An Introduction to Smart Grid

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21 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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An Introduction to Smart Grid

Peng Zhang


ECE 7750

Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering

Tennessee Technological University

Outline


Traditional Power Grid


Smart Grid


What is Smart Grid?


Key Technologies


Challenges


Current Example applications


Conclusion



Outline


Traditional Power Grid


Smart Grid


What is Smart Grid?


Key Technologies


Challenges


Current Example applications


Conclusion



The Traditional Power Grid


The grid we are using


Many implementation decisions were made 120
years ago

Generation, transmission, distribution

http://oncor.com/images/content/grid.jpg

The Traditional Power Grid


Problems with current Power Grid


It is not efficient


Transmission losses = 20%


Only 30% of the energy consumed is transmitted to consumers


It has not kept pace with modern challenges


Security threats from energy suppliers or cyber attack


Limited alternative power generation sources


No solutions for conservative use of energy


Un
-
interruptible electricity supply


Poor situation awareness


Poor control and management of distribution network


A “SMARTER” grid is needed!


Outline


Traditional Power Grid


Smart Grid


What is Smart Grid?


Key Technologies


Challenges


Current Example applications


Conclusion



What Is Smart Grid?


Smart Grid is an application of digital
information technology to optimize electrical
power generation, delivery and use


Optimize power delivery and generation


Self
-
healing


Consumer participation


Resist attack


High quality power


Accommodate generation options


What Is Smart Grid?


Optimize power delivery and generation


Advanced efficient power generation


Low loss delivery power lines


Self
-
healing


Real
-
time awareness and reaction of system
problems


Consumer participation


Consumer can monitor and control “smart
appliances” to manage energy use and reduce
energy cost

What Is Smart Grid?

Consumer participation [1]

Plug
-
in hybrid
electric cars

Added green
power sources

Smart thermostats,
appliances and

in
-
home control devices

Real
-
time and

green pricing
signals

High
-
speed,
networked
connections

Customer
interaction with
utility

What Is Smart Grid?

http://www.worldchanging.com/smarthouse.jpg

What Is Smart Grid?


Resist attack


Real time monitoring of power grids


Identify and respond to man
-
made or natural
disruptions


Isolate affected areas and redirect power flows
around damaged facilities


High quality power


Reduce high losses due to outages and power
quality issues


Those issues cost US more than $100 billion each
year!

What is Smart Grid?

Smart Grid would save 46~117 billion
dollars over the next 20 years!

[2]

Key Technologies


Integrated communications


Fast and reliable communications for the grid


Allowing the grid for real
-
time control, information
and data exchange to optimize system reliability,
asset utilization and security


Can be wireless, powerline or fiber
-
optics


For wireless


Zigbee


WiMAX


WiFi

Generating
Plant

End User

Transmission Line

Substation

Distribution
System


Broadband over
Powerlines


Provide for two
-
way
communications


Monitors and smart relays
at substations


Monitors at transformers,
circuit breakers and
reclosers


Bi
-
directional meters with
two
-
way communication



Key Technologies

[1]

Key Technologies


Sensing and measurement


Smart meter technology, real time metering of:


Congestion and grid stability


Equipment health


Energy theft


Real time thermal rating


Electromagnetic signature measurement/analysis


Real time pricing


Phasor measurement units (PMU)


Real time monitor of power quality


Use GPS as a reference for precise measurement

Key Technologies

Example: FNET
-
Frequency monitoring NETwork

TTU is involved!

http://www.cesr.tntech.edu/about%20fnet/default.html

Key Technologies


Advanced components


Flexible AC transmission system devices


High voltage direct current


Superconducting wire


High temperature superconducting cable


Distributed energy generation and storage
devices


Composite conductors


“Intelligent” appliances

Key Technologies


Power system automation


Rapid diagnosis and precise solutions to specific
grid disruptions or outages


Distributed intelligent agents


Analytical tools involving software algorithms and
high
-
speed computers


Operational applications


Key Technologies

Fujian power grid, China:


Wide area protection system:

AI programming techniques to calculate
control strategies


Voltage Stability Monitoring & Control
(VSMC) software:

Sensitivity
-
based successive linear
programming method to determine
optimal control solution

[3]

Challenges


IEEE P2030 project defined three task forces:


TF1: Power Engineering Technology


TF2: Information Technology


TF3: Communications Technology

Challenges


TF1: Power Engineering Technology


Energy sources


Transmission


Substation


Distribution


Consumer premise


Cyber security


Safety


Challenges


TF2: Information Technology


Cyber security


Management protocols


Coordination with TF1


Provide data storage requirements


Data retrieval performance requirements


Define data interfaces


Coordination with TF3


Communication link


Topology control


Protocol

Challenges


TF3: Communications Technology


Define communication requirements between
devices


Identify existing communication standards and
definitions for use in Smart Grid

Current Example applications


Austin, Texas, 1
st

Smart Grid city in US

http://www.inhabitat.com/wp
-
content/uploads/15
-
grid
-
537x324.jpg

Current Example applications


Xcel Smart City in Boulder

http://smartgridcity.xcelenergy.com

Current Example applications


Energy Smart Miami

http://tinycomb.com/wp
-
content/uploads/2009/05/smart
-
grid.jpg

Current Example applications


GE “Plug into the Smart Grid”

http://ge.ecomagination.com/smartgrid

Outline


Traditional Power Grid


Smart Grid


What is Smart Grid?


Key Technologies


Challenges


Current Example applications


Conclusion



Conclusion


Smart Grid is the next generation Power Grid


Involve many new technologies


Cooperation within multiple areas of research


$4.5 billions investment by government





It’s a big deal!!!

References


[1] Craig Eicher, "SmartGridCity: Developing the Smart Grid of the
Future", Xcel Energy, Presentation.


[2] Westar Energy, "Smart Grid", Presentation, Jun, 2009


[3] Jinquan Zhao, Wenying Huang, Zhaoxiong Fang, Feng Chen,
Kewen Li and Yong Deng, “On
-
Line Voltage Stability Monitoring
and Control (VSMC) System in Fujian power grid”, Proceedings,
Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 2007.


[4] DOE's Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, "The
Smart Grid: An Introduction"


[5]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smart_grid


[6] Nanjing Nari
-
Relays Electric Co. Ltd., “Wide Area Protection
System for Stability”, www.nari
-
relays.com

Thank You!