Footings and Foundations

lifegunbarrelcityΠολεοδομικά Έργα

26 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

72 εμφανίσεις

Footings & Foundations

FOUNDATIONS

(WORKING DRAWING)

P.BY:

Ar. ANMOL GARG

(Lecturer,
Deptt
. of Architectural Assistantship)

GOVT. POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE, BATHINDA

Cont.: 09914410599

Footings & Foundations

INTRODUCTION TO FOUNDATIONS

Function

of

a

foundation

is

to

transfer

the

structural

loads

from

a

building

safely

into

the

ground
.



A

larger

and

heavier

building

of

masonry,

steel,

or

concrete

would

require

its

foundations

to

go

deeper

into

earth

such

that

the

soil

or

the

rock

on

which

it

is

founded

is

competent

to

carry

its

massive

loads
.


Footings & Foundations

Foundation Components

Footing

Footings & Foundations

Foundation Components

(to attach wood stud sill plate)

(to keep water off of foundation wall)

(separates slab from foundation wall)

(to keep water off of slab)

(to keep water off of slab & moisture barrier)

(moves water away from building)

(moves water away
from building)

Footings & Foundations

Site Preparation


Remove trees and any debris


Remove top soil (4
-
6” below surface)


Footings & Foundations

Site Layout


Ensure lot lines are known & setbacks are complete


Layout building
perimeter


Use
batter
boards


Establish building corners & building perimeter






Use
surveying instruments





Footings & Foundations

Excavation


Excavate foundation along line created by batter boards


Excavate remainder of soil inside perimeter


Don’t
excavate inside soil if slab on grade






If deep foundation, taper edges to prevent collapse


If soil unstable, or very deep
-

use shoring





Footings & Foundations

Pour Footings


Construct formwork (if required)


Install reinforcement (rebar) for
footings


(protrudes
above footing to tie
-
into
foundation wall
)






Pour concrete
footings


Smooth
/ finish surface





Footings & Foundations

Rules of Thumb


Footing

shall

be

below

frost

line


Footing

width

usually

2
x

height


Typical

size

(
24


wide

x

12


tall)








Rebar

is

usually

3


from

edge

of

concrete


Crawl

spaces

should

have

rigid

insulation

along

the

interior

face

of

the

foundation

wall

Footings & Foundations

TYPES OF FOUNDATION

Major Building Parts



Superstructure



Substructure


Foundation

Footings & Foundations

TYPES OF FOUNDATION

Two

types

foundations

:

Shallow

and

Deep





Depends

on

whether

the

load

transfer

is

at

deeper

depths

or

shallower

depths



-

Need

for

these

two

types

(soil

strength,

ground

water

conditions,

foundation

loads,

construction

methods

and

impact

on

adjacent

property)

Footings & Foundations

TYPES OF FOUNDATION

Shallow

foundations

(column

footings

without

or

with

tie/grade

beams,

individual

or

combined

wall

footing,

slab

on

grade,

raft)



-

Deep

foundations

(caissons

with

or

without

sockets,

end

bearing

or

friction

piles,

pile

groups),

made

of

concrete

(regular

or

site
-
cast)

or

steel

or

wood


Footings & Foundations

Shallow Foundations


Requirements


Suitable

soil

bearing

capacity


Undisturbed

soil

or

engineered

fill



Basic

types

or

configurations


Column

footings


Wall

or

strip

footings


Footings & Foundations

Combination Spread & Strip Footing

Footings & Foundations

Shallow Foundations



Stepped strip
footings






Grade Beams



///

\
\
\

\
\
\

\
\
\

///

///

Footings & Foundations

Shallow Foundations




Mat
foundation



Floating (Mat)
foundation

Footings & Foundations

Deep Foundations
-

Purpose


Transfer building loads deep into the earth

Basic types


Drilled (& poured)




Driven


Footings & Foundations

Pile material


Steel; H
-

piles, Steel pipe


Concrete; Site cast or Precast


Wood; Timber


Composite

Footings & Foundations

Driven Piles

Footings & Foundations

Precast Concrete Plies

Footings & Foundations

Footings & Foundations

Footings & Foundations

Footings & Foundations

Footings & Foundations

Footings & Foundations

Footings & Foundations

Footings & Foundations

Footings & Foundations

Footings & Foundations

Footings & Foundations

Footings & Foundations

Footings & Foundations

Footings & Foundations

Footings & Foundations

Footings & Foundations

Footings & Foundations

Footings & Foundations

P.BY:

Ar. ANMOL GARG

(Lecturer,
Deptt
. of Architectural Assistantship)

GOVT. POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE, BATHINDA

Cont.: 09914410599