Globalization Studies

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23 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 2 μήνες)

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Globalization Studies

International College

Khon

Kaen

University

2011


Week 5


Our Shrinking World (1)

Globalization


our
shrinking world


Globalization


our
shrinking world


“Shrinking world” is a metaphor for the
compression of distance, and of time, in our
globalizing world


Distance is much less of a hurdle than it used
to be


What is foreign and alien to us is no longer as
mysterious and threatening


Like it or not, most of us are becoming global
citizens rather than solely “citizens of
Thailand” or any other one country

Globalization


the shrinking world


In week 2, I introduced our four main
themes
for this
globalization
studies course:


the global economy


global politics


the global community


the global environment


For the past two weeks we have concentrated
on the global economy


This week, and next,
I want to
turn to changes
taking place in the global community

Globalization


the drivers


What is “driving” globalization?


There are four main drivers of globalization:


The
conscious decisions of most governments in
the world to:


liberalise

trade across borders (global economy)


intensify and expand global political dialogue and
collective action (global politics)


And two other factors not driven by governments:


technological advances


travel and mobility

Globalization


technology driven


Technology


At least four major components are helping to
drive globalization:


Industrial technology


Transportation technology


Information and data technology


Communications technology


We
will
look at each of these very quickly

Globalization


technology driven


Industrial (production) technology



some examples:


Robotics, reinforcing economies of scale


Synthetic fertilizers


Biotechnology


Alternative energy technologies


Nanotechnology and micro
-
processing


Seed technology and genetic modification more generally


Space technology


Biometrics


Laser and fiber optics


Superconductivity


Nuclear technologies, and the list goes on……..

Globalization


technology driven


Transportation technology

-

some examples:


Containerization of freight


Electronic tracking using GPS and laser technologies


More fuel efficient engines (for air, land and sea)


Multifuel

engine technology


High speed
trains using electromagnetic technologies


Batteries forever smaller, lighter and more efficient


Lighter, stronger materials allowing longer flights, better
fuel efficiency


Drones


Globalization


technology driven


Information and data technology



some examples:


Internet


Data processing
-

from mainframe, to PC, to laptop, to
palm top, to mobile
phone, to smart
-
phone


Data storage


E
-
government


E
-
education


Internet gaming


Digital
TV and 3D TV


Spy satellites


Globalization


technology driven


Communications technology



some examples:


Email


Voice over internet protocols (VOIP)


Mobile phones (2G >3G>4G)


Interactive TV


Text
-
to
-
voice and voice
-
to
-
text technologies


Instant translation and interpretation technologies


Communication and TV broadcast satellites


Facebook, Hi5, Twitter, Messenger


Video conferencing

Globalization


technology driven

Internet connection rate for each 10,000 people in the year 2000

Globalization


technology driven


Issues and concerns:


The global digital divide is showing few signs of
narrowing


Access to the new technologies may actually be
widening the gap between rich and poor


Much of the global media, especially news media,
is controlled by richer states


But on the positive side:


Many
of these technologies help “liberate”
individuals from governmental intervention and
media control


Globalization



Review of
the shrinking world


What are the important “
drivers
” of
globalization?


Government decisions to liberalize trade and
finance crossing borders (global economy)


Government decisions to intensify and expand
global political dialogue and collective action
(global politics)


Technological advances


Travel and mobility

Globalization


travel and mobility


Migration

is not new: the scale and pace of
modern people movements
is

new


Migration over just the past 150 years has made
the United States, Canada and Australia the
relatively successful countries they are today


Migration has become more difficult
in recent
decades,
as:


governments assert control over their borders and
the people seeking to cross them


governments
manage immigration and emigration
as tools of economic and social policy

Globalization


travel and mobility


As governments became more selective, they
facilitated entry of “desirable” categories of
traveler and migrant, and make entry for
others more difficult


Short
-
term visitor and “economic benefit”
categories have
grown rapidly
as the ease and
cost of travel have improved


But intending
migrants often find themselves
in limbo in intermediate countries, seek entry
illegally or turn to people smugglers

International Migration

Net migration rates for 2008
.

Globalization


travel and mobility


In terms of our emerging global economy and
global society, people movement is much less
“free” than goods and capital movements


People are more “difficult” to assimilate than
goods, services and capital


there are social,
cultural and workplace impacts


People mobility is likely to continue to be the
notable exception to the general trend of
global integration


Globalization


travel and mobility


Main categories of traveler/migrant:


Short
-
term:


Tourists/visitors/business traveler


Skilled term
-
contract worker


Migrant or seasonal worker


Student


Long term/permanent:


Refugee


Economic migrant


Environmental migrant

Globalization


travel and mobility


Tourists and short
-
term visitors

are the
largest, and fastest
-
growing, category of cross
-
border travelers


In 2008, there were over 922 million
international tourist arrivals
(source UNWTO)


Most visited countries: France
,
USA
, Spain,
China, Italy


Annual tourism expenditure is around US$950
billion

Globalization


travel and mobility


Skilled term
-
contract workers

are admitted for
short to medium
-
term employment,
and
are
most often
professionals or highly skilled


Most countries are now competing for highly
-
qualified professionals (health, ICT, engineering)
and those with specialist skills (English teachers,
ethnic chefs)


Typically North/North and South/North transfers


South/North transfers raise issue of “brain drain”

Globalization


travel and mobility


Migrant and seasonal workers

are generally low
-
skilled and typically employed on short
-
term
contracts in agriculture or construction projects


Remittances are a major source of income and
foreign exchange for several “sending” countries


Top 5 remittances receiving countries: India,
China, Mexico, the Philippines, Poland


Most lower
-
skilled migrant workers are from
developing countries. 58% are also working in
developing countries,
ie
. South/South transfers


Globalization


travel and mobility


Students

traveling internationally to study
languages or whole degrees is another high
-
growth industry for a number of countries,
mainly English
-
speaking


Students from a number of source countries
see this as a
“back door”
to long
-
term
employment/migration

Globalization


travel and mobility


Refugees

are tightly defined by the UN
Convention as persons “with a well
-
founded fear
of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion,
nationality, membership of a particular social
group, or political opinion” who are outside their
country of nationality


Many
see
this definition as too narrow


The UNHCR recognizes 16 million refugees and
asylum seekers (June 2009) but
notes
there are a
further 26 million internally displaced people

Globalization


travel and mobility


Economic and environmental migrants

range
from those displaced by natural disasters,
desertification, loss of land or livelihood to
those simply seeking a better life in another
country