Informing Utilities and Policymakers on

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21 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Informing Utilities and Policymakers on
the Customer Side of Smart Grid

Harvey Michaels
,
Scientist/Lecturer

DUSP Environmental Policy and MITEI

617
-
253
-
2084
hgm@mit.edu

9
-
326

Instructor:



Enabling an Energy Efficient Society



Efficiency in US Homes and Buildings




( 71% of all electricity, 54% of all natural gas)


Potential:



Est.
50%+ Savings

at Lower Cost
over 20 years.


Without sacrificing comfort or function
,


Technology Examples:



Home Central AC tune
-
ups

can displace 25000 MW (25 plants) for $12B


CFL’s in “recessed cans”

will save 5% overall (LED’s 7%)


Optimization/storage
can reduce peak load AND ENERGY USE by 25%.


Deployment Methods
(examples):


Smart Grid:

Pricing/AMI, and info/behavioral technologies,


Rebates/Direct
-
install:

funded by utilities, carbon cap
-
and
-
trade,


New building codes, upgrade on transfer, appliance standards.

Smart Grid


Utility Private Network Architecture



utility provides meter
-
to
-
devices communication

MDM/Head
-
end

Utility
-
side

Customer

Utility
-
network
devices in home



The Customer Side of AMI: 2 strategies


1: AMI


Responsive Energy

Strategy


Price
-
based
demand response,
using time
-
differentiated
rates, which requires AMI.


Vision: Customers view data, make choices, in time
automatic response by customers thermostat and other
devices.

2: Smart Grid



Utility Control Strategy


Push
-
button Control
-
based

demand response


The
Utility monitors and controls end use equipment.


Vision: Generation, transmission, distribution, and end
use equipment as part of a single system.


Interval meter reads not essential.

Do we want “Smart Grid”
-

Utility Control?


End use equipment is visible and controllable by the
utility or third party




“Smart Grid” is more dispatchable (perhaps) and
therefore can replace spinning reserve
….but some find it kind of scary.

Resistance is Futile

Prepare to be Assimilated

Customer Side of Smart Grid =
Responsive Energy

Providing consumers with energy diagnostics, feedback, control

I2E

Definition: “Responsive Energy”

“Enable responsive, smart energy environments
that are
gracefully integrated with people.”

*


SUCH AS: systems for optimizing consumers’ end
-
use needs
(especially air conditioning, heat, hot water)


based on weather, schedules, and time differentiated costs.


Smart/Responsive energy holds great potential for
displacing the need for other energy resources.


But what will be the ultimate delivery model: utility or
marketplace?


And who will control the “smarts”: utility or customer?

Vision


Web/IP Collaboration of Workspaces
-

customer/home
network has access
on demand

to real time, high frequency meter reads


Utility’s
Web Workspace

MDM

CRM

Device
Workspace

Utility
-
side

Customer
-
side

Questions:

Utilities in the
Responsive Energy World


Utility
-
controlled vs. Customer
-
controlled optimization?


Home network gateway and/or Meter network gateway?


AMI :


two way, high bandwidth communications?


Meter
-
to
-
Home Network Communications?


Web Workspaces vs. In
-
home displays


Working with the Market

Cross
-
campus Responsive energy research


Intelligent Infrastructure

for Energy Efficiency (I2EE) research on
in
-
building communication methods.


Energy Box

-

consumer
-
managed modulation systems.


Behavioral systems

to encourage energy efficiency.


Building energy analysis

based on control schema.


Evaluating
community
-
level measurement

and modulation
systems


Innovation Pathways

-

for energy efficiency and smart grid.




Customer Control

Utility Control

Control

Customer decisions/control
-


HAN optimized by utility
-

Customer opt in/out

Pricing

Time
-
based
-

dynamic pricing.

Incentive for participating.

HAN

Owned/purchased by customer.

Possible utility incentives/NCP

Provided by utility/ recovered as
part of regulated filing.

Gateway

HAN via internet.

Meter via proprietary system.

Data

1)To customer via internet.

2)To utility via proprietary system


hourly reads once/day; low
bandwidth.

3) Also Meter directly to home.

To customer and utility via
proprietary system

Two way and high bandwidth



Large amounts of data.

Utility Cost

Inexpensive

Expensive

Impacts

Creates
efficiency and DR.


Primary impact
is DR.

Evaluation/

Additionality

Indirect
-

utility provides pricing,
hourly reads, meter to home, and
internet support.

Market forces create outcomes.
New paradigm for regulators.

Direct
-

due to utility control.

Easier for regulator


Like current
load control programs.

Vision
-

Applications for the Smart Consumer


Utility, thermostat, appliance, Google, etc.
make app.


View on home PC, work PC, TV, cell phone (at
least until next year).

Application ideas:


Make my AC, water heater, pool pump,
refrigerator use pattern smarter.


Find out what anything costs to run.


Choose the best rate for me.


Choose a theme


understand the
consequences
-

do it
(ie. More Green)


Sell a DR option.

Informing Utilities and Policymakers on
the Customer Side of Smart Grid

Harvey Michaels
,
Scientist/Lecturer

DUSP Environmental Policy and MITEI

617
-
253
-
2084
hgm@mit.edu

9
-
326

Instructor:



Enabling an Energy Efficient Society