The use of living organisms to solve industrial tasks.


23 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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The use of living organisms to solve
industrial tasks.

A.K.A restriction

Enzymes which cuts DNA along sugar

phosphate backbone

“Cuts” DNA at
Restriction Sites

Locations on a DNA molecule(Containing 4
base pairs) recognized by restriction enzymes

Properties of the end of a molecule of DNA/
Recombinant DNA molecule

Can stick to any other single strand nucleic
acid with the complementary sequence.

Joins DNA fragments together

In DNA cloning, it joins the ends of plasmid
DNA to the ends of the DNA fragment
creating a recombinant plasmid.

“Experimental methods in molecular biology
that are used to assemble recombinant DNA
molecules and to direct their replication
within host organisms”

DNA molecule that can replicate
independently from Chromosomal DNA

DNA sequences that are a result of molecular

Manipulation of an organism’s genome
through the use of modern DNA technology

A.K.A Cell

division cycle


“Process of extracting DNA from host cell and
implanting it to function in another type of

“Small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA
fragment can be inserted”

“Population of host bacteria, each of which
carries a DNA molecule that was inserted into
a cloning vector.”

Viruses that infect bacteria

DNA “junk”

abbreviation for complementary DNA

DNA that has been made by mRNA

commonly used for cloning eukaryotic cells.

The enzyme reverse transcriptase turns
mRNA into

by using transcription, but
put into reverse.

Uses the base pairing rules to match up with
the opposite strand and then attaches itself.

mRNAs all have distinct

degradation of some can be sped up or
slowed down depending on various factors.

Some structures help protect the mRNA from
such “deaths”, such as the


At the 3’ end of the



tends to form a
structure at its end. The DNA polymerase
then uses this as its primer and therefore is
able to transcribe a sequence that is
complementary for the

Technique scientists use to determine the
similarity in sequencing between a range of
DNAs that came from different places and
how much it is repeated in one DNA.

A fragment (of nucleic acid) that is
complementary to the sequencing of a
difference nucleic acid, that when tagged or
labeled (whether it be dyed or radioactively
tagged), it is used to point out the existing
complementary segments in the sequencing
of nucleic acids in many microorganisms.

DNA cloning technique that, using expression
vectors, generates a “clone library”, in
which one protein is represented by one
clone, and each clone expresses one protein.

Particular type of

cloning vector where the
signals (transcription & translation) that are
needed for gene regulation of the gene in
interest are part of the cloning vector.

Yeast is eukaryotic whereas bacteria is
prokaryotic. In bacteria, RNA processing
occurs in the cytoplasm while it occurs in the
nucleus for yeast.

When a protein is modified after it has been

General term for the technique of studying
proteins by connecting them to the genetic
information that retains to them.

Involves sending a surge of electricity to
momentarily and temporarily open the pores
in the cell membrane in order to bring DNA
(or chromosomes) into the cell.

Response from the cell after being
overheated to an extent where the protein

and denatures.

Genes may cross over, creating a greater
diversity and

the cell. The
ancestry can be as common as different, but
you can trace it down to find the patterns.