U.S. Electricity Infrastructure:

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21 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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U.S. Electricity Infrastructure:

State Initiatives for Advancing Security,
Technology and Market Transformation

Sue Gander

Director

Environment, Energy and Natural Resources Division

National Governors Association

Center for Best Practices

202
-
624
-
7740

sgander@nga.org

www.nga.org/center/eenr




Overview


Electricity infrastructure challenges


State leadership to address these through
transmission, technology and markets


Transmission


Planning, cost allocation, environment


Smart Grid


Pilots and road maps


Energy efficiency as a resource


Best practices and opportunities


ARRA (Recovery Act) support


The National Governors Association

Providing Governors Ideas that Work

Center for Best Practices


Comparative policy shop


Provides governors and
staff timely technical
assistance


Securing a Clean Energy
Future (2007
-
2008)


Strengthening our
Infrastructure for a
Sustainable Future (2008
-
2009)

Federal Relations


Builds consensus on federal
issues


Committee structure


Gives governors a collective
voice on Capitol Hill


Transmission Benefits
-

If We Get it Right

Economic

Environment

Security

DOE study on 20%
potential wind penetration
creates $450 billion in
economic gain and
500,000 jobs

Allows states to develop
DG and off
-
grid renewable
energy sources

Protects consumers and
industry from blackouts,
data theft, etc

Avoids transmission
congestion
--

costs
homeowners and
businesses $22 billion/yr

Increases energy
efficiency opportunities,
notably DR

Allows for better data
collection, backup
mechanisms, and analysis
of benefits

Source: Energy Future Coalition and NGA Center

Transmission faces “old” challenges…



Growing demand for electric services


Growing population/reliance on digital technology/PHEVs


Aging infrastructure


Grid is similar to one envisioned by Thomas Edison


70% transmission lines at least 25 years old


70% power transformers at least 25 years old


average age is 40 years


60% of all circuit breakers at least 30 years old


By 2030, the electric utility industry will need to invest up to $2.0
trillion to maintain today’s level of service ($300 B in transmission)


Concerns with reliability


Three major blackouts in last 9 years


Impacts quality of life, safety, bottom
-
lines



Transmission Faces New Challenges…



Concerns about global climate change


Electricity use is 40 percent of U.S. CO2 emissions


Greening of power supply


20 states have CO
2

reduction targets


33 states have Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) or similar goal for
electricity


Nearly 20 states with Energy Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS)


The Transmission Planning Process

Interconnection
Entities

FERC

Grid
Operators

Federal
Agencies

Governors

Environ.

Agencies

Utilities

PUCs

Source: Energy Future Coalition

State Leadership on Transmission Needs

Three areas of focus:


Doing more
--

Addressing planning, cost
allocation


Doing it smarter
--

Improving the grid


Doing it better
--

Reducing demand for
transmission (deferring investments)

Improved Transmission Planning
--

CA


Renewable Energy Transmission Initiatives (RETI)


Statewide collaborative process between CPUC, CEC,
CAISO, other utilities, land managers, and enviros


RETI process will
identify
,
plan

and
permit

the “best”
transmission lines to meet CA’s 33% RPS


Includes significant investment by PG&E


Improved Planning
--

MT, CO, UT


Montana Alberta Tie Ltd. transmission line


230 kilovolt, 214 mile
-
line that will connect state
energy to markets in Alberta, Canada


completed the permitting process in 2008


expected to attract nearly $1 billion in wind development


Colorado study to propose ways to achieve 1
GW of new RE capacity


Utah statewide REZ study


Phase I completed


Improved Planning
--

Regional Efforts


Western Governors Association
-

WREZ



GIS based study on potential for large scale
development of renewable resources


June 15 phase I


Partner with utilities to evaluate needs to move power
from preferred REZs


30,000 MW by 2015


Upper Midwest Transmission Development


MGA Governors of IA, MN, ND, SD, and WI


Identify cost
-
effective wind resources and transmission
infrastructure projects


Cost allocation and planning working groups


ARRA Support for Transmission


DOE provided $6.5 billion for transmission
activities


Western Area Power Administration and
Bonneville Power Authority each given $3.25
billion in spending authority


To construct transmission only for delivery of RE
power


Projects must repay the U.S. Treasury with interest


Additional ARRA planning provisions


Regional Planning Entity must be established for 3
interconnections (Western, Eastern, Texas)

Smart Grid
-

The Potential

Source: http://www.urbanecoist.com/wp
-
content/uploads/2009/03/smartgrid_454570a
-
6.jpg

Smart Grid
--

The Barriers


New technology risk


Lack of standards


Security and interoperability


Cost recovery risk


Who pays, who benefits?


Need a strategy


Statewide vision, plan or roadmap

State

Meters

Cost

Technical Details

Southern CA

2
-
way interface for
household devices to
communicate w/meter

$1.63 billion ($9 million
and $304 million in
benefits)


Programmable thermostats


near real
-
time energy usage information

IL

141,000 two
-
way smart
meters under proposed
pilot

Com Ed plans to apply for
stimulus funds



6
-
month review of pricing and
technology options to best benefit
consumers


established Statewide Smart Grid
Collaborative to manage planning and
develop vision


PA

1.3 million AMIs with
fixed power line carriers

$163 million


hourly interval data for all customers


available on
-
line within two days

Boulder, CO

25,000 planned smart
meters

TBD



First
fully integrated “Smart Grid City”

Miami, FL

Over 1 million wireless
meters to every house in
Miami
-
Dade County

TBD

Portland, OR

850,000 AMIs

$132 million


new outage management,


energy usage and tools on Internet


better consumer bill information

Ohio

Three
-
year pilot (2009
-
2011) with AMI for
110,000 meters

$109 million over 3 years
via $33.3 million rider for
2009


Distribution automation for real
-
time
control


Monitoring of electrical equipment

Charlottesville,
VA

14,700 meters

TBD


Microgrid: Interconnected network that
can function connected to or separate
from grid

Selected Smart Grid Pilots

ARRA Support for Smart Grid


The
Smart Grid Investment program

-

$3.4 billion available starting in the
summer and DOE anticipates over 1,500
applications


The
Smart Grid Demonstration
program

has $615 million available
through matching grants

EE as a Resource
-

New England


ISO New England and Forward Capacity Market


Electricity resources compete for capacity payments


Accepts DR (e.g. EE, DG, load management, etc)


All resources that clear auction paid market clearing price &
receive up to 5
-
yr usage commitment


Offers price response and reliability response


2,029 MW of DR as of 12/2008


Played key role in July/Aug 2008 heat wave


NYISO saved 948MW in peak demand


CT saved 217 MW

EE as a Resource
-

Mid
-
Atlantic


Demand Response in PJM


Planning Auction for 2012/2013 held in May


10,464 MW of incrementally new capacity available


Auction resulted in 5,682 of DR, 400% over last year’s auction


Wind resources accounted for 323 MW


Combined results of six PJM capacity auctions = 27,640 MW







EE Barriers


Upfront costs


Measurement & verification


Scale

ARRA Support for EE


$3.1 billion to state energy offices


$3.2 billion in energy efficiency
conservation block grants


Additional support for weatherization, green
schools, bonding authority, tax incentives
etc.

Conclusions


States need combination of transmission, smart grid
activities along with creative market mechanisms to
ensure delivery of clean, affordable and reliable
energy


Do more, Do it smarter, Do it better


ARRA presents opportunities for states and regions
to move ahead

Resources


DOE/Office of Electricity


EPA/National Action Plan on Energy Efficiency


EPRI


Edison Electric Institute


National Council on Electricity Policy


Regulatory Assistance Project


Center for American Progress


American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy