# science - Instituto San Roberto

Μηχανική

14 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

85 εμφανίσεις

Instituto San Roberto

2011
-
2012

ISR
Science

Committee

22
/
6
/2009
2
:
42

PM

SCIENCE

Benchmarks:
44

Physics

Standard 22: Understands Motion

SC8.22.1

Understands

that the characteristics of motion can be described
based on sensory perceptions; is aware of the limitations of these
descriptions.

Understands the difference between measuring and estimating.

Knows the definition of magnitude and can provide examples
of magnitudes

Understands that all measurements include errors Understands the difference between
precision and accuracy.

Describes and compares different instruments used by different cultures and at
different moments in History to measure time and distan
ce

SC8.22.2

Understands how to describe the motion of objects

Understands the relevance of using a reference frame when describing motion.

Knows the difference between absolute and relative motion

Knows the definition of trajectory

Gives examples of linear and circular trajectories

Understands the importance of using the correct unit and notation to report
magnitudes.

Knows how to express a unit in the metric prefix system.

Knows that units can be classified as fundamental or deri
ved and give examples

Knows the standard SI units for each magnitude.

Knows how to apply dimensional analysis to convert units.

Knows how to express numbers in scientific notation

Knows that motion magnitudes can be classified as scalars/vectors and pro
vide
examples

Can represent vector magnitudes graphically

SC8.22.3

Knows the different magnitudes involved in motion: distance,
displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration

Knows the definitions and their standard unit

Can solve numerical problems involvi
ng these magnitudes.

Distinguishes between speed and velocity

SC8.22.4

Understands the characteristics of uniform linear motion

Knows that in Uniform Linear Motion (ULM) velocity is constant and the trajectory of
the object is linear.

Knows that in ULM
speed and velocity are interchangeable

Identifies the characteristics of ULM through experiments.

Instituto San Roberto

2011
-
2012

ISR
Science

Committee

22
/
6
/2009
2
:
42

PM

SC8.22.5

Understands

how to draw and interpret distance
-
time graphs,
velocity
-
time graphs and data tables for uniform linear motion, free
falling and accelerated linear motion

Knows the difference between dependent and independent variable

Knows how to trace a Cartesian plan
e

Knows that the axis needs to have the name of the variable represented and the unit
of the variable.

Can choose an appropriate scale for the range of values to graph

Can plot the values and draw the best
-
fitting line or curve

Predicts the characterist
ics of a ULM based on its graph.

Knows the relationship between slope and velocity.

SC8.22.6

Understands the characteristics of free falling motion

Understands the differences between Aristotle’s and Galileo’s theories on free falling
motion.

Values Galileo’s ideas as a source of change

Identifies the characteristics of free falling motion through experiments.

Understands that velocity and acceleration changes over time in free falling motion

Knows how to calculate the velocity and distance c
overed by an object in free falling
motion

SC8.22.7

Understands the characteristics of accelerated linear motion.

Knows the definition and units of acceleration.

Knows that acceleration can be positive or negative.

Knows the formula for acceleration.

Can solve numerical problems about acceleration

Standard 23: Understands Forces as Sources of change in Motion

SC8.23.1 Understands the relationship between changes in motion or
shape with interactions between objects.

Knows different types of interactio
ns (mechanical, electrical, magnetic, gravitational…)

Formulates hypothesis to explain observed changes in motion and compares in a
qualitatively manner.

Knows Aristotle’s, Galileo’s and Newton’s ideas about the causes of motion.

Understands that forces

are the result of interactions between objects and classify
according to their origin as gravitational, electromagnetic or nuclear

Understands that some forces cause a change in motion and others can change the
shape of objects

Understands that there ar
e differences between our everyday use of the term force
and the definition of force in Physics

Understands that forces are actions and are applied on objects, but they are not a
characteristic of objects

Knows how to measure a force and its unit

Underst
ands how a dynamometer works (Hooks Law)

SC8.23.2 Understands how to use graphical methods (force diagrams and
free
-
object diagrams) to represent the net force acting on an object

Knows that forces are vectors.

Knows how to add two or more vectors with
the same/opposite direction

Instituto San Roberto

2011
-
2012

ISR
Science

Committee

22
/
6
/2009
2
:
42

PM

Knows how to use the parallelogram rule to add any two vectors graphically

Knows the definition of net force and relate to rest.

Knows how to calculate the net force acting on an object

SC8.23.3 Understands Newton
’s First Law

Understands the concept of inertia

Understands the relationship between mass and inertia

Knows the standard unit for mass

Understands the relationship between the direction of motion and the direction of the
net force.

SC8.23.4

Understand
s Newton’s Second Law

Understands the relationship between the force acting on an object, its mass and the
acceleration produced

Understands the relationship between the direction of the force and the direction of
the motion of the object

Understands th
at an object accelerates only if there is unbalanced force acting on it.

Can express Newton’s Second Law as a formula

Can solve numerical problems using Newton’s Second Law

SC8.23.5

Understands Newton’s Third Law

Understands that forces always come in
pairs

Understands that interaction forces are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction

Understands that interaction forces always act on different objects

Understands that interaction forces do not cancel each other

SC8.23.6 Understands the role
of gravitational forces in the interaction
between objects

Understands the purpose of astronomy

Distinguishes between astronomy and astrology

Describes ancient civilization’s theories about planetary motion as well as the evolution
of these ideas throug
h history

Describes different scientific theories about the origin of the universe and their
evolution through history. The Big Bang.

Describes different scientific theories about the end of the universe

Understands the technology used by scientists in
their study of the Universe

Computers

Relates the origin of the universe to gravitational forces.

Understands the structure of the universe

Knows different formations/celestial objects that make the universe: galaxies, planets,
asteroids, stars

Relates planetary motion and gravitational forces.

Knows Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation

Uses distance vs. force graphs to describe gravitatio
nal attraction between masses
(Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation)

Can solve numerical problems to calculate the force of attraction between two objects

Relates gravitational forces with weight.

Knows that weight depends on the mass of the object

Knows how to calculate the weight of an object.

Knows that weight can change with location but mass does not.

Instituto San Roberto

2011
-
2012

ISR
Science

Committee

22
/
6
/2009
2
:
42

PM

Understand the relationship between gravitational attraction and free falling on Earth.

SC8.23.7 Understands electric forces

Knows the history

of electricity as a concept

Knows the different types of charge

Knows the standard unit for charge

Designs and uses instruments to detect electric charge

Understands that equal charges repel each other and different charges attract each
other

Underst
ands that electric forces are the result of interactions between electric charges

Understands that electric forces do not require contact.

Understands the concept of electric force field

Describes different methods to charge objects: contact, friction,
induction

Understands the formation of thunderstorms

Understands Coulomb’s Law

Can solve numerical problems to calculate the electric force between two charges

Uses Newton’s Laws to explain the result of observed interactions between charges.

Compares

electric forces with gravitational forces

SC8.23.
8 Understands magnetic forces

Knows the definition of magnetic material

Knows that magnets have poles that attract or repel

Knows that magnets can lose their properties if heated/hit

Knows that some materials can be temporarily magnetized

Understands that magnetic forces are the result of the interaction of magnets

Understands that magnetic forces do not require contact

Understands the concept of magnetic force field

Understands th
at a magnetic force field can be represented with force lines

Uses Newton’s Laws to describe the result of the interactions between magnets

Understands the magnetic nature of Earth and relates it to the use of the compass

Knows practical applications of

magnets: maglev trains, attraction of heavy objects,
rotors, electromagnetic induction…

Standard 24: Understands the Different Sources, Forms and
Conservation of Energy

SC8.24.1

Understands the relationship between force and energy

Understands that obje
cts with energy can produce changes in other objects through
forces

Knows the definition of work

Knows that work is produced only when there is a displacement of the object on which
the force is acting

Can solve numerical problems about work

SC8.24.2

Kn
ows different types of energy

Describes real situations in which different types of energy are present.

Can classify energy as kinetic or potential, according to the state of motion/rest of the
object

Elastic potential energy

Gravitational potential en
ergy

Instituto San Roberto

2011
-
2012

ISR
Science

Committee

22
/
6
/2009
2
:
42

PM

Chemical potential energy

Electric potential energy

Can classify energy as renewable/non renewable, according to the source that
produces it

Hydroelectric energy

Solar energy

Wind energy

Biomass energy

Tidal energy

Fossil fuel energy

Geothermic energy

Nuclear energy

Understands the ecological impact of using energy

Understands the relevance of using energy responsibly

Knows the standard unit for energy

SC8.24.3

Understands the concept of energy conservation appl
ied to
mechanical energy

Understands the different variables that contribute to mechanical energy

Understands the relationship between kinetic energy and motion

Knows the formula for kinetic energy

Solves numerical problems about kinetic energy

Underst
ands the relationship between gravitational potential energy and position

Knows the formula for gravitational potential energy

Solves numerical problems about gravitational potential energy

Understands the transformation of kinetic energy into potential

energy and vice versa.

Understands that work can be expressed as a change in mechanical energy

Understands that mechanical energy is conserved in the absence of friction

Solves problems about motion and position by using the principle of conservation o
f
mechanical energy

Standard 25:Understands the Properties of Matter.

SC8.25.1

Understands some general properties of matter

Understands matter can be classified as pure or mixture

Understands mixtures can be of three types: solutions, suspensions and c
olloids

Understands matter can undergo physical or chemical changes

Understands the general properties of matter: mass, volume, weight and inertia

Understands the particular properties of matter: hardness, malleability, ductility,
porosity

Understands
the specific properties of matter: color, temperature, taste, smell,
density, boiling point and melting point

Identifies the general properties of matter through experiments

Reports experimental results in the proper SI unit

SC8.25.2 Knows

different abstract models that can describe the structure
of matter and predict and explain properties of matter.

Instituto San Roberto

2011
-
2012

ISR
Science

Committee

22
/
6
/2009
2
:
42

PM

Knows different models about the structure of matter used during the evolution of
science.

Understands Empedocles’ ; Tale’s; Anaximander’s

; Democritus’ ;Heraclitus’s;
Aristotle’s’ ; Torricelli’s ; Galileo’s and Newton’s model of matter

Understands the molecular kinetic energy model

Understands Clausiu's ,and Maxwell’s and Boltzmann’s model of gases

Uses the molecular kinetic energy model

to compare and contrast the properties of
matter in its most common states on Earth: Solid, Liquid, Gas

Understands some properties of each state of matter

Solids: rigidity

Liquids: fluidity, viscosity, surface tension, capillarity

Gases: fluidity

SC8
.25.3 Understands how to apply the molecular kinetic energy model
to the concept of pressure

Distinguishes between pressure and force

Uses algebraic expressions to calculate pressure in solids and in fluids using
appropriate units

Knows instruments and

designs experiments that measure pressure: reports the
results graphically

Describes everyday phenomena in which pressure is present (sound, atmospheric
pressure) and relates them to the molecular kinetic energy model.

Understands Archimedes’s & Pascal
’s Principle

Understands Boyle’s Law: relationship between pressure and volume in gases and can
represent it graphically

Understands the relationship between pressure/temperature and weather conditions

Understands the connections between Physics and Wea
ther: the Coriolis Effect

Standard 26:Understands Heat and Heat Transfer

SC8.26.1

Understands the difference between heat and temperature

Relates molecular kinetic energy and temperature

Designs experiments to measure temperature and reports the results g
raphically

Understands how a thermometer works & different scales used to report temperature
and able to change temperature values from one scale to another

Understands linear expansion

Relates molecular collisions and heat transfer between objects.

Understands Thermal equilibrium

Knows different units to measure heat and the equivalence between them

Designs experiments to measure heat and reports the results graphically

Understands how heat propagates

Conduction

Convection

Applies th
e principle of conservation of energy to heat transfer.

Understands internal energy

First Law of Thermodynamics

Understands specific heat capacity

Instituto San Roberto

2011
-
2012

ISR
Science

Committee

22
/
6
/2009
2
:
42

PM

Calculates the amount of heat emitted or absorbed to produce a change in
temperature

Describes different

energy transformation processes in which thermal energy is
present.

SC8.26.2

Relates the molecular kinetic energy model with changes of
phase as temperature and/or pressure vary.

Understands the changes of phase and how heat is involved

Understands boili
ng point and melting point

Interprets the changes of phase represented in a temperature
-
time graph.

Standard 27: Understands Waves and Radiation

SC8.27.1

Knows the atomic model and its development

Describes the evolution of scientific ideas that led to

the discovery of the subatomic
particles and the development of the atomic model.

Understands how the atomic model changed through time: Democritus, Dalton,
Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr and Schrödinger’s atomic model

Understands the experiments that led to
the discovery of the electron

Gives examples of elemental particles: quarks, leptons, force particles

Knows the different particles that make the atom and their characteristics (size, mass,
charge)

Understands that the atomic model provides a better exp
lanation of matter structure
that the particle model and its impact in the progress of science and technology.

Knows that wave motion is a particular case of ULM

Knows the definition of wave, its parts characteristics (and sound wave) and their
relationsh
ip

Knows the different ways in which waves can be classified:
mechanical/electromagnetic or transverse/longitudinal and examples

Knows the definition and relationship between frequency and period

Can solve numerical problems about frequency and period

Understands that the motion of waves can be described using the variables related to
motion (distance, time, velocity) calculate the speed and velocity of a wave

Understands the relationship between sound and vibrating objects (medium) and its
characterist
ics of sound: pitch, loudness and tone.

Knows the difference between echo and reverberation.

Can explain the Doppler Effect

SC8.27.2 Understands the relationship between electron’s vibrations and
electromagnetic waves

Describes and understands the char
acteristics of electromagnetic waves its motion of
electromagnetic waves and relates the characteristics with the energy they carry.

Knows the electromagnetic spectrum and understands the connection between medical
technology and science: the use of x
-
ray
s

Relates light color with wave frequency, wavelength and wave energy.

Understands that white light is the combination of several electromagnetic waves.

SC8.27.3

Understands that light motion changes when prop
agating
through different materials

Instituto San Roberto

2011
-
2012

ISR
Science

Committee

22
/
6
/2009
2
:
42

PM

Understands the dual behavior of light: wave and particle

Distinguishes between opaque and transparent materials

Understands light reflection (mirrors) and light refraction (rainbow) and draws
diagrams

Distinguishes b
etween real and virtual images

Understands the Law of Reflection

Calculates the refraction index for a material

Understands the connection between technology and science: fiber optics and
telecommunications, fiber optics and medical applications

Unders
tands lenses (parts) as a practical application of light refraction (functioning
and uses of the telescope)

Names different types of lenses and distinguishes between them

Calculates lens power and draws ray diagrams to represent the image given by a lens

Designs experiments based on light reflection/refraction and reports results graphically

Standard 28:Understands Electromagnetism

SC8.28.1

Understands the relationship between electron motion and
electric phenomena

Knows the different branches in science that involve electricity (electrostatics,
electrodynamics, electronics, electrochemistry…)

Understands that electron motion is the source of electric current.

Describes and compares the different experiments that l
ed to the discovery of electric
current

Understands the definition, unit and instruments used to measure electric current

Understands the definition, unit and instruments used to measure voltage

Understands the definition and unit of electric power

Un
derstands Watt’s Law

Solves numerical problems about electric power

Understands electric resistance its unit and the instruments used to measure electric
resistance

Knows the factors that determine the resistance of a conductor: length, area,
temperature
, type of material.

Distinguishes between electric conductors and insulators.

Understands superconductivity

Understands Ohm’s Law & Joule’s Law

Solves numerical problems using Ohm’s Law & Joule’s Law

Understands the purpose of electric circuits and its
two types: series and parallel
circuits

Designs experiments about circuits, uses instruments to measure the different electric
variables and reports results graphically.

SC8.28.2

Understands the relationship between electron motion and
magnetism.

Underst
ands the relationship between electric current and magnetic field

Describes and compares the different experiments that led to the discovery of
electromagnetic induction.

Understands how an electromagnet and a solenoid works

Instituto San Roberto

2011
-
2012

ISR
Science

Committee

22
/
6
/2009
2
:
42

PM

Understands how the electric
ity used at home is generated at the electric plants

Knows the impact of electromagnetism on modern life and technology (electric
engines, microphones, maglev trains, electromagnets, telegraph, MRI, etc)

Designs experiments about electromagnetism, uses i
nstruments to measure the
different variables involved and reports results graphically.

Standard 38:

Understands the nature of scientific knowledge and
inquiry

SC 8.38.1 Knows that there is no fixed procedure called “the scientific
method,” but that inv
estigations involve systematic observations,
carefully collected, relevant evidence, logical reasoning, and some
imagination in developing hypotheses and explanations

SC 8.38.2 Designs and conducts a scientific investigation

SC 8.38.3 Collects and anal
yzes relevant information from different
sources

Standard 39: Understands the scientific enterprise

SC8.39.1 Knows ways in which science and society influence one another

SC8.39.2 Knows that throughout history, many scientific innovators have
difficulty breaking through accepted ideas of their time to reach
conclusions that are now considered to be common knowledge

Values Galileo’s ideas as a source of change

SC8.39.3 Analyzes the role of Science through History

SC8.39.4 Understands the socio
economic contributions of Science and
Physics in particular

SC8.39.5 Describes some current professional activities related to Physics

SC8.39.6Describes the history of Physics and Technology in Mexico

SC8.39.7 Compares the evolution of Physics and Technol
ogy in Mexico
with other countries

SC8.39.8 Understands there are positive and negative implications for the
environment in all technological developments

Standard 40: Understands and uses conventional techniques and
procedures for laboratory settings

SC8
.40.1 Uses appropriate tools and conventional techniques to solve

formulation of hypothesis

experiment design,

use of measuring instruments,

use of flow charts

use of diagrams

use of models

Instituto San Roberto

2011
-
2012

ISR
Science

Committee

22
/
6
/2009
2
:
42

PM

SC8.40.2 Carries out research

proposals, recording observations and
measurements to help assess the explanation

SC8.40.3 Uses appropriate tools (including computer hardware and
software) and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret scientific data

SC8.40.4 Uses appropriate methods

to show the results and conclusions
of experiments, such as: data tables and
graphs, oral or written reports

SC8.40.5 Shows respect and responsibility t
owards individual and team
work