# Kinematics: A MOVING experience

Μηχανική

14 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

84 εμφανίσεις

Kinematics:

A
MOVING

experience

Kinematics Vocabulary

Unit 1

Magnitude

orders of magnitude

powers of 1
0

metric prefixes

factor label method

GUESS method

Distance

Vector

Scalar

Displacement

Distance

Velocity

Speed

Acceleration

constant/uniform

changing/varying

slope

increasing/decreasing slope

rate

axes

units

labels

Kinematics Objectives

Unit 1

use factor label method to convert metric prefixes

know
metric prefixes and orders of magnitude

use GUESS method to solve problems

be able to design an experimental process

be able to design and organize a data/results table for an experiment

solve problems involving dvat

memorize kinematics equations

rec
ognize the axes of a graph

describe the meaning of the slope of a graph

describe instantaneous motion from a graph

identify coordinate pairs from a graph

recognize mathematical trends in a set of

S432 Physics

Name:

Math Camp Scientific
Notation

Period:

Scientific
Notation

Expanded Form

Scientific
Prefix

1 x 10
24

1 000 000 000 000 000 000
000 000

Yotta
-

1 x 10
21

1 000 000 000 000 000 000
000

Zelta
-

1 x 10
18

1 000 000 000 000 000 000

Exa
-

1 x 10
15

1 000 000 000 000 000

Peta
-

1 x

10
12

1 000 000 000 000

Tera
-

1 x 10
9

1 000 000 000

Giga
-

1 x 10
6

1 000 000

Mega
-

1 x 10
3

1 000

Kilo
-

1 x 10
2

100

Hecto
-

1 x 10
1

10

Deca
-

1 x 10
-
1

0.1

Deci
-

1 x 10
-
2

0.01

Centi
-

1 x 10
-
3

0.001

Milli
-

1 x 10
-
6

0.000 001

Micro
-

1 x 10
-
9

0.000
000 001

Nano
-

1 x 10
-
12

0.000 000 000 001

Pico
-

1 x 10
-
15

0.000 000 000 000 001

Femto
-

1 x 10
-
18

0.000 000 000 000 000 001

Atlo
-

1 x 10
-
21

0.000 000 000 000 000 000
001

Zepto
-

1 x 10
-
24

0.000 000 000 000 000 000
000 001

Yocto
-

S432 Physics

Name:

Math Camp Factor Label 07

Period:

Show all work

1.

Convert 2.44 L to mL

2. Convert 45 654 mg to kg

3. Convert 4.7 km/h to m/s

4. Convert 4.00 m/s to km/day

5. Convert 6.72 mm to

m

㘮⁃潮癥牴‰⸰㔹㠠浧⁴漠

1.

Convert 1.7 Kg to cg

2. Convert 2.7 L to mL

3. Convert 0.71 cm/s to km/h

4. Conver
t

0.90 kg to mg

5. Convert 12 mL/s to L/hour

6. Convert 10 g to ng

1) 3.5 GL to ml.

2) 4.89 Kg/s to m/minute.

3) 6.34 km/h to m/s.

4) 7.99L to

S432 Physics

Name:

Math Camp Algebraic Manipulation

Period:

Solve the following equations for the indicated variable. Show all steps of your solution!

1. v
f
= v
i

+ at solve for t

2.
d= v
i
t + ½ a t
2

solve for a

3. v
f
2

= v
i
2

i

4. F = ma solve for m

5. mgd = ½ mv
2

solve for v

6. v = f

solve for

7. solve for g

8.

solve for r

9.

solve for q
1

S432 Physics

Name__________________

dvt Practice

Period______

Use the equations relating distance, time, and, speed to find answers to the following questions.
Round

all answers to the nearest tenth. Be sure to include units.

Equatio
ns: v = d/t
d

=

v
x

t

t

=

d/v

Problem solving method

G

identify the givens with units

U

identify the unknowns with units

E

Write the correct form of the equation

S
-

Substitute with units

S
-

solve with units

NO Naked
Numbers

1. A car travels 125 km in 3.5 hours.
What is the
speed

of the car?

2. A student pulls a tape through a
ticker machine at a rate(speed) of 0.75
m/sec.

How much

tape will he pull through in
2.5 sec?

3. Another student pulls a tape thro
ugh
a ticker at a rate(speed) of 0.9 m/sec.
How
long

will this student take to pull
3.5 meters of tape through the ticker?

4. A plane travels 480 miles in 1.4
hours. How
fast (speed)
is the plane
moving?

5. How
long

will it take a motorcycle
traveling 65 km/hr to travel 140 km?

6. How far will the motorcycle in
problem #5 get in 45 minutes
(CAREFUL
-

change 45 minutes to
hours first)?

7. Light travels at a constant speed of
300,000,000 meters/sec. If yo
u could
travel at the speed of light , how

far

would you get in one minute (careful
with the units again)?

8. Traveling at the speed of light, how

long

will it take to cover 700,000 miles?

( speed of light = 186,000 miles/sec)

Physics

Name:

Position
-
time Graphs

1. Which car is:

at rest? __________

traveling “forwards” at the fastest rate? ____

traveling “backwards” ?__________

traveling with the slowest speed?__________

ends it’s

motion furthest from the origin? ______

2.

Here is a graph made by a car.

A)
During which time interval did it
first
travel in a positive direction?

B)
During which other time interval did it travel in a positive direction?

C)
During which
time intervals did the car travel in a negative direction?

D) During which interval does the car have the highest steady velocity?

3, Finally use the graph of a student walking.

A)
During
which time interval was the student traveling at her

greatest speed?

B)
During w
hich time interval was the student traveling at her
smallest
(nonzero) speed?

C)
During which time interval(s) was
she

at rest?

D)
What total distance did the
student

travel during the entire 44
seconds?

E)
What was the
student
's net displacement for the entire graph?

D)
What was the
student
's instantaneous speed at 6 seconds?

AP Physics

Name:_______________

More Graph Practice

1.Sketch

graphs of displacement vs. time and velocity vs. time for the following situations.

a)

A

cart originally at rest, uniformly gains speed in a positive direction, maintains that speed, and then uniformly loses its
speed finally coming to a stop
.

b) A cart originally at rest, uniformly gains speed in a positive direction, maintains that speed, uniformly loses its speed
coming to a stop, rests, uniformly gains speed in a negative direction, maintains that negative velocity, then uniformly
loses spee
d and comes to a final rest.

2. Use
the position
-
time graph shown
at the right

.

a)
What was the total distance traveled?

b)
What was the net displacement?

c)
What was the average speed for the entire 12 seconds illustrated?

d)
What was the average velocity for the entire 12 seconds illustrated?

Convert the position
-
time graph shown below to a velocity
-
time graph

3
. The three graphs below all represent the same motion.

a)

The cart in the above graphs in traveling in a positive direction.

True

False

b)
The cart is experiencing a constant positive acceleration.

True

False

c)

What is the cart's initial speed? ____________

d)
What is the cart's initial position? _
__________

e)
How much did the cart's velocity change from 2 to 14 seconds?

f)

What is the cart's final velocity at 14 seconds?

g)
How fast was the cart traveling at 8 seconds?

h)
How far did the cart travel between 2 and 14 seconds?

i)
What is the cart's final position at 14 seconds?

Physics 432

Name____________________

Kinematics

GRAPHING PRACTICE 2

PART I:

Observe the following graph made by a walking student and answer the following questions:

E

D

F

A

B

C

Time (s)

1. In which region(s) is this student as rest?_________

2. In which region(s) is this student moving away from the detector at constant

speed? _______

3. In which region(s) is this student traveling with the highest speed? ______

4. In which region(s) is this student walking towards the detector? _____
___

5. In which region(s) is this student at maximum displacement? ________

6. In which region is the student walking away from the detector? ________

7. In which region(s) is the student at maximum distance from the detector?___

8. Does the stud
ent ever run into the detector? Where? ________

9. In which region(s) is the student accelerating? ________

10. in which region(s) is the student’s speed in
creasing? _______

D

i

s

t

a

n

c

e

(m
)

PART II:

Observe the following motion graph made by a walking student and answer the questions.

D

C

B

Time(s)

A

E

F

11. In which region(s) is this student moving away from the detector at constant

speed? ________

12. In which region(s) is this student moving away from the detector? ______

13. In which region(s) is this student walking towards the detector? ___
____

14. In which region(s) is this student walking the fastest? ________

15. In which region(s) is this student at maximum dis
tance
? ________

16. In which region(s) is this student accelerating? ________

17. In which region(s) is this
student’s speed increasing? _______

18. Does the student come to a stop? Where? ________

V

e

l

o

c

i

t

y

(m/s)

Physics 432

Name________________

Kinematics

ANALYZING MOTION GRAPHS

You start off to school in the morning driving at 10 m/s down a side street for 4 minutes and then hit the
main road and then go 20 m/s for 3 minutes. Unfortunately, you hit a stop light where you have to wait
for 2 minutes. You then begin driving at 20
m/s and drive for another 5 minutes until you get to your
friend’s house. You have to wait for him to shower and get dressed which takes 5 minutes. You then have to
bactrack towards the school so you drive at 25 m/s for 3 minutes. You cruise into the lo
t just in time to
hear the 7:30 bell ring. Doh! Late again. . . .

Assuming that you change your speed very quickly, construct a graph of velocity vs. time on the graph
below. Be sure to label your axes & USE A PENCIL!!

VELOCITY vs. TIME

Teacher Check

In the space below, calculate the distance traveled in each section. Be sure to show all of your work and BE NEAT!

Based upon the
calculations above, draw a distance vs. time graph. Label your axes

DISTANCE

vs. TIME

S432 Physics

Name_________________________

VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION

Solve all of the problems below. Make sure you show your givens, the equation you are using, your work, and

1.

A toy car crosses a 15 meter floor in 2
seconds. What is it’s velocity?

The same car crosses a 24 meter floor, how
long will it take?

3.

The batteries in this toy car run out and it
comes to a stop in 3 seconds, what is this
(negative) acceleration?

4.

A sports car can accelerate at a rate of 2.5
m/s/s. How long will it take to reach a
speed of 50 m/s?

5.

A train begins traveling at 5 m/s. Forty
-
five seconds later, the train is moving at 70
m/s. What was the acceleration of the train
during this

time?

6.

When dropped, most objects accelerate at
10 m/s/s. If an acorn falls from an oak tree
and takes 1.3 seconds to hit the ground,
how fast will it be going just before it
strikes?

Physics 432

Name______________________

Kinematics

Date____________________

KINEMATIC PRACTICE

1. You are driving down a street in a car at 55
m/s. Suddenly a child runs into the street. If it
takes you 0.75 s to react and apply the brakes,
how many meters will you have moved before
you begin to sl
ow down?

2. A race car can be slowed with acceleration
of
-
11m/s
2
.

a) If the car is going 55 m/s, how many meters
will it take to stop?

b) Repeat for a car going 110 m/s.

3. An astronaut drops a feather from 1.2 m
above the surface of the
moon. If the
acceleration of gravity on the moon is one
sixth the acceleration on earth, how long does
it take the feather to hit the surface?

4. Find the uniform acceleration that causes an
object's speed to change from 32 m/s to 96 m/s
in an 8.0 s

period.

5. Determine the final velocity of an object
traveling at 22 m/s is accelerated uniformly at
the rate of 1.6 m/s
2

for 6.8 s. What is its final
velocity?

V=55 m/s t = .75 s d =?

d = vt = 55 m/s * .75 s =

d =41.25 m/s

6. If a bullet leaves the muzzle of a rifle with a
speed of 60 m/s, and the barrel

of the rifle is
0.9 m long, at what rate is the bullet
accelerated while in the barrel.

7. A plane travels a distance of 5.0 x 10
2

m
while being accelerated uniformly from rest at
the rate of 5.0 m/s
2
. What final speed does it
attain?

8. A
stone falls freely from rest for 8.0 s.

a) Calculate its final velocity.

b) What distance does the stone fall during
this time?

9. A driver of a car going 9.0 m/s suddenly
sees the lights of a barrier 4.0 m ahead. If the
driver comes to a complete

stop and the
acceleration during braking is
-
10 m/s
2
,
determine if the car hits the barrier.

10. A tennis ball is dropped 1.20 m above the
ground. It rebounds to a height of 1.00 m and
comes to a complete stop.

a) With what speed does it hit the

ground?

b) With what speed does it leave the ground?

Physics 432

Name___________________________

Kinematics

Date_______________

KINE
MATIC PROBLEMS

1. Outraged at the
sight of seared animal
flesh being consumed in the backyard,
Lisa Simpson feels she must put an end to
Homer’s backyard BBQ. She pushes the
wheeled barbecue carrying the “pig de
resistance” at a speed of 4 m/s while Homer and Bart give
chase. When she re
aches a hill, she loses control of the pig
and it rolls down a hill. The pig reaches a speed of 34 m/s in
a time of 8 sec. Find the pig’s acceleration.

2. How far did the BBQ grill roll?

3. The pig reaches a level part of the road where friction
slows the pig down somewhat. The speed decreases to 20
m/s in 7 seconds. Determine this acceleration.

4. The cart hits a Duff can lying in the road which gets
stuck in the wheel causing the cart to slow down at a
greatly increased rate. It comes to
a stop in 8 seconds. Find
out how far the barbeque moves during this time.

5. The pig has unfortunately come to a
stop in the middle of a bridge. Just
before Homer reaches it, a sugar truck
hits the pig sending it over the bridge and it
begins to a
ccelerate from rest at a rate of 9.8 m/s/s. It
strikes the water, 25 meters below.

How fast is the pig going just before he hits the water?

Physics

Name:

Notes on a tossed ball

Her are position
-
time &

velocity
-
time graphs for a tossed ball.

a) Compare the time spent going up to the time spent falling
down.

b) Compare the final velocity to the initial velocity

c) What does the area of the shaded triangle represent?

d) What should the slope of

the velocity
-
time graph be?

e) Find the change in velocity from 0 to 1 seconds:

f) find the change in velocity from 4 to 6 seconds:

____________________________________

e) find the slope of the line

_______________________________

Now consider the
motion of this object thrown into the air
at the locations A
-

E

Where is

vf > 0 and d > 0

vf < 0 and d< 0

vf < 0 and d > 0

vf = 0 and d > 0

vf < 0 and d = 0

Putting the “G” in “guess”.

Now let's apply our knowledge to some problems that contain numerical data. In each of the following
scenarios, state the values of vi, a, and s.

A rock dropped from a 20 meter bridge falls into the river below.

A rock thrown upwards at 6 m/sec from a
20 meter bridge falls into the river below.

A rock thrown downwards at 6 m/sec from a 20 meter bridge falls into the river below.