to ancient civilizations like the
Mesopotamian, Phoenician,
Egyptian, Hebrew and Greece; also
recent archeological discover show
arches under Mexico ruins.

In this ancient civilizations the arch
was used in underground tunnels or
passages.



The Romans took the early arch
from the Greece empire but they
develop it more, passing it from a
supporting structure to the
principal structure in their
architecture.

But not conform whit their doing
the Romans develop further more
the arch in other structures like
the vault and dome.

Roman Arch

Up Right: Different types of roman
vault.

Up Left: Hadrian Arch, Jerash,
Jordan. Vault structure.

Left: The Pantheon, use vaults in
the entry and the building ceiling is
a dome.

Arch Rediscovered

Since the fall of the western roman empire until
the Renaissance, this so important structure in
the near past came back to life.

An clear example is the use of arches in the
buttress or doorways in Gothic Architecture.

XIX & XX century arches

In modern times the arch have pass from old materials
like stone, concrete or bricks to cast iron or steel.

This is mainly because of their resistance to
compression and flexible nature during the
construction process of steel itself.

Also there are reinforced concrete arches.

Construction Process

1.
The side columns or walls are
erected.

2.
A frame is made with an arch
form, usually it is made of wood.

3.
The stones or bricks are lay over
the frame structure.

4.
Concrete is used between bricks
to join then and secure their
position.

5.
The finale brick is laid in the
apex (highest part)

6.
The frame is removed.


Is this process was correctly made,
the arch will support itself

Arch material


Ceramic Bricks or Stone with brick form


Usually concrete or any other kind of mortar


Wood frame


With Reinforced concrete:


Steel beam


Concrete


Frame made out of wood


In the case of Steel Arches the

common material (mainly

unique) is steel.

Both images are diagrams of Santa
Sofia in Istanbul, Turkey, a Roman
Christian Cathedral and later
Muslim Mosque.

In these diagrams we can see the
different uses of arches all around
a same structure.

Positive


The arch is a cheap structure
thanks to its low quantity of
material use.


Arches are conceive to resist
heavy loads of weight.


They are a esthetic and artistic
structure.

Negative


Arches during their building process are
extremely fragile, if not build correctly the
arch will collapse after he frame is
removed.


Arches itself are fragile to now
compression stress, if any other significant
force is applied to the structure this will
collapse in no time.


Arch has a long construction process,
and need regular maintenance check

“They are as strong
as their weakest
part”


The arch is a long
-
lived structure
with proper maintenance. Is cheap
and easy in contrast to the time it
takes to be made.

They can support heavy load of
weight but it has it own limits; if
they have to support to much
weight, it doesn't matter how
perfect the arch is, it will end
collapsing.