Advanced renewable energy

lettucestewΗλεκτρονική - Συσκευές

21 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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Advanced renewable energy
technology



Dr. Igor Tyukhov


University of Mechanical Engineering & VIESH

UNESCO Chairs



Green technology, nanotechnology in action!

Workshop on India
-
ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation

India, New
-
Delhi, February 28
-

March 1, 2013

Topics for discussion

Si concentrating technology


new
prospectus

New technology of PV modules
-

PV
modules without plastics

Going to smart grids

Solar education


Non
-
concentrating and concentrating approaches PV









Concentrating Photovoltaics


7. International Conference on Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems


4
-
6 April, 2011, Las Vegas, USA

With some 500 attendees from 26 countries,

CPV
-
7 again had an incredible

25% increase in participation!


Solar cells evolution & where we are going?

New VMJ

(PV)

Our PV+T

system

VMJ

with Al

First

VMJ

Three generations of SCs

Production
volume, %

$/Wpeak

Cost $/m
2

c
-
Si Solar Cells Types

Planar solar cell

Vertical multi
-
junction
(VMJ) solar cell

Large serial resistance
under concentrating light

Inherently low serial resistance under
concentrating light

Classic structure

VMJ technology

Sample of VMJ solar cell and array for two side illumination

VMJ SC advantages


low series resistance leads to the absence of mutual contradictions
between sheet resistance of emitter, spectral sensitivity, surface of
electrical contact grid and so on;


high tolerance to damage radiation (it is easier to optimize the radiation
resistance in space solar cells);


lower equilibrium temperature (no need of metallization on the front and
back surfaces, that is why VMJ SC are transparent to IR behind the main
absorption band);


in comparison to planar bifacial SC, VMJ SC have ideal symmetrical
frontal and back sensitive surfaces, that allows to use a both side
illumination;


low silicon consumption in concentrator system


can be used as component part of tandem SC (because they are
transparent behind the main absorption band;


high output voltage (series connection of cells) and small current under
the same power lead to more efficient battery (because of decreasing
losses, which are arising at the high current cells).



Experimental parameters planar and multi
-
junction SC

Experimental
parameters


Planar SC


Multi
-
junction SC


Voltage density,
V/cm
2


0.1
-

1


10
-

100


Illumination intensity
range for effective
operation, W/cm
2


0.1
-

1 for traditional
design

1


100 for special
design




10
-
1

-

10
4


Maximum electric
output in the
laboratory, W/cm
2




30




3600


Maximum efficiency
in the laboratory, %


28 (solar radiation)


36 (laser radiation)


Our main goal


Developing new generation design and
technology of VMJ SCs
,

providing efficiency of
converting solar radiation

up to
25%

and able to
work in

PVT systems with total efficiency

up to

70
-
80 %

Our tasks and technological partners

Optimization

and making

structures with p
-
n junctions
(MISIS
,
Micron)

Finding new materials

and

wafer bonding technology
parameters
(
Cambridge)

Optimization of cutting processes and surface treatment of
PV structures after cutting

(
Micron
,

Pulsar
)

Developing and realization methods of forming additional
horizontal p
-
n junctions

(MISIS
)

Finding better cover materials

and possible methods of
creating efficient

UV radiation into photoactive light

(
Cambridge)

Developing processes of bonding separate VMJ SC (MISIS
,
Micron, Cambridge
)

Developing recommendations on PVT systems

concentrator PVT
(
VEI
)

For beginning we have intellectual property & …

I.Tyukhov et al., 2008 (jointly with VEI, MISIS

Preparing new Russian patent devoted to development solar cell with new
structures and materials

Federal Agency on Science and Innovation of Russian Federation supported of
this research project (2007
-
2009), Ministry of Science and Education is partly
supporting of this research project (2009
-
2011)

…and experience of developing CPVT system


CPVT system HCPV

(at the roof of VEI)

USA, GreenField Solar,


Electrical efficiency 19%

Additional heat using and high
total effectiveness
70%


Two side illumination

Suitable for mass production

Know
-
how



Gettering and radiation methods of charge
carriers lifetime improvements and creating
additional p
-
n junctions


New bonding materials (Ti/Ni/In, SiGe, metal
glasses instead of Al, silumin)


Protective diamond
-
like carbon coatings


Searching for new suitable multifunctional
antireflection coatings

Discussion of progress in development
systems based on VMJSC

Igor
Tyukhov

(MSUEE, VEI) , Bernard
Sater

and
Mico

Peralis

(
GreenField

Solar)

11 August 2011,
Oberling
, Ohio, USA

One more reason for supporting our
technology

C.S. Tao et al. / Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 95 (2011) 3176

3180

Increasing numbers of patents

John S. Liu, Chung
-
Huei Kuan, Shi
-
Cho Cha, Wen
-
Ling Chuang, George J. Gau, Jeng
-
Ywan Jeng Photovoltaic
technology development: A perspective from patent growth analysis Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, v. 95,
№ 11, November 2011,
р. 3130
-
3136.

John S. Liu, Chung
-
Huei Kuan, Shi
-
Cho Cha, Wen
-
Ling Chuang, George J. Gau, Jeng
-
Ywan Jeng
Photovoltaic technology development: A perspective from patent growth analysis Solar Energy
Materials and Solar Cells, v. 95, № 11, November 2011,
р. 3130
-
3136.

VMJ SC potential applications & customers


Oil and gas companies

(
autonomous electrical and
heat supply, energy supply systems for SCADA
)



Autonomous electrical and heat supply

of solar
villages, cities (Dagestan, Buryatiya, Baikal area
and others), resorts and natural reserve areas



Space applications


Thermo
-
photovoltaic technology (TPV)


different
from PVT!

A basic TPV system consists of a thermal emitter and a photovoltaic
cells



Special applications (transfer energy with laser
beam, high intensity metrology and etc. )

Block
-
scheme of autonomous REN systems

Accumulating unit

Solar modules

Micro
-
hydro

Wind turbine

Conversion and
distributing unit

Automatic
control unit

Electric
receiver

Local or
centralized
grid

External interface

Smart grids

Principal Characteristics: Enable active participation by Consumers, Accommodate all
generation and storage options, Enable new products, services, and markets, Provide
power quality for the digital economy Optimize asset utilization and operate efficiently,
Anticipate & respond to system disturbances (self
-
heal), Operate resiliently against
attack and natural disaster [
Mark Thiele (Fig.) and
DOE/NETL
-
2010/1401]


Traditional PV modules produced by a thermal
-
vacuum lamination method with
application gluing films on the basis of copolymers EVA, have durability does not
exceed 25 years in a temperate climate, 20
-

in conditions of a dry tropical climate and
is essentially reduced in conditions of damp tropics.


Processes like browning and delaminating result in corrosion and formation of leakage
currents due to presence and activation ionogenic groups in damp environment,
decrease of optical transmission factor in the spectral sensitivity field of PV modules.
The second group of the processes, resulting in reduction of electric parameters of
modules, is processes of contact system elements


Thus, quality of encapsulant materials is a determinative factor of long service ability of
PV modules.


In this connection there is essential interest on development of materials with
increased optical transmission and thermal stability for their use in modern designs of
PV modules, including in systems with the concentrated sunlight.

PV modules without plastics

The problem of achievement of solar energy competitiveness

in comparison with traditional energy technologies can be solved by
reduction cost of modules, increasing of solar energy conversion
efficiency, and also, appreciably,
by increasing of service life of
operation at least twice
.

A new technology of PV modules with life time up to 40
-
50
years without traditional plastic materials like EVA,
tedlar
,
mylar

etc.


Modern achievements in the field of organic
-
silicon compounds
synthesis allow to produce the materials combining high operational
properties of
polysiloxanes

with an opportunity of their usual
processing methods for thermoplastic materials, in particular, by
extrusion.


Preliminary laboratory tests were carried out on separate constructive
elements of modules with amorphous and
monocrystal

silicon of
different manufacturers in the conditions appropriate to requirements
of domestic and international standards.


The results of laboratory experiments have shown that the filler on
basis TSE does not concede, and on a number of parameters (for
example, stability of adhesive characteristics) surpasses materials on
basis EVA. The received results were checked and confirmed in the
expanded laboratory and natural
-

climatic tests.


PV modules with new
encapsulant

are testing now in Spain.


New modules are very suitable
for such long term applications
as for facades or for teaching
activity for schools

Towards 50 years lifetime of PV panels laminated with silicone gel technology

Solar Energy, Volume 86, Issue 10, October 2012, p. 3103
-
3108

V. Poulek, D.S. Strebkov, I.S. Persic, M. Libra

Educational activity

Global
-
local monitoring system

Seminar for teachers at UNESCO Chair
VIESH

Irina Persits shows production facility to
teachers

School

444

Schoolboy at UNESCO chair

Thinking, what they are doing here
?

Excursion in VIESH

of school
-

Center
of education
№ 1498

American

schools in Oregon takes into
account our experience (F. Vignola’ project)

Energizing the Next Generation with
Photovoltaics


by F. Vignola, I.
Tyukhov

etc.

published at ASES 2010

Possible cooperation


UMECH is new big ambitious university with good
connections to research institutions (VIESH, IVT RAN,
VEI and many others)


We would like to develop international cooperation
(EURONETRES UNESCO (why not IRNETRES?),
International
INTERNET FORUM of Young Researchers,
Post
-
Graduate Students and Students “Engineering and
Technological Research for Sustainable
Development”

September
2013


March

2014
)


Concentrator Si PV and free plastic technologies


Smart grids


Solar electric transport, cheap air collector


Solar education, Internet Forum




Thanks!


ityukhov@yahoo.com