Smart Meter

lettucestewΗλεκτρονική - Συσκευές

21 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

71 εμφανίσεις

METERS

Architecture, Health Affects,
Measurement & Mitigation

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SMART

HOW CAN THIS LITTLE METER BE SUCH A

BIG PROBLEM?

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
3

11/21/2013

1)
SMART METERS ISSUES

2)
SMART METERS

3)
SMART GRID OVERVIEW

4)
SMART METER EXPOSURE LEVELS

5)
HEALTH AFFECTS OF SMART METERS

6)
SMART METER RF FIELD MEASUREMENTS

7)
SMART METER MITIGATION

8)
SUMMARY

OUTLINE

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
4

11/21/2013

1)
SMART METERS ISSUES

2)
SMART METERS

3)
SMART GRID OVERVIEW

4)
SMART METER EXPOSURE LEVELS

5)
HEALTH AFFECTS OF SMART METERS

6)
SMART METER RF FIELD MEASUREMENTS

7)
SMART METER MITIGATION

8)
SUMMARY

OUTLINE

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
5

11/21/2013

Smart meter issues


Proliferation of RF


Privacy Concerns


Dirty Power


Taxpayer Cost


Increased Costs to
Customers

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
6

11/21/2013

Smart meter issues


Proliferation of RF


100 million Smart Meters worldwide by 2015


65 million Smart Meters in US by 2020


50% Penetration of all US Households


Push for Ubiquity (100% Penetration)


Equivalent to 22% Increase in Cellular Links


Based on 302.9M US subscribers in 2010
1


Multiple Transmitters per
Smart Meter


Multiple Transmitters per
Home Area Network

(HAN)


Smart Appliances


118 M Worldwide by 2019
2


Transmitters from
Neighborhood Area Networks
(NAN)

SOURCES
:
1
CTIA,
2

Pike Research

WIRELESS IS THE ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR THE SMART GRID

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
7

11/21/2013

Smart meter issues


Privacy Concerns


A Smart Meter is a stethoscope into our home


Intimate & detailed information about appliance use,
residency & profiled behavior patterns


Commoditization of usage data


Last industry not to sell information on its customers


Utility company control of appliances


Peak Load Management


Nonintrusive Appliance Load Monitoring (NALM)


Energy Consumption Prediction using Voltage & Current
Changes


Example application that threatens our privacy


Industry very resistant to Opt
-
Out

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
8

11/21/2013

CONSUMPTION DATA


PEAK = 7.18 kW


MEAN = 0.49 kW


DAILY LOAD FACTOR = 0.07


ENERGY CONSUPTION = 11.8 kWh

Smart meter issues


Privacy Concerns

24 HOUR DAY

POWER, kW

HEATER

HOT WATER HEATER

TOASTER

WASHING

MACHINE

REFRIGERATOR

OVEN PREHEATING

OVEN CYCLING

HOT WATER HEATER

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
9

11/21/2013

Smart meter issues


Taxpayer Cost


Government Funded


American Recovery
and Reinvestment
Act of 2009


$11 Billion in Smart Grid
Expenditures in 2011
1


Smart Grid Ecosystem

*
SOURCE
:
1
WSJ (2009, Smart Meter, Dumb Idea?)


ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
10

11/21/2013

Smart meter issues


Increased Costs to
Customers


Increased Monthly Bills


Customers Being Billed
for Smart Meters


Cost to opt
-
out

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
11

11/21/2013

1)
SMART METERS ISSUES

2)
SMART

METERS

3)
SMART GRID OVERVIEW

4)
SMART METER EXPOSURE LEVELS

5)
HEALTH AFFECTS OF SMART METERS

6)
SMART METER RF FIELD MEASUREMENTS

7)
SMART METER MITIGATION

8)
SUMMARY

OUTLINE

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
12

11/21/2013

SMART METERs

SMART METER

ANALOG METER

RESIDENTIAL

SMART METER

COMMERCIAL

SMART METER

ELECTIC POWER

WATER

GAS

SMART METER TYPES

MULTI

FAMILY

DWELLING

SINGLE

FAMILY

DWELLING

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
13

11/21/2013

SMART METERs

SMART METER TECHNOLOGY EVOLUTION

2002
-
2005

2006
-
2008

2009+

3
rd

Generation

2
ST

Generation

1
st

Generation

Analog

1872
-

2005

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
14

11/21/2013


Landis+Gyr

26%


Itron


24%


Sensus


21%


GE Energy

20%


Elster


5%


Echelon


3%


SMART METERs

SMART METER MARKET SHARE

SOURCE
: Pike Research

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
15

11/21/2013

SMART METERS

SMART METER FACEPLATE

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
16

11/21/2013

SMART METERS

SMART METER FACEPLATE

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
17

11/21/2013

SMART METERS

SMART METER FACEPLATE

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
18

11/21/2013

SMART METERS

SMART METER FACEPLATE

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
19

11/21/2013

SMART METERS

SMART METER FACEPLATE

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
20

11/21/2013

smart meters

FCC ID:
OWS
-
NIC507

FCC IDENTIFIER

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
21

11/21/2013

smart meters


FCC ID


All Smart Meters should have an
FCC ID
number


Typical FCC ID:
SK9AMI
-
2A


Grantee Code:

SK9

Product Code:


AMI
-
2A



Go to the
FCC identification database
at

http://transition.fcc.gov/oet/ea/fccid/








RF Exposure Report
-

Provides specific details on that smart
meter’s radio frequency parameters & exposure levels

FCC ID


“GRANT OF AUTHORIZATION”

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
22

11/21/2013

1)
SMART METERS ISSUES

2)
SMART METERS

3)
SMART GRID OVERVIEW

4)
SMART METER EXPOSURE LEVELS

5)
HEALTH AFFECTS OF SMART METERS

6)
SMART METER RF FIELD MEASUREMENTS

7)
SMART METER MITIGATION

8)
SUMMARY

OUTLINE

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
23

11/21/2013

Smart grid architecture

SMART GRID REFERENCE ARCHITECTURE

SOURCE
: NIST Smart Meter Framework 1.0 Sept 2009

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
24

11/21/2013

SMART GRID ARCHITECTURE

A
DVANCED
M
ETERING
I
NFRASTRUCTURE (
AMI
)

REFERENCE MODEL

NEIGHBORHOOD

AREA

NETWORK

(
NAN
)

HAN 1

HAN 2

HAN 3

HAN n

BACKHAUL

NETWORK

AMI ENTERPRISE

LAN

METRO

NETWORK

SOURCE
: Smart Grid Communications architectural Framework, Sonoma Innovation

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
25

11/21/2013

SMART GRID ARCHITECTURE

N
EIGHBORHOOD
A
REA
N
ETWORK (
NAN
)

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
26

11/21/2013

SMART GRID ARCHITECTURE

H
OME
A
REA
N
ETWORK (
HAN
)

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
27

11/21/2013

1)
SMART METERS ISSUES

2)
SMART METERS

3)
SMART GRID OVERVIEW

4)
SMART METER EXPOSURE LEVELS

5)
HEALTH AFFECTS OF SMART METERS

6)
SMART METER RF FIELD MEASUREMENTS

7)
SMART METER MITIGATION

8)
SUMMARY

OUTLINE

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
28

11/21/2013

Smart meter Exposure levels

100,000,000


10,000,000


1,000,000


100,000


10,000


1,000


100


10


1


0.1


0.01


0.001


0.0001


0.00001


0.000001

100,000


1,000


100


10


1


0.1


0.01


0.001


0.0001


0.00001


0.000001


0.0000001


0.00000001


0.000000001


0.0000000001

µ
W/m
2

µ
W/cm
2

NONE

SLIGHT

SEVERE

EXTREME

FCC MPE @ 900 MHz =
600
µ
W/cm
2

BUILDING BIOLOGY

EXPOSURE LIMITS

FCC

MAXIMUM

PERMISSIBLE

EXPOSURE

FCC MPE @ 2.4 GHz =
1,000
µ
W/cm
2

BUILDING BIOLOGY

RF EXPOSURE LIMITS

EXTREME

> 1000
µ
W/m
2

SEVERE

10


1000
µ
W/m
2

SLIGHT

0.1


10
µ
W/m
2

NONE

< 0.1
µ
W/m
2

HAN


Home Area Network

MPE


MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE

NAN


Neighborhood Area Network

MAX SM
N
AN @ 900 MHz =
187,270
µ
W/m
2

MAX SM
H
AN @ 2.4 GHz =
90,100
µ
W/m
2


Smart Meters
Exceed Building
Biology Exposure
Limits


Transmit in 2.4 GHz
& 900 MHz bands


SIMULTANEOUSLY


Total Exposure

=
Σ

Transmitters =
NAN + HAN

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
29

11/21/2013

SMART METER EXPOSURE LEVELS

Values apply to single HF sources
, e.g. GSM, UMTS, WiMAX, TETRA, Radio, Television,
DECT cordless phone technology,
WLAN
..., and refer to
peak measurements
. They do not
apply to radar signals.
More critical HF sources like pulsed or periodic signals

(mobile phone
technology, DECT,
WLAN
, digital broadcasting...)
should be assessed more seriously
,
especially in the higher ranges
, and less critical HF sources
like non
-
pulsed and non
-
periodic
signals (FM, short, medium, long wave, analog broadcasting...) should be assessed more
generously especially in the lower ranges.

Former Building Biology

Evaluation Guidelines for HF radiation / HF
electromagnetic

waves (SBM
-
2003): pulsed < 0.1 no, 0.1
-
5 slight, 5
-
100
strong, > 100 μW/m² extreme anomaly; non
-
pulsed < 1 no, 1
-
50 slight, 50
-
1000 strong, > 1000 μW/m² extreme anomaly

DIN/VDE
: occupational up to 100000000 μW
/m², general up to 10000000 μW/m²;
ICNIRP
: up to 10000000 μW/m²;
Salzburg Resolution / Vi
-
enna Medical Association
: 1000 μW/m²;
BioInitiative
: 1000 μW/m² outdoor;
EU
-
Parliament STOA
: 100 μW/m²;
Salzburg
: 10 μW/m² outdoor,
1 μW/m² indoor;
EEG / immune effec
ts
: 1000 μW/m²;
sensitivity threshold of mobile phones
: < 0.001 μW/m²; nature < 0.000001 μW/m²

RADIO

FREQUENCY RADIATION

(High Frequency
, Electromagnetic Waves
)

Power density
in microwatt per square meter

μW/m²


< 0.1

0.1
-
10

10
-

1000

> 1000


NO

Concern

SLIGHT

Concern

SEVERE

Concern

EXTREME

Concern

BUILDING BIOLOGY RF STANDARDS

SBM
-
2008 EVALUATION GUIDELINES

Supplement to the Standard of Building Biology Testing Methods for SLEEPING AREAS

MAXIMUM SMART METER
RF LAN
@ 900 MHz =
187,270
µ
W/m
2

MAXIMUM SMART METER
ZIGBEE
@ 2.4 GHz =
90,100
µ
W/m
2

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
30

11/21/2013

1)
SMART METERS ISSUES

2)
SMART METERS

3)
SMART GRID OVERVIEW

4)
SMART METER EXPOSURE LEVELS

5)
HEALTH AFFECTS

6)
SMART METER RF FIELD MEASUREMENTS

7)
SMART METER MITIGATION

8)
SUMMARY

OUTLINE

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
31

11/21/2013

Health affects


Second
-
hand


microwave geography in Salt Lake City, Utah,

Paul M. Torrens, Geography, Arizona State University

MICROWAVE GEOGRAPHY IN SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH

SOURCE
:

Smart Meter Deployments are Significantly Increasing Electrosmog

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
32

11/21/2013

Smart meter HEALTH AFFECTS

BUILDING BIOLOGY EXPOSURE LIMITS

POWER DENSITY

REPORTED BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

REFERENCES

120 µW/cm
2

A pathological change in the blood brain barrier (915 MHz)

Salford, 1993

100 µW/cm
2

Changes in immune system function

Elekes, 1996

100 µW/cm
2

A 26% drop in insulin

Navakatikian, 1994

50 µW/cm
2

An 18% reduction in REM sleep (important to memory and
learning functions)

Mann, 1996

30 µW/cm2

Immune system effects
-

elevation of PFC count (antibody
producing cells)

Veyret, 1991

10
-

25 µW/cm
2

Changes in the hippocampus of the brain

Belokrinitskiy, 1982

5
-

10 µW/cm
2

Impaired nervous system activity

Dumanski, 1974

4
-

10 µW/cm
2

Visual reaction time in children is slowed//lower memory
function in tests

Chiang, 1989

2.4 µW/cm
2

Interference with medical devices at least up to 1000 MHz

Joyner, 1996

2
-

4 µW/cm
2

Direct effect of RFR on ion channels in cells/opening of
acetycholine channels

D'Inzeo, 1988

10 µW/cm
2

Significant differences in visual reaction time and reduced
memory function

Chiang, 1989

1.3
-

5.7 µW/cm
2

Two
-
fold increase in leukemia in adults from AM RF
exposure

Dolk, 1997

0.2
-

8 µW/cm
2

Two
-
fold increase in childhood leukemia from AM
-
FM
exposure

Hocking, 1996

0.168
-

1.053 µW/cm
2

Irreversible infertility in mice after 5 generations of
exposure to cell phone signals from antenna park

Magras & Xenos, 1997

0.16 µW/cm
2

Motor function, memory and attention of school children
affected (Latvia)

Kolodynski, 1996

0.1 µW/cm2

EEG brain waves are altered when exposed to cell phone
signal

Von Klitzing, 1995

100,000,000


10,000,000


1,000,000


100,000


10,000


1,000


100


10


1


0.1


0.01


0.001


0.0001


0.00001


0.000001

µ
W/m
2

NONE

SLIGHT

SEVERE

EXTREME

100,000


1,000


100


10


1


0.1


0.01


0.001


0.0001


0.00001


0.000001


0.0000001


0.00000001


0.000000001


0.0000000001

FCC

915, 600

SOURCE
:
www.wave
-
guide.org/library/studies.html


ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
33

11/21/2013

1)
SMART METERS ISSUES

2)
SMART METERS

3)
SMART GRID OVERVIEW

4)
SMART METER EXPOSURE LEVELS

5)
HEALTH AFFECTS OF SMART METERS

6)
SMART METER RF FIELD MEASUREMENTS

7)
SMART METER MITIGATION

8)
SUMMARY

OUTLINE

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
34

11/21/2013

SMART METER RF FIELD MEASUREMENTS

902
-
928 MHz

SS RF LAN

NAN MESH


902
-
928 MHz

SS RF LAN

NAN MESH


902
-
928 MHz

SS RF LAN

NAN MESH


850 or 1900 MHz

CELULAR

WAN


2405
-
2483 MHz

ZIGBEE

NAN MESH


2405
-
2483 MHz

ZIGBEE

NAN MESH


TRANSMITTER OPTIONS


Three Smart Meter Smart Transmitter Options:

1.
N
AN Only End Point

2.
N
AN +
H
AN End Point

3.
N
AN +
W
AN +
H
AN Cell Relay


Up to two Transmitters can Simultaneously Transmit


Total Exposure =
Σ

Transmitters =
N
AN +
W
AN +
H
AN

HAN

HOME AREA NETWORK

NAN

NEIGHBORHOOD AREA NETWORK

SS

SPREAD SPECTRUM

WAN

WIDE AREA NETWORK

End

Point

Meters

Cell

Relay

Meter

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
35

11/21/2013

SMART METER RF FIELD MEASUREMENTS

DISTANCE

(ft)

900 MHz

CALCULATED

(µW/m
2
)

900 MHz

MEASURED

(µW/m
2
)

3

187,270

10

16,836

30

1,891

2
t
R
G
P
m
W
S


4
)
/
(
max
2





Where
,

S

is plane
-
wave equivalent power density (
W/m
2
)

P
r

is maximum possible antenna power gain (
dimensionless
)

G
max

is the maximum possible antenna power gain (
dimensionless
)

δ

(delta)

is the duty cycle of the transmitter (percentage of time that the transmitter actually
transmits over time).

R

is the radial distance between the transmitter and the point of interest (
meters
)

Π

is a factor that accounts for possible in
-
phase ground reflections that could enhance the result
power density. Typical ground reflection factor is 2.56.

SMART METER POWER DENSITY

Smart Meter

Beacon Signal Measurement


1.
Set
HF 59B
to Peak hold, Coarse, Pulse

2.
Press and hold
Peak Hold Cancel

button
for 2 seconds or the display stops going
down

3.
Place probe at
point of interest
within
the far field and await
beacon signal
. The
Smart Meter will broadcast a rhythmic
beacon signal every 7.5 seconds or more.
Typically 30 seconds.

4.
The
Power Density
(S) should be below
0.1
μ
W/m
2

in the sleeping areas


HF 59B HF Analyser

with omnidirectional antenna

900 MHz Wave Pattern

top view

Power Density Formula

far field

Smart Meter RF
waveforms are
spherical
-

RF
LAN (915 MHz &
Zigbee (2.4 GHz)

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
36

11/21/2013


Duty Cycle is the transmitter “on time”


100% Duty Cycle = always on


Duty cycle is often used to minimize smart meter RF exposure
data


Reasons why Smart Meters Transmit


Energy Consumption Data:


daily, hourly, 15 minutes


Beacon Signal:




every 3.5 sec to once per hour


Smart Appliance Traffic:


unpredictable


O&M Overhead Traffic:


unpredictable


General Growth in Traffic:


SMs programmable by back end systems,





commoditization & real
-
time applications



Smart Meters transmit much more than consumption data


Building Biologists are concerned with PEAK RF

SMART METER RF FIELD MEASUREMENTS

WHAT IS THE REAL DUTY CYCLE OF A SMART METER?

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
37

11/21/2013

1)
SMART METERS ISSUES

2)
SMART METERS

3)
SMART GRID OVERVIEW

4)
SMART METER EXPOSURE LEVELS

5)
HEALTH AFFECTS OF SMART METERS

6)
SMART METER RF FIELD MEASUREMENTS

7)
SMART METER MITIGATION

8)
FURTHER READING

9)
SUMMARY

OUTLINE

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
38

11/21/2013

Smart meter mitigation


Smart Meter Opt
-
Out


Difficult, costly, neighbors


Relocate Meter


Costly, neighbors


Distance


Shielding


Can be effective


Hardwire
-

NAN & HAN


Long term solution


Every home has copper pairs


Fiber optics is best

IBE 312 discusses RF mitigation in detail

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
39

11/21/2013

Smart meter mitigation

Shielding Kits

Inner Wall Shielding

13
-

23 dB Attenuation

Shielding Paint


35 dB Attenuation

Shielding Window Foil

14
-

33 dB Attenuation

Bed Shielding Canopies

10


44 dB

Microwave Shielding Fabric

10
-

44 dB Attenuation

SHIELDING MATERIALS

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
40

11/21/2013

1)
SMART METERS ISSUES

2)
SMART METERS

3)
SMART GRID OVERVIEW

4)
HEALTH AFFECTS OF SMART METERS

5)
SMART METER EXPOSURE LEVELS

6)
SMART METER RF FIELD MEASUREMENTS

7)
SMART METER MITIGATION

8)
SUMMARY

OUTLINE

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION SEMINAR


IBE 212

SLIDE
41

11/21/2013

summary

1.
WHY DO BUILDING BIOLOGISTS NEED TO BE CONCERNED
WITH SMART METERS?

2.
WHAT IS THE SMART GRID AND HOW DOES IT WORK?

3.
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF SMART METERS?

4.
WHAT ARE THE HEALTH RISKS OF SMART METERS?

5.
HOW DO YOU MEASURE A SMART METER?

6.
WHAT ARE THE EXPECTED SIGNAL LEVELS FOR PULSED
AND NON
-
PULSED SIGNALS?

7.
WHAT ARE THE BUILDING BIOLOGY STANDARDS FOR
SMART METER EXPOSURE?

8.
WHAT ARE THE FCC STANDARDS FOR SMART METER
EXPOSURE? OTHER STANDARDS?

9.
HOW DO YOU MITIGATE SMART METER RF RADIATION?

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9