Main Themes of Microbiology

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23 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Main Themes of
Microbiology

Chapter 1









Phylogeny


Origin of various life forms


CELLULAR


NON CELLULAR


NO NUCLEUS
NUCLEUS

Cell Structure of Microorganisms

3

Bacteria

Algae

Protozoa

Helminths

Fungi

Viruses

Characteristics of Living Organisms


Metabolism


enzyme
-
catalyzed chemical
reactions


Creating order from disorder



Reproduction


progeny formed sexually or
asexually


Differentiation


different cell types can
occur


Communication


signaling within and
between cells


Locomotion


relative movement of cell or
organism


Evolution


genetic change over time


Respond
to
stimul
us

Evolutionary Time Line


Life on Earth
through Ages

This image is from your Text book.
For better
understanding another
image in a different format is shown in the next slide

Life on Earth through the Ages


Evolution of higher order forms

Ancestral
eukaryotes

Modern
descendants

T I M E













Mutations


Their role in Evolution &
Diversity

What is Microbiology?


Microbiology
= study of living things too
small to be
seen with the unaided human eye.


How small is “small”?


What do we really mean by living?


Some commonly used units of measurement to
estimate size of microorganisms:


Bacteria


usually measured in


(Micron)


Viruses


measured in
0
A (Angstroms)


Units of measurements


1mm = 1000µ



=
1000nm or 1000mµ (
1u = 10
-
3

mm)


1nm = 10
0
A


Microbes


some amazing facts

Microorganisms are Ubiquitous


Soil


1g of soil
-

>10
9

microbes
(Present
at depths > 3
miles!!)


10g

of soil
-

>than total human population!



Air

-

as high as six miles into the air!!!!.


Water


largest biomass on earth


On Humans


10x than human body cells!!!!!!

Rich Biodiversity


1g of soil
-

10,000
different

species!! That's more biodiversity in 1g soil than all
the different types of mammals in the entire world!!!!.
Staggering.

So, Microbes are everywhere in places unimaginable
.


No Oxygen?


Not a problem


No Organic food source?


Survive happily

What made them so successful
?

Metabolic diversity

Small cell size

Microorganisms predominant role


They serve as reservoirs
of essential nutrients (e.g., C, P, N)


Carry out major processes for biogeochemical cycles


Other life forms require microbes to
survive


No Microorganisms


No life possible on planet Earth!!!

Size in the Microbial World


Relative Microbial Sizes


If poliovirus (27 nm) was the size of a quarter…



Staphylococcus aureus
(0.8 µm)

Beach ball



Escherichia coli
(0.7 x 2.5 µm)

Adult human



Saccharomyces cerevisiae
(5 µm)

Elephant



Paramecium caudatum
(50 x 250 µm)

Large yard


(2.5 acres)


Amoeba proteus
(800 µm)

10 city blocks


(100 acres)

What makes the microbes Ubiquitous?

H
2
, H
2
S, Fe
2+
, NH
4
+



All Organisms

Energy
Source

Light

(Photo
-
)

Chemicals

(Chemo
-
)

Carbon
Source

Organic

(Organotrophs)

Inorganic


CO
2

(Autotrophs)

Photoorganotrophs

Photoautotrophs

Organic

(Organotrophs)

Inorganic


CO
2

(Autotrophs)

Chemoorganotrophs

(Photoheterotrophs)
Purple & Green bacteria

(Photolithotrophs)

Cyano, Plants

(Chemoheterotrophs)
E.coli, Salmonella, etc.,

(Chemolithotrophs)

Sulfur & H
2

bacteria

Energy
Source

Carbon
Source


Glucose, Acetate


DUE TO THEIR AMAZING METABOLIC DIVERSITY

Why study Microbiology?

Applications


varied & diverse


Human health
-

both beneficial
&

harmful


Agriculture


positive and negative impact


Food


Again positive and negative impact


Energy &
Environment


biofuels
(
methane
, ethanol,
hydrogen)


bioremediation

Degrade PCB’s,
DDT, Clean
up oil spills

Treat radioactive waste


Biotechnology

Pesticides, Antibiotics, enzymes amino acids,
Vitamins, medically important products
(Hormones) Gene therapy, etc.,,

Branches of
Microbiology


Medical Microbiology


Public health
Microbiology and
Epidemiology


Immunology

Branches of
Microbiology


Industrial
Microbiology


Agricultural
Microbiology


Environmental
Microbiology

Biotechnology


Genetic
Engineering and
Recombinant
DNA Technology:
genetically
modified
organisms
(GMOs)


Bioremediation

The Impact of Microbes on Earth: Small Organisms
with a Giant Effect


Microorganisms are central to the very functioning of the
biosphere.


Therefore Science of microbiology is the foundation of all the
biological sciences.


Microorganisms have a profound influence on all aspects of
the earth and its residents


(
The
role of the infinitely small in
nature is infinitely large


Louis
Pasteur).


Bacterial
-
like organisms in the fossil record as far back as 3.5
billion years ago (
prokaryotes
-

organisms without a true
nucleus)


2 billion years later,
eukaryotes

(organisms with a true
nucleus) emerged



Major Groups of
Microorganisms


Bacteria


-


???


Protozoa
-


???


Algae


-


???


Helminths

-


???


Fungi


-


???


Viruses


-


???

Sub
-
disciplines
of
Microbiology

Concept Check

Which of these are acellular microbes?


A.
Bacteria

B.
Viruses

C.
Protozoa

D.
Yeasts

Concept Check

If you study HIV, what
sort of microbiologist
would you be
considered?


A.
Bacteriologist

B.
Protozoologist

C.
Mycologist

D.
Virologist

Copyright
©
The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

© Chris Bjornberg/Photo Researchers

Concept Check

Which of these is the correct scientific name for
a common laboratory bacterium?


A.
Escherichia Coli

B.
Escherichia coli

C.
Escherichia Coli

D.
Escherichia coli

What Aspects of Microorganisms Will
We Study?


Cell Structure and Function


Cell Growth and Metabolism


Microbial Genetics


Taxonomy and Evolutionary History


Interaction with Living and Non
-
Living
Environment

Learning Goals:

Take home message


Define
microorganism

and
characterize the main
groups of microorganisms
.


Differentiate between
Cellular
&
Acellular
.


Differences between
Living

and
Non living


Explain the importance of studying microbes.


Describe the role and impact of microbes on the
Earth.


Define the
main branches
of Microbiology.


Familiarize


Relative size range
of microorganisms.


Familiarize


Important
Definitions


Familiarize
Units of Measurements
(

, nm &
0
A).

Emerging
diseases

Pathogens

Bioremediation

Genetic engineering

Microbiology

Microscopic

Microorganisms

Microbes

Bacteria

Viruses

Fungi

Protozoa

Law

Sterilization

Aseptic techniques

Germ theory of disease

Nomenclature

Taxonomy

Taxa

Classification

Identification

Spontaneous generation

Abiogenesis

Biogenesis

Scientific methods

Hypotheses

Deduction

Deductive

Theories

Species

Scientific names

Evolutionary

Morphology

Physiology

Genetics

Eubacteria

Archaebacteria

Kingdom
Procaryotae

Kingdom Protista

Kingdom
Myceteae

Kingdom
Animalia

Kingdom
Plantae

Domain

Kingdom

Phylum

Division

Class


Order

Family

Genus

Hierarchies

Scientific
method

Algae

Macroscopic

Adaptability

Immunology

Epidemiology

Biotechnology

Infectious

Prokaryote

Eukaryote

Parasites

Hosts

Key Terms and
Phrases