PPT 7 - Carlisle County Schools

lessfrustratedΒιοτεχνολογία

23 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 22 μέρες)

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ISSUES PRESENTED WITH THE UTILIZATI ON
OF ANIMALS FOR
AGRICULTURAL
PURPOSES.

Animal Agriculture

Animal Welfare


Concept implying that humankind has dominion
over animals.


Dominion


Power or Right


over animals


Agree?


Disagree?


Why or Why not?

Dominion


Responsibility
-

Humans have the responsibility to
care for animal well
-
being.


Animal Well
-
being:


Minimize Stress


Minimize Pain


Minimize Suffering


Minimize deprivation


While providing for physiological and behavioral needs.

Animal Rights


Concept implying that animals should be used for no
other purpose than the benefit of the animals
themselves.

Abolition


Of animal use in science and research.


Dissolution of animal agriculture and entertainment,
and the total elimination of commercial and sport
hunting and trapping.

Moderation


Limited use of animals where a mutual benefit
between animals and humankind is demonstrated.

Animal Discussion


Animal Advocacy Movement


In response to: (animal)


Cruelty


Exploitation


Rights


Liberation

Animal Cruelty


Group has no problem “punishing” animal.


Starvation


Abuse for their benefits


Animal Exploiters


-

Dog Fighting


-

Bull Fighting


-

Cock Fighting


-

Poaching



-

Trapping


-

Using Animals for Target Practice

Animal
Welfarists


Believe in the following:


Protection


Care


Use with humane ethic


It is okay to use animals for human benefit for:


Food


Research


Fast and painless death

Animal Rightists


Animals are:


Not to be eaten


Not to be used for research


Not for killing, hunting or sport


Opposed to Vivisection (cutting)

Animal Liberationists


Most Extreme


Eliminate all types of animal use


Willing to commit Arson


Not afraid to use terrorism


Belief that they are above the law because their cause is noble.

Nature and Science


Perception of Nature?


Liberationists’ Perception of Nature?


What is Science?


What role does nature play in our belief system?


What role does emotion play?

Science and Nature


Science
-

building process whose major function is to
utilize facts based on experimentation rather than on
emotions or personal beliefs to make decisions.



We need Science to best understand Society.

What are the Facts?


Nature: Appears tranquil


However . . .


In the wild


Animals Kill


Animals Eat


Animals are vivisected against their will.

Your Perspectives?


What do you think?


Who’s right and who’s wrong?

CAFO


Confined Animal Feeding Operation


House and feed a large number of animals in a
confined area for 45 days or more during any 12
-
month period.


EPA began regulating CAFOs during the 1970s


Public Health Concerns



chronic and acute respiratory illnesses


musculoskeletal injuries


infections that travel from animals to humans


odor and flies


CDC has shown that chemical and infectious
compounds from swine and poultry waste are able to
migrate into soil and water near CAFOs


Scientists do not yet know whether or how the
migration of these compounds affects human health

Health Concerns


Antibiotics, which may contribute to the
development of antibiotic
-
resistant pathogens


Pathogens
, such as parasites, bacteria, and viruses,
which can cause disease in animals and humans


Nutrients, such as ammonia, nitrogen, and
phosphorus, which can reduce oxygen in surface
waters, encourage the growth of harmful algal
blooms, and contaminate drinking
-
water sources



Pesticides and hormones, which researchers have
associated with hormone
-
related changes in fish



Kentucky Regulations


Operations that are defined as

Concentrated

Animal

Feeding

Operations (CAFOs) pursuant to 401 KAR
5:060, Section 10, are required to obtain a Kentucky
Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES)
permit. In order to be categorized as a CAFO, an
operation must first meet the definition of an animal
feeding operation (AFO), as follows:

AFO


Animal Feeding Operation
--

A lot or facility
where animals have been stabled, are currently
stabled

or will be stabled or confined and fed or
maintained for a total of 45 days or more in any 12
-
month period; and where crops, vegetation forage
growth, or post
-
harvest residues are not sustained
over any portion of the lot or facility in the normal
growing season.


CAFO


Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation
--


In
addition to the AFO definition above,

(1) there are
more than 300 animal units confined and there is a
discharge to the waters of the commonwealth, or
(2)

there are more than 1,000 animal units confined.
The majority of potential CAFOs in Kentucky fall
under this latter category

Animal equivalents for 1,000 animal units follow:



Beef

--

1,000 head of beef cattle

Dairy

--

700 head of dairy cattle

Swine

--

2,500 pigs, each weighing more than 55
pounds

Poultry

--

125,000 broilers or 82,000 laying hens
or pullets


Permitting Requirements


Once defined as a CAFO, the operation can be
permitted under either a
KPDES General Permit

or
KPDES Individual Permit
, depending upon
the nature of the operation. All operations housing
between 1,000 and 1,500 animal units are eligible for
coverage under a KPDES General Permit with some
exceptions:


Construction Permits


For any animal feeding operation (including CAFOs),
regardless of size, that plans to construct a new or
expand upon an existing liquid waste handling
system, a
Construction Permit

pursuant to 401
KAR 5:005 must be obtained prior to the start of
construction. To apply for a Construction Permit,
Short Form B must be submitted along with any
supporting documentation. There is no fee for

the
permit.


Issues


The large concentration of animals, animal waste
and dead animals in a small space can poses many
ethical and environmental problems.


Some animal rights activists have charged that some
CAFOs are cruel to animals


air pollution


ground water contamination


In 24 states, isolated cases of groundwater
contamination has been linked to CAFOs.


ten million hogs in North Carolina generate 19
million tons of waste per year. The US federal
government acknowledges the waste disposal issue
and requires that animal waste be stored in lagoons.
These lagoons can be as large as 7.5 acres. Lagoons
not protected with an impermeable liner can leak
waste into groundwater under some conditions, as
can runoff from manure spread back onto fields as
fertilizer in the case of an
unforseen

heavy rainfall.

Benefits


Lead to economies of scale and allow for profits at
lower slaughter house prices


Large meat packing operations desire to deal with
large operators

(schedules and standards)


Large capital to solve environmental problems


Concentration of pollution/heath problems at one
location


Main Benefits:


We’ll have enough meat when the year 2050 rolls
around!


CAFOs are extremely efficient!


According to Dennis T. Avery, Author of Saving the
Planet with Pesticides and Plastics, it’d take the
whole nation of Canada to free range all of the
chickens in production in the U.S.


I can see chickens running around in downtown
Vancouver
-

looks like a win
-
win to me!

Problems


Odor


Groundwater


Surface Water


Social Fabric of Local Community


Psychological Problems of Community


Disease


Removal of the Dead


Hoof and Mouth in England (no incinerators)

Options


Land application of liquid fertilizers


Lagoon


Artificial Wetlands to process wastes


Anaerobic Digesters

Shift Gears: Hormones in Chicken?


Should I be concerned about hormones in chicken?


A.

The use of hormones has been
illegal

in U.S.
poultry production since 1952, according to USDA
regulations. If you're eating American
-
grown chicken
from a reputable source, there's no need to be
concerned about added hormones or other growth
-
enhancing agents.



Antibiotics?


Are there antibiotics in the chicken we eat? Why are
people concerned?


A.

Stringent FDA and USDA regulations require
chickens to be weaned from all antibiotics well
before processing, so there are absolutely no
antibiotics or antibiotic residue in the chicken you
buy and serve to your family.


Perception is Reality


Use of hormones in chickens is illegal!


Why do we think it is legal?

Super Bugs!


U.S. farmers typically use antibiotics to prevent
contagious diseases or to promote faster growth
among poultry. However, many scientists and
consumer groups contend that routine feeding of
antibiotics to livestock
--

along with overuse of the
drugs in humans
--

is producing bacteria that are
more resistant to such treatments.

Campylobacter and Salmonella


Research conducted by Consumer Reports and the
Sierra

Club, found that while the presence of
campylobacter and salmonella in broilers has
declined 33 percent since 1997, some 50 percent of
specimens tested still harbored one of the two
bacteria, or both. Moreover, 90 percent of the
campylobacter bacteria tested from the chicken and
34 percent of the salmonella showed some resistance
to antibiotics often used to treat people

Posilac
: BGH


Bovine
somatotropin

(abbreviated
bST

and
BST
) is a protein hormone produced in the pituitary
glands of cattle. It is also called
bovine growth
hormone
, or
BGH
. Monsanto Company, a U.S.
-
based corporation, first synthesized the hormone in
large quantities using recombinant DNA technology
and marketed it as "POSILAC" beginning in 1994.
The resulting product is called
recombinant
bovine
somatotropin

(
rBST
),
recombinant
bovine growth hormone

(
rBGH
), or
artificial
growth hormone
.

Human health


According to the Food and Drug Administration,
food products made from rBST treated cows are safe
for human consumption, and no significant
difference exists between milk derived from rBST
-
treated and non
-
rBST
-
treated cows. Furthermore,
the FDA found
bGH

to be biologically inactive when
consumed by humans and found no biological
distinction between rBST and BST

Review:


What is rBST?


What is
Posilac
?


Are hormones legal in chicken?


What is campylobacter?



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eZkDikRLQrw&f
eature=fvsr


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SBBFTpTMUbc
&feature=more_related


What just happened here?


What do you think?


Is it odd that humans drink milk from a cow, and no
other species robs milk from another mammal?


What about
Posilac
?


Is it odd that it is banned in Europe?


What about Canada?


What about how that report went down?

Cloning


FDA Studies Cloning


cloning poses no unique risks to animal health,
compared to the risks found with other reproduction
methods, including natural mating


the composition of food products from cattle, swine, and
goat clones, or the offspring of any animal clones, is no
different from that of conventionally bred animals


because of the preceding two conclusions, there are no
additional risks to people eating food from cattle, swine,
and goat clones or the offspring of any animal clones
traditionally consumed as food


What Is a Clone?


"Clones are genetic copies of an animal," says Larisa
Rudenko
, Ph.D., a Molecular Biologist and Senior
Adviser for biotechnology in CVM. "They're similar
to identical twins, but born at different times."


Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer:


Animal cloning has been around for more than 20 years.
Most cloning today uses a process called somatic cell
nuclear transfer:


Scientists take an egg from a female animal (often from
ovaries at the slaughterhouse) and remove the gene
-
containing nucleus.


The nucleus of a cell from an animal the breeder wishes
to copy is added to the egg.


After other steps in the laboratory take place, the egg cell
begins to form into an embryo.


The embryo is implanted in the uterus of a surrogate
dam (female parent), which carries it to term and
delivers it like her own offspring.


Rodeo


Forget The Myth!


Rodeo associations claim very few animals are
injured and killed in rodeos. That is a lie. In fact,
rodeo associations do not disclose animal injuries
and deaths. Furthermore, those who do commit
humane violations are granted anonymity.


(http://www.sharkonline.org/?P=000000034)

Is Rodeo Cruelty To Animals?


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YR9h84pTRs8