APEP SmartGrid Related Research Renewable Dynamic Modeling ...

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© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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Some
Smart
-
Grid


Information Technology Needs

Jack Brouwer, Ph.D.

June 5, 2009

ISR Research Forum Presentation

© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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Outline


SmartGrid

Introduction


APEP
SmartGrid

Related Research


Energy Conversion Analyses


Dynamic Modeling


Sustainable Mobility


Energy Systems Integration


Grid Interaction/Interconnection


Some
SmartGrid

Challenges


Some
SmartGrid

Information Technology Needs

© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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SmartGrid

Introduction


Current Grid Concerns:


Increasing energy & especially peak energy demands


Dwindling fossil fuel resources


Greenhouse gas and criteria pollutant emissions


Energy security


Reliability (economy, human health and welfare)


Future Grid Needs:


Flexible



accommodating rapid change, generation and
consumption diversity in size, type, features, …


Secure



domestic resources, handle attacks/hackers


Reliable


handle disturbances and all the above with very high up
-
time (5
-
6 nines reliability; only seconds of down
-
time per year)


Sustainable



use resources at the same rate as they are naturally
replenished on earth w/o externalities (e.g., more renewable power)

SmartGrid

© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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SmartGrid

Introduction

Key Features:


Multiple points of interconnection and control


Renewable power: small, highly dynamic, intermittent, low capacity factor


Distributed generation: efficient, near
-
zero emissions, highly
dispatchable


Distributed storage: batteries, hydro, air, …


Highly distributed loads: appliances, buildings, factories, machines


Increasingly managed through digital technology


Dispersed interconnection of
renewables
, DG, storage, loads


Smart meters and advanced sensors


Communications


Computing


Increasingly required to meet transportation energy demands


Mass transit


Plug
-
in battery and hybrid electric vehicles (BEV, PHEV)


Consumer interface/interactions


Commercial/Residential energy efficiency & coordination of loads with
desired generation


Higher instantaneous local power quality

© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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SmartGrid

Introduction

Reasons for Utility interest in
SmartGrid
:


Managing Increased Wind (and Solar) Penetration


Ancillary Services


Frequency regulation; voltage support; harmonics cancellation; etc.


T&D Facility Investment Deferral


Managing Grid Peaks


Outage Mitigation


Customer Energy Management


Increasing the value of

distributed PV systems


Decreasing hydro

dispatchability


Virtual Power Plants

Peak Shaving

Replacement

Reserve


Supplemental

Reserve

Synchronous

Reserve



Renewable Energy
Management

Power or Energy

Response Time

Frequency
Regulation

© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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Outline


SmartGrid

Introduction


APEP
SmartGrid

Related Research


Energy Conversion Analyses


Dynamic Modeling


Sustainable Mobility


Energy Systems Integration


Grid Interaction/Interconnection


Some
SmartGrid

Challenges


Some
SmartGrid

Information Technology Needs

© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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APEP
SmartGrid

Related Research


Distributed Generators (fuel cells,
microturbines
, …)


Energy Storage


Dispatchable

Loads


Renewable Generation


Sustainable Mobility


Power Electronics

Grid
Grid
Leg
Combined
Heat and
Power
Storage
Photovoltaic Array
Heat Demand
Large
Renewable
N.G
. Plant
Coal & Nuclear
I
ndependent
S
ystem
O
perator
Bio
-
gas
Electric
Transportation
Distributed
Energy
Resources
Hydro &
Storage
Renewable
Energy
Resource
Management
© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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APEP
SmartGrid

Related Research

Renewable Integrated

Fuel Cell Systems


Solar Residential


Wind / Hydrogen fuel

Hydrogen
Storage
Hydrogen to
Power Generation
Hydrogen
Production
To Storage
PEM Reversible
Fuel Cell /
Electrolyzer
Zero
-
Emissions
Dispatchable
Power
Renewable
Electricity
Hydrogen
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Time (One Week)
Power (kW)
PV Power
7.9 kW EZ Power (In)
4.2 kW FC Power (Out)
Grid Power
System Cost
$ 42,000.00
H2 Produced
50.9 kWh
kW Peak RFC
8.1 kW
RFC Round Trip Eff.
57%
System Eff.
71%
© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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Zero Emission
Vehicle
∙ Network
Enabled Transport

ZEV

NET

APEP
SmartGrid

Related Research

Electric Transport


Fuel Cell Support

© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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Current UCI Research on Plug
-
in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV)


Toyota, Horiba, UCB, and CA Air Resources Board partners


Testing two prototype plug
-
in
Prius

vehicles


Vehicle emission standards (including grid emissions)


Grid interaction/impacts (in partnership with SCE)


Air quality impacts


APEP
SmartGrid

Related Research

© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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APEP
SmartGrid

Related Research

Power Electronics


Essential to enable “smart grid”


Integrate sensing, actuation, communication and interface
in one “box”


New logic with limited new hardware


Communications
& Logic

© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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APEP
SmartGrid

Related Research

0
50000
100000
150000
200000
0.6
0.61
0.62
0.63
0.64
0.65
FC Voltage [V]
Time [sec]
Experiment
Model

Siemens Integrated
SOFC System

Single Cell MCFC
Test Stand

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
18.5
19
19.5
20
20.5
Time (Hr)
Module Power (kW)

Siemens/SCE 220 kW

SOFC/GT Hybrid

Dynamic Generator Modeling

© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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APEP
SmartGrid

Related Research


-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
20
30
40
50
60
Time (sec)
Power (kW)
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
75
80
85
90
Time (sec)
Shaft Speed (kRPM)
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
895
900
905
910
Time (sec)
TET (K)

Capstone 60 kW MTG


Plug Power 5 kW


PEM
GenSys

Dynamic Generator Modeling

© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
Time (hr)
In-Plane Radiation (W/m
2
)
UCI data
Calculated
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0
1
2
3
4
Time (hr)
Array Power (W)
Measured
Calculated
PV
performance
from on cell
irradiance

On cell
irradiance
model

APEP
SmartGrid

Related Research

Renewable Dynamic Modeling (PV, solar thermal, and wind)

© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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Air
Motor
SOFC
Blower
Oxid
-
izer
Oxid
-
izer
Refor
-
mer
Heat
Exch.
Fuel
+ H
2
O
Exit
Heat
Exch.
Steam
Prep.

PEN Temp (K)
Reformer Temp (K)
Time (s)
Time (s)

Initial 0
-
s
Peak 874s
Final 50ks
Transition 1050s
PEN Temp (K)
Current (A)

APEP
SmartGrid

Related Research

Integrated System Control
-

25 to 70 amp current increase
with PEN temperature feedback


© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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Solar thermal power
Nuclear Power
Wind Power
Combined heat and power
Hydro
-
power
Biomass
IGCC
Hydrogen Pipeline
Load demand

Diversification of
Renewable Power
Generation

Combined Heat and
Power Systems

Dispatchable

Biomass
Generation

IGCC with H
2


Co
-
production

Water and
Hydroelectricity

`

Dispatchable

Loads

Energy Storage

Electricity, Heating and
Transportation Demands

Meteorology
and Water

Cost

Transmission

Redundancy

Efficiency

Vulnerability

APEP
SmartGrid

Related Research

Energy Deployment Modeling

© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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Outline


SmartGrid

Introduction


APEP
SmartGrid

Related Research


Energy Conversion Analyses


Dynamic Modeling


Sustainable Mobility


Energy Systems Integration


Grid Interaction/Interconnection


Some
SmartGrid

Challenges


Some
SmartGrid

Information Technology Needs

© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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Some
SmartGrid

Challenges


Today’s grid
IS

stable, reliable, predictable:


Centralized control


Slow response (15
-
minute)


Highly regulated


One
-
way power flow



Today’s grid
IS NOT

flexible, controllable, nor able to:


Introduce sufficient energy efficiency


Introduce large amounts of renewable power


Become sufficiently sustainable


Sufficiently produce the energy and national security benefits
desired

© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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Renewable Power Integration Challenges


Resources may not be available when needed


Need for rolling standby generation


Could use demand side management and/or involuntary load shedding


Resources may generate power when not needed


Force base
-
load plants to back down (lowers efficiency, increases cost)


May have to curtail and lose renewable power


May cause unpredictable power flow issues


May cause local power quality issues

Other Challenges faced by Utilities


Reduced control over existing resources


Changes in regulations & weather affecting reliability of flexible hydro


Increased peak demand


Population growth in hotter climates causes peak demand to grow
faster

Some
SmartGrid

Challenges

© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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Some
SmartGrid

Challenges

Tehachapi, CA wind generation for April, 2005

Hawkins, CAISO, 2007




© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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Some
SmartGrid

Challenges

Wind Power



Example of Non
-
Coincidence with Peak
Demand

CAISO, 2007

© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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Some
SmartGrid

Challenges


Energy Deployment Model Results
-

10% Wind Penetration

© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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Some
SmartGrid

Challenges


Energy Deployment Model Results
-

20% Wind Penetration

© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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Some
SmartGrid

Challenges


Energy Deployment Model Results
-

33% Wind Penetration

© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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Some
SmartGrid

Challenges

Where Can Wind Power be Sited?

NREL, 2008

© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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Some
SmartGrid

Challenges

Solar Power ~coincident with peak


but clouds cause problem

SunPower, Inc., 2008




© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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Some
SmartGrid

Challenges

Solar Power ~coincident with peak


but clouds cause problem

SunPower, Inc., 2008




Output from Nevada 70 KW array

© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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Some
SmartGrid

Challenges

Real Grid Disturbance Example:



In Texas on Feb. 26, 2008 wind power dropped 1200MW in
10 minutes



The disturbance was registered throughout the U.S. and as
far as Manitoba!



Blackouts were avoided by massive load shedding by
industrial customers


© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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Some
SmartGrid

Challenges

Vehicle battery use

for grid support

(“V2G”)


Interconnection


Controls


Battery Life


Vehicle Assignments by Participating Entity
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
Canon
Orthodyne
Thales
iMonitor
CTG
ORA
UCI Vanpool
UCI
UCI SL
Participating Entity
Number of Vehicle-Days
1
5
6PP
207
225
226
237
245
250
400
401
402
535
636
673
674
810
826
915
916
917
919
965
990
991
Vehicle ID
Average Hourly Charging Energy Consumed by Entity
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Hour of Day
Average Charging kWh Consumed
UCI Vanpool
UCI SL
UCI - APEP
Thales
Orthodyne
ORA
iMonitor
Canon
UCI Mobility &

Charging Data

(from ZEV•NET)


Charging profiles w/o

“Smart Grid” are not

encouraging

© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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Some
SmartGrid

Challenges

How does charging affect power demand?


Daily Charge Requirement for 40% PHEV60


30000
35000
40000
45000
50000
55000
60000
65000
70000
75000
80000
MW
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Hour (1= 12am-1am)
How Does Charge Profile Affect System Load?
2007 Base Case
Ideal Valley Filling
EPRI Profile
Best Guess at Likely
ZEVNET Actual w/ OSC
ZEVNET Actual w/o OSC
© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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Some
SmartGrid

Challenges

Scaling
and
Evolution
are challenges


Opportunities for innovation at every level are huge


individual energy resources, novel optimization and control schemes,
technology for avoiding large
-
scale failures, accounting for
novel/failure conditions, security innovations/failures, efficiency
improvements, …


Magnitude of overall system is “mind
-
boggling” & growing


sheer number of resources, difficulty of measuring/sensing each, the
number of things that can/should be sensed, potential number of
coordination/management decisions, …


Need for continuous improvement and adaptation


self
-
adaptive, self
-
optimizing, self
-
healing systems


The production, transmission, storage, and use of electric
energy in the future will be fundamentally intertwined with
computation, control, and communications


© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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Outline


SmartGrid

Introduction


APEP
SmartGrid

Related Research


Energy Conversion Analyses


Dynamic Modeling


Sustainable Mobility


Energy Systems Integration


Grid Interaction/Interconnection


Some
SmartGrid

Challenges


Some
SmartGrid

Information Technology Needs

© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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/35

Some
SmartGrid

Information Technology Needs


Ubiquitous sensors


E.g., appliances, homes, cars, commercial buildings, lighting,
computers, industrial equipment and facilities


Smart Meters


Better cost information and billing


Manage power and information flow


Computational Power (decentralized)


Acquire and manage sensor data


Coordinate amongst parties


Make decisions


Robust Networked Communications (two
-
way)


Internet


Secure sub
-
networks?


Consumer Interface

© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

34
/35

Some
SmartGrid

Information Technology Needs

Overarching
SmartGrid

IT Need:


Software architectures to enable decentralized communities
to interact in a dynamic future electric grid with high
efficiency, adaptability, reliability, security, and sustainability


New and diverse energy resources (generation, storage, transmission)
with idiosyncratic properties


Instantaneous capacity/production/consumption, intermittency, variability
due to weather or other exogenous forces


Decentralized framework with various authority regimes


Autonomous local behavior


Unilateral decisions detrimental to the grid must be accommodated


Marketplace must handle a myriad of individual, decentralized participants
in the network that is sufficiently coordinated to produce overall features


Ubiquitous & autonomous* with operating principles, security, and
processing that produces stability & reliability.

*NOTE: Modern two
-
way communications not fast enough to avert
widespread disruption due to local (intentional or accidental) bad action

© Advanced Power and Energy Program, 2009

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