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22 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 3 μήνες)

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Bob Koziel

Hagerstown Community College

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Computer Crime and Security



How attackers and intruders gain entry into computer
systems to harm or destroy data



Ways you can help system administrators keep computer
systems safe from unauthorized users and viruses



People who are most likely to attack or harm computer
systems and their motives



Types of losses caused by computer system intrusions and
attacks



The tools and techniques used to defend computer systems
against intruders and attackers


COMPUTERS IN YOUR FUTURE 2003




BRYAN PFAFFENBERGER

What You Will Learn

Chapter 12

What is the scope of the problem?



Computer security risk
-

Any event, action, or
situation that leads to the loss of computer systems
or data



Computer crime
-

Actions that violate state or
Federal laws



Cybercrime
-

Crimes carried out over the Internet

What are some techniques used to
commit computer crimes?



Intruders gain unauthorized access to computer
systems




Techniques used to gain access are:



Password guessing



Shoulder surfing



Packet sniffing



Dumpster diving



Social engineering



Superuser status



SATAN




Techniques used by insiders are:



Salami shaving



Data diddling

What are
computer viruses
?



Computer viruses

are malicious programs that
infect a computer system causing various problems
with its use




They replicate and attach themselves to programs in the
system




More than 20,000 different computer viruses

How does a computer get
infected
?



Inserting a disk with an infected program and then
starting the program



Downloading an infected program from the
Internet



Being on a network with an infected computer



Opening an infected e
-
mail attachment

What are the
types of viruses
?

File infectors



Attach themselves to
program files



Spreads to other
programs on the hard
drive



Most common type of
virus

Boot sector virus



Attach themselves to the
beginning of hard drive



Executes each time
computer is started



May lead to destruction
of all data

Macro virus



Infect automatic command
capabilities of productivity software



Attach themselves to data files in
word processing, spreadsheet and
database programs


Spread when data files are exchanged
between users

What are some other types of
destructive
programs
?

Time bombs



Also called
logic bombs



Harmless until a certain
event or circumstances
activate the program

Worm



Disguises itself as a useful
program



Contains hidden instructions



May erase data or cause other
damage



Resembles a virus



Spreads from one computer
to another



Controls infected computers



Attacks other networked
computers

Trojan horse

Who creates malicious and damaging
computer crimes?



Computer hobbyists



Try to find weaknesses
and loopholes in computer
systems



Rarely destructive



Adhere to
hacker’s code
of ethics

Hackers

Crackers



Also called
black hats




Obsessed with entering
secure computer systems



Rarely destructive



Leave calling cards on
systems they enter

Cyber gangs



Brings crackers
together by way of the
Internet and meetings

Virus authors



Usually teenage males



Want to push the
boundaries of antivirus
software



Can be very damaging

More of

who creates malicious and
damaging computer crimes?

Disgruntled employees



Sabotage a company’s
computer system



Create security holes called
trap doors



Can divulge trade secrets or
destroy data

Spies



Participate in
corporate
espionage



Some are hackers or
former employees



125 countries are
involved in industrial
espoionage

Swindlers



Use the Internet to scam money
from people



Favorite distribution methods
are e
-
mail, chat rooms and web
sites



Types of scams are:
Rip & tear
,
Pumping and dumping

and
Bogus
goods

Shills



Used on Internet auctions



A secret operative who
bid’s on a seller’s item to
drive up the bid

What is
cyberstalking
?



Newest and fastest growing crime




Using the Internet and other electronic
media to harass and threaten a person




Most perpetrators are men most victims
are women




Children are at risk from online sexual
predators

What’s the cost of computer crime?



Staff time
-

Computer staff stops everything and
focuses on the problem




Downtime
-

The system is shutdown unitl it’s safe
to operate again




Replacing equipment
-

Company pays when
computers and parts are missing due to theft




Adverse publicity
-

Crimes go unreported because
of fear of publicity of loss




Loss of privacy
-

Sensitive personal information
can end up in the hands of criminals




Risk to public safety
-

Many government agencies
rely on computers to maintain public safety




Denial of service
-

Internet service becomes
overloaded and doesn’t function



Use programs that have an
auto
save/auto recovery

function




Equip system with an
uninterruptible
power supply
; A battery powered
device that automatically turns on
when power is interrupted

Protecting computers from power
related problems (surges & outages)


Controlling access



Choose authentication passwords that have
at least eight letters, mix upper and lower
case letters and include numbers




Callback systems
-

Access is granted or
denied based on information caller gives




Know & have

authentication
-

Users have
various ways of accessing a system


Tokens
-

Electronic device that generates a logon
code



Digital certificates
-

Resemble computer ID cards



Smartcards
-

Credit card sized device with internal
memory



Biometric authentication
-

Voice recognition,
retinal scans, thumbprints and facial recognition



Install a firewall program



Programs that are designed to prohibit
outside sources from accessing the
computer system




Personal firewall
-

Designed to protect
home computers from unauthorized access
while connected to the Internet


Use encryption



Encryption programs make information
unreadable if it is stolen




Update web browser to use 128
-
bit
encryption for online shopping

Use antivirus programs



Called
vaccines

or
virus checkers




Uses pattern
-
matching techniques to
examine program files for patterns of virus
code




Two drawbacks:



They cannot find viruses not in their database



They can not find new viruses that alter
themselves to evade detection




Use antivirus programs that offer frequent
updates and monitor system functions




Check disks for viruses that were used on
another system

Backup data



Backup programs and data regularly




Store backups away from the computer
system




Types of backups:



Full backups
-

Everything stored on the
computer; Backup once a month



Incremental backups
-

Backup only those files
that have changed since last backup: Backup
daily or weekly




Disaster recovery plan
-

Large
organizations should develop a detailed
plan for emergencies

Tips for avoiding scams



Do business with established companies




Read the fine print




Don’t provide financial or personal
information to anyone




Be skeptical about information received in
chat rooms

Tips for preventing cyberstalkers



Don’t share personal information in chat
rooms




Be extremely cautious about meeting
anyone you’ve contacted online




Contact the police if a situation occurs
that makes you feel afraid while online

THE

END