Solar Cooking in Tanzania

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26 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Solar Cooking in Tanzania

A collaboration between: Ben, Lindsey, Sara, Noel.

Mission Statement

Our goal is to build a viable solar cooker
for use in Tanzania.


This would serve as an alternative to
gas/coal/wood burning fires during daylight
hours.


We aim to empower local businesses with
the means for this technology to be
distributed widely throughout the region.

Goals


Have
an understanding of the culture, particularly cooking
customs, and traditions.


Having the ability to cook Tanzanian foods like Chapatti and
lentils using a solar cooker.


I
ntroduce
the most fitting solar cooker based on quantity of
materials, surface area, and quality of solar cooker.


H
elp
out
with
problems in the area such as deforestation.


U
tilize
other materials to minimize the usage the energy.


Understanding what’s really working for
the locals
and
their
dynamics.


We want to have a coherent plan to start, construct, and run a
solar cooker business using local materials and man power
.


An alternative would be to collect donations and make solar
cookers to send to a contact in Tanzania.


How does a Parabolic
reflector work
?



Its
shape is that of a circular
paraboloid
, the
surface generated by a parabola revolving
around its axis.


The
parabolic reflector transforms an
incoming plane wave traveling along the axis
into a spherical wave converging toward the
focus.


Conversely
, a spherical wave generated by a
point source placed in the focus is
transformed into a plane wave propagating
as a collimated beam along the axis.

What Does That Mean?

Light coming in goes to the focus.

Light emitted from the focus is dispersed in
a straight line.

Poverty and Welfare in Tanzania


Avg

household size:




4.9


Households with electricity:


12
%


(
10% on
elec

grid, 2% other sources)


Firewood
and charcoal are the most
common
cooking
fuels


used by 78% and 14% of households respectively.


Households
with protected water source:


55
%


Overall, 44% of Tanzanian households still use unprotected
sources of drinking water, including wells and springs and
surface water such as rivers and lakes. Some 39% use
piped water and another 16% use protected wells or
springs


Adults who’s 1
st

activity is agriculture:


63
%


Population
below the food
pov

line:


19
%


Below basic needs
pov

line:




36%

How the poverty line is
drawn


The
food poverty line is the minimum
spending per person needed to provide
2,200 calories a day for one month, based
on the foods consumed by the poorest
50% of the population.

A
higher, ‘basic
needs’ poverty line allows for other
essentials such as clothes
.

SHARE OF HOUSEHOLD
CONSUMPTION

Food
Purchased

39%

Home
Produced
Food

27%

Durables

7%

Medical

2%

Education

2%

Non
-
durables

23%

A
Diversity
of
Sources


The sale of agricultural products was the
main source of cash income for 62% of
households, compared with 67% in
1991/92.


Food crops
are
the most important single
source


The importance of cash crops has fallen.
They now provide the main source of
cash for only 17% of households.



More Info…


The World Bank reports that in 2001 per capita
household consumption (in constant 1995 US dollars)
was $147.



Household
consumption includes expenditures of
individuals, households, and nongovernmental
organizations on goods and services, excluding
purchases of
dwellings.



The
richest 10% of the population accounted for
approximately 30.1% of household consumption and the
poorest 10% approximately 2.8%.


Food Practices


The
country's food crops include maize,
sorghum, millet, rice, wheat, cassava,
potatoes, bananas and
plantains.


The cash
crops include cashew nuts, cotton,
coffee, cloves, sisal, tobacco, tea and
pyrethrum.


Agriculture
provides the mainstay of the
Tanzanian economy,
employing
close to four
-
fifths of the economically active population.


Farmers
grow food for subsistence and for
sale. Minerals, precious metals, fish, timber,
and meat are also important products
.

Food Practices in Tanzania


For
most Tanzanians no meal is complete
without a hardy helping of
carbohydrates.


Plantains
are preferred in the northwest,
ugali

(a
thick mash of corn or sorghum) in the central
regions
, and rice in the
south.


This
staple is accompanied by a fish, beef, goat,
chicken, or mutton stew or fried pieces of meat,
along with several types of vegetables or
condiments.


Breakfast
preferences depend on income levels
and local
tradition.


Finger
foods sold on
the streets are common.

How can you make one?

Various methods can be used to construct
the parabolic dish.


Plaster/concrete molds can be made then use that to make
many reflectors.


Sheet metal can be formed to the molds.


Wood frames can be made and lined with reflective material.


Reusing old satellite dishes as parabolic reflectors is also a
possibility.

Reflective Material Ideas

Some very cheap and accessible
products are:


F
oils
from cigarette
packets.


Emergency blankets.


Tetra
Pak juices, and windshield
covers.


As
a
startup idea,
we could collect these
items and use them to benefit the project
.


A
nother
, very excellent
one is
aluminum
backed
tape.