History of Computer History of Computer & Video Games & Video Games

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7 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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History of Computer
History of Computer
& Video Games
& Video Games
CSCI 130 – Computer Game Design
CSCI 130 – Computer Game Design
Prof. Jason Fritts
Prof. Jason FrittsOutline
Outline
 Origins
 Origins
 Arcade Games
 Arcade Games
– – E Ea ar rlly y A Ar rc ca ad de e G Ga am me es s
 Console Systems
Console Systems
– Early Console Systems
– Early Console Systems
– Video Game Crash of 1983
– Video Game Crash of 1983
– Return of Console Systems
– Return of Console Systems
 Computer Games
 Computer Games
– Early Computer Games
– Early Computer Games
– 1990s – The “hay day” of PC games
– 1990s – The “hay day” of PC games
– 2000s – Consoles take over
– 2000s – Consoles take overOrigins
Origins
 Computer Games sprang from two
Computer Games sprang from two
independent sources:
independent sources:
– Electro-mechanical coin-operated games
– Electro-mechanical coin-operated games
 late 1800s+
 late 1800s+
 pinball machines
pinball machines
 jukeboxes
 jukeboxes
 mechanical games (e.g. baseball)
 mechanical games (e.g. baseball)
– Mainframe computers
– Mainframe computers
 1937 – 1945: first computers
 1937 – 1945: first computers
 early computer programmers designed games for
early computer programmers designed games for
personal challenges and enjoyment
personal challenges and enjoymentCoin-Operated
Coin-Operated
Amusement Games
Amusement Games
 Pinball machines (1931+)

Pinball machines (1931+)
 Jukeboxes (1931+)

Jukeboxes (1931+)
 Mutoscopes (1985-1920)

Mutoscopes (1985-1920)
– “flip book” style image animation devices
– “flip book” style image animation devices
 Mechanical Games
 Mechanical Games
– baseball
– baseball
– skee ball
– skee ballFirst Computer Games
First Computer Games
 First electronic game (1948)
 First electronic game (1948)
– “CRT Amusement Device”
– “CRT Amusement Device”
– simulated a missile firing at a target
– simulated a missile firing at a target
 First two games to run on a computer
 First two games to run on a computer
Tennis for Two
– – c ch he ec ck ke er rs s ( (1 19 95 51 1) )
– “OXO”, a tic-tac-toe game (1952)
– “OXO”, a tic-tac-toe game (1952)
 First computer for games
First computer for games
– NIMROD computer (1951)
– NIMROD computer (1951)
– Played the “Nim” game
– Played the “Nim” game
 First non-board, non-pencil/paper game
 First non-board, non-pencil/paper game
– “Tennis for Two” (1958)
– “Tennis for Two” (1958)
– – r ru un n o on n a an n o os sc ciillllo os sc co op pe eArcade Games
Arcade GamesSpacewar! – First Video Game
Spacewar! – First Video Game
 1961 – developed by MIT students
 1961 – developed by MIT students
– Steve Russell, W. Witanen, and J.M. Graetz
– Steve Russell, W. Witanen, and J.M. Graetz
 1971 – commercialized as Galaxy Game
1971 – commercialized as Galaxy Game
– Stanford students placed in student union
– Stanford students placed in student union
– – G Ga am me es s w we er re e 1 10 0 c ce en ntts s e ea ac ch h
 1971 – commercialized as Computer Space
 1971 – commercialized as Computer Space
– Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney
– Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney
 ffo ou un nd der ers s o off A Atta ar rii iin n 1 19 97 72 2
– – s so olld d 1 15 50 00 0 u un niitts s
 1978 – commercialized as Space Wars
 1978 – commercialized as Space Wars
First video game, but gameplay was too simple to be very successfulFirst Arcade Games
First Arcade Games
 Spacewar! clones
Spacewar! clones
– First Arcade Games
– First Arcade Games
 Galaxy Game (1971)
Galaxy Game (1971)
 Computer Space (1971)
Computer Space (1971)
 Pong (1971)
 Pong (1971)
– First Successful Arcade Game
– First Successful Arcade Game
– Atari sold over 6000 units
– Atari sold over 6000 units
 more than most popular pinball games of that time
more than most popular pinball games of that time
– Magnovox Odyssey had similar Table Tennis
– Magnovox Odyssey had similar Table Tennis
game
game
 c co om mp pa an niie es s s se ettttlle ed d o ou utt o off c co ou ur rtt,, a an nd d A Atta ar rii b be ec ca am me e
official distributor of Pong
official distributor of PongEarly Popular Arcade
Early Popular Arcade
Games & Companies
Games & Companies
 Atari
Atari
– Quadra Pong (1974)
– Quadra Pong (1974)
 F Fiir rs stt ffo ou ur r- -p plla ay ye er r g ga am me e
– Gran Trak 10 (1974)
– Gran Trak 10 (1974)
Breakout
 F Fiir rs stt d dr riiv viin ng g/ /r ra ac ciin ng g g ga am me e
– Hi-way (1975)
– Hi-way (1975)
 F Fiir rs stt s sc cr ro olllliin ng g p plla ay yffiie elld d
 First sit-down cabinet game
 First sit-down cabinet game
– Night Driver (1976)
– Night Driver (1976)
 First scrolling playfield
 First scrolling playfield
– Breakout (1976)
– Breakout (1976)
nd
nd
 Atari’s 2 big hit; sold 11,000 units
 Atari’s 2 big hit; sold 11,000 units
 Very popular
Very popular
Tank
 K Ke ee e G Ga am me es s ( (s sp piin no offff o off A Atta ar rii) )
– Tank (1974)
– Tank (1974)
 First one-on-one dueling game
 First one-on-one dueling game
 Very popular
 Very popularEarly Popular Arcade
Early Popular Arcade
Games & Companies cont.
Games & Companies cont.
 M Miid dw wa ay y/ /B Ba alllly y/ /T Ta aiit to o
– Gun Fight (1975)
– Gun Fight (1975)
 First Japanese video game imported to US
First Japanese video game imported to US
 First microprocessor in an arcade game
 First microprocessor in an arcade game
 M Miid dw wa ay y’’s s ffiir rs stt h hiitt ( (c cr re ea atte ed d b by y T Ta aiitto o,, lliic ce en ns se ed d b by y M Miid dw wa ay y/ /B Ba alllly y) )
 V Ve er ry y p po op pu ulla ar r
– Sea Wolf (1976)
– Sea Wolf (1976)
 M Miid dw wa ay y’’s s s se ec co on nd d h hiitt – – s so olld d 1 10 0,,0 00 00 0 u un niitts s
Gun Fight
 Very popular
Very popular
 Sega
 Sega
– Heavyweight Champ (1975)
– Heavyweight Champ (1975)
 First boxing game
First boxing game
– The Fonz (1976)
– The Fonz (1976)
 First motorcycle driving game
First motorcycle driving gameFirst Protest against
First Protest against
Violence in a Video Game
Violence in a Video Game
 Death Race (1976)

Death Race (1976)
– Exidy released game inspired by the Death Race
– Exidy released game inspired by the Death Race
2000 movie
2000 movie
– Gameplay involved player running over
– Gameplay involved player running over
“gremlins” that resembled human stick-figures.
“gremlins” that resembled human stick-figures.Golden Age of Arcade Games:
Golden Age of Arcade Games:
Space Shooters
Space Shooters
 Midway/Bally/Taito
Midway/Bally/Taito
– Space Invaders (1978)
– Space Invaders (1978)
 F Fiir rs stt h hiig gh h- -s sc co or re e b bo oa ar rd d
 Sold over 100,000 units
 Sold over 100,000 units
Space
 Caused a shortage of 100 Yen coins in Japan
Caused a shortage of 100 Yen coins in Japan
Invaders
 V Ve er ry y p po op pu ulla ar r
 A At ta ar rii
– Asteroids (1979)
– Asteroids (1979)
 First high-score board with players initials
 First high-score board with players initials
 U Us se ed d v ve ec ctto or r g gr ra ap ph hiic cs s d diis sp plla ay y
– – a alls so o u us se ed d b by y L Lu un na ar r L La an nd de er r iin n 1 19 97 79 9
 V Ve er ry y p po op pu ulla ar r
Asteroids
 E Ex xiid dy y
– Star Fire (1979)
– Star Fire (1979)
 First high-score board with players initials
 First high-score board with players initials
 Also: Galaga (1981), Defender (1980), Zaxxon (1982), and others
 Also: Galaga (1981), Defender (1980), Zaxxon (1982), and others
Space shooters were the hottest arcade game genre into 1980Golden Age of Arcade Games:
Golden Age of Arcade Games:
Pac-Man !!!
Pac-Man !!!
Pac-Man
 Namco
Namco
– Pac-Man (1979)
– Pac-Man (1979)
 Non-violent game targeted at both sexes
 Non-violent game targeted at both sexes
 Originally titled Puck-Man
Originally titled Puck-Man
 F Fiir rs stt iid den enttiiffiia ab blle e v viid deo eo g ga am me e c ch ha ar ra ac ctter er/ /m ma as sc co ott
 Sold over 100,000 units
 Sold over 100,000 units
 V Ver ery y p po op pu ulla ar r
– Ms. Pac-Man (1981)
– Ms. Pac-Man (1981)
 First game to star a female character
First game to star a female character
 F Fo ou ur r m ma az zes es ( (iin ns sttea ead d o off o on ne) e)
 Random enemy movement (instead of fixed)
 Random enemy movement (instead of fixed)
 Appealed to both males and females
Appealed to both males and females
 Sold over 115,000 units
 Sold over 115,000 units
 Very popular
 Very popular
Ms. Pac-ManGolden Age of Arcade Games:
Golden Age of Arcade Games:
Platformers
Platformers
 Universal Sales
 Universal Sales
– Space Panic (1980)
– Space Panic (1980)
 First platform game
First platform game Donkey
Kong
 Nintendo
 Nintendo
– Donkey Kong (1981)
– Donkey Kong (1981)
 First successful platform game
First successful platform game
 Kong and Mario became Nintendo’s most popular characters
 Kong and Mario became Nintendo’s most popular characters
 V Ve er ry y p po op pu ulla ar r
 Williams Electronics
Williams Electronics
– Joust (1982)
– Joust (1982)
 F Fiir rs stt ttw wo o- -p pe er rs so on n c co oo op pe er ra attiiv ve e p plla attffo or rm m g ga am me e
 Gottlieb
Gottlieb
– Q*bert (1982)
– Q*bert (1982)
 F Fiir rs stt iis so om me ettr riic c p plla attffo or rm m g ga am me e
Q*bert
 Namco
Namco
– Mappy (1983)
– Mappy (1983)
 F Fiir rs stt s sm mo oo otth h- -s sc cr ro olllliin ng g p plla attffo or rm m g ga am me eGolden Age of Arcade Games:
Golden Age of Arcade Games:
Other Influential Games
Other Influential Games
 A At ta ar rii
– Atari Football (1978)
– Atari Football (1978)
 First sports game with smooth-scrolling screen
 First sports game with smooth-scrolling screen
 First trackball controller
 First trackball controller
– – B Ba attttlle ez zo on ne e ( (1 19 98 80 0) )
Battlezone
 F Fiir rs stt c co om mm me er rc ciia all g ga am me e w wiitth h 3 3D D g gr ra ap ph hiic cs s
– Tempest (1981)
– Tempest (1981)
 First game with selectable level of difficulty
 First game with selectable level of difficulty
 First game to allow player to insert a coin to continue game
 First game to allow player to insert a coin to continue game
ffr ro om m p po oiin ntt o off d de ea atth h
– Star Wars (1983)
– Star Wars (1983)
 First successful movie tie-in game
 First successful movie tie-in game
 N Na am mc co o
– Galaxian (1979)
– Galaxian (1979)
 F Fiir rs stt ttr ru ue e R RG GB B c co ollo or r g gr ra ap ph hiic cs s
– – P Po olle e P Po os siittiio on n ( (1 19 98 82 2) )
 C Co on ns siid de er re ed d ffiir rs stt “ “g gr re ea att” ” r ra ac ciin ng g g ga am me e
 F Fiir rs stt “ “r re ea ar r- -v viie ew w r ra ac ce er r” ”,, w wh hiic ch h b be ec ca am me e s stta an nd da ar rd d iin n g ge en nr re e
 C Ciin ne em ma at tr ro on niic cs s
Galaxian
– Warrior (1979)
– Warrior (1979)
 First (non-boxing) fighting game
 First (non-boxing) fighting game
 Overhead-view sword-fighting game
 Overhead-view sword-fighting game
– – D Dr ra ag go on n’’s s L La aiir r ( (1 19 98 83 3) )
 F Fiir rs stt p po op pu ulla ar r lla as se er rd diis sc c g ga am me e
– – ffiir rs stt lla as se er rd diis sc c g ga am me e w wa as s A As sttr ro on n B Be ellttDecline of Arcades
Decline of Arcades
 Arcades began to decline in late 1980s
Arcades began to decline in late 1980s
 Reasons:
 Reasons:
– – 1 16 6- -b biit t a an nd d 3 32 2- -b biit t c co on ns so olle e s sy ys st te em ms s e en na ab blle ed d g gr ra ap ph hiic cs s n ne ea ar rlly y a as s
good as arcade games
good as arcade games
– BlockBuster Video (and others) began allowing users to rent
– BlockBuster Video (and others) began allowing users to rent
c co on ns so olle e g ga am me es s
– Computer games provided greater depth of gameplay
– Computer games provided greater depth of gameplay
– Popular arcade games were being ported to console systems
– Popular arcade games were being ported to console systems
 Small resurgence in early 1990s
Small resurgence in early 1990s
– – P Po op pu ulla ar r f fiig gh ht tiin ng g g ga am me es s lliik ke e S St tr re ee et t F Fiig gh ht te er r I II I a an nd d M Mo or rt ta all
Kombat
Kombat
 A Ar rc ca ad de es s t to od da ay y a ar re e p pr riim ma ar riilly y lla ar rg ge e a am mu us se em me en nt t c ce en nt te er rs s
– Putt-putt, go-cart, & batting cage style amusement centers
– Putt-putt, go-cart, & batting cage style amusement centers
– Adult hangouts like Dave & Busters
– Adult hangouts like Dave & Busters
– – K Kiid ds s a am mu us se em me en nt t c ce en nt te er rs s lliik ke e C Ch hu uc ck k E E.. C Ch he ee es se eConsole Systems
Console SystemsFirst Generation of Console
First Generation of Console
Systems (1972 – 1977)
Systems (1972 – 1977)
 Magnavox Odyssey (1972)
 Magnavox Odyssey (1972)
– First video game console
– First video game console
– Included a variety of built-in games
– Included a variety of built-in games
 U Us sed ed d diiffffer eren entt “ “c ciir rc cu uiitt c ca ar rd ds s” ” ffo or r
different games
different games
– Poorly marketed by Magnavox
– Poorly marketed by Magnavox
Magnavox Odyssey
 Atari’s Pong System (1975)
 Atari’s Pong System (1975)
– First successful video game console
– First successful video game console
– Offered only one game – Pong
– Offered only one game – Pong
 Coleco Telstar System (1976)
 Coleco Telstar System (1976)
– Offered three variants of Pong
– Offered three variants of Pong
Atari Pong SystemSecond Generation of Console
Second Generation of Console
Systems (1976 – 1984)
Systems (1976 – 1984)
 F Fiir rs stt g ge en ne er ra attiio on n o off g ga am me es s tto o u us se e a a m miic cr ro op pr ro oc ce es ss so or r
 F Fiir rs stt g ge en ne er ra attiio on n tto o ffe ea attu ur re e a a tth hiir rd d- -p pa ar rtty y g ga am me e d de ev ve ello op pe er r
– Activision – developed games for Atari
– Activision – developed games for Atari
 Fairchild Channel F (1976)
 Fairchild Channel F (1976)
– – O Or riig giin na alllly y n na am me ed d F Fa aiir rffiie elld d V VE ES S
– First console system to use a microprocessor
– First console system to use a microprocessor
– – F Fiir rs stt p pr ro og gr ra am mm ma ab blle e c ca ar rttr riid dg ge e- -b ba as se ed d v viid de eo o g ga am me e c co on ns so olle e
 o on nlly y 2 26 6 d diiffffe er re en ntt c ca ar rttr riid dg ge es s e ev ve er r o offffe er re ed d ffo or r iitt
 Atari 2600 (1977)
 Atari 2600 (1977)
Fairfield Channel F
– – O Or riig giin na alllly y n na am me ed d A Atta ar rii V VC CS S
– Very popular
– Very popular
 s so olld d o ov ve er r 3 30 0 m miilllliio on n u un niitts s
 Mattel Intellivision (1980)
 Mattel Intellivision (1980)
– – F Fiir rs stt 1 16 6- -b biitt m miic cr ro op pr ro oc ce es ss so or r
– Featured a unique 16-direction controller
– Featured a unique 16-direction controller
– – V Ve er ry y p po op pu ulla ar r
 s so olld d o ov ve er r 6 6 m miilllliio on n u un niitts s
 Coleco’s ColecoVision (1982)
 Coleco’s ColecoVision (1982)
– – N No otte ed d ffo or r b br riin ng giin ng g a ar rc ca ad de e g ga am me es s tto o tth he e h ho om me e
– Very popular
– Very popular
 s so olld d o ov ve er r 6 6 m miilllliio on n u un niitts s
Atari 2600Video Game Crash
Video Game Crash
of 1983
of 1983Reasons behind the
Reasons behind the
Video Game Crash of 1983
Video Game Crash of 1983
 F Fllo oo od d o off c co on ns so olle es s a an nd d g ga am me es s
– Too many console and games for consumers to choose from
– Too many console and games for consumers to choose from
– Difficult for consumers to determine quality of game without
– Difficult for consumers to determine quality of game without
b bu uy yiin ng g tth he e g ga am me e ( (n no o e es stta ab blliis sh he ed d g ga am me e r re ev viie ew w s sy ys stte em m) )
– – T Tw wiic ce e a as s m ma an ny y g ga am me es s w we er re e p pr ro od du uc ce ed d iin n 1 19 98 82 2 a as s iin n p pr re ev viio ou us s
years
years
 game stores returned excess games to publishers, but
 game stores returned excess games to publishers, but
p pu ub blliis sh he er rs s d diid dn n’’tt h ha av ve e c ca as sh h o or r n ne ew w p pr ro od du uc ctts s tto o r re eiim mb bu ur rs se e s stto or re es s
for unsold games
for unsold games
 p pr riic ce es s d dr ro op pp pe ed d ffr ro om m $ $3 34 4..9 95 5 iin n 1 19 98 82 2 tto o $ $4 4..9 95 5 iin n 1 19 98 83 3
– For example, Atari vastly overproduced the E.T. and
– For example, Atari vastly overproduced the E.T. and
P Pa ac c- -M Ma an n g ga am me es s
 m mo or re e E E..T T.. g ga am me e c ca ar rttr riid dg ge es s w we er re e p pr ro od du uc ce ed d tth ha an n tth he e tto otta all
number of systems that existed
number of systems that existed
 Atari buried millions of E.T. cartridges in a New Mexico landfill
Atari buried millions of E.T. cartridges in a New Mexico landfillReasons behind the
Reasons behind the
Video Game Crash of 1983
Video Game Crash of 1983
 Atari 2600 was beginning to decline
 Atari 2600 was beginning to decline
– – H Hiis stto or riic ca alllly y,, g ga am me e s sy ys stte em ms s h ha av ve e a a lliiffe ettiim me e o off a ab bo ou utt 5 5 y ye ea ar rs s
tth h
– – A Atta ar rii 2 26 60 00 0 w wa as s iin n iitt’’s s 6 6 y ye ea ar r,, a att tth he e b be eg giin nn niin ng g o off iitts s n na attu ur ra all
decline
decline
 Competition from personal computers
 Competition from personal computers
– – P Pe er rs so on na all c co om mp pu utte er r s sy ys stte em ms s w we er re e b be ec co om miin ng g m mo or re e a affffo or rd da ab blle e
 P PC Cs s b beg ega an n a a p pr riic ce e w wa ar r iin n ea ear rlly y 1 19 98 83 3
– PCs offered capability for both games and productivity
– PCs offered capability for both games and productivity
– PC games were much easier to copy
– PC games were much easier to copy
– Commodore’s marketing and distribution in particular
– Commodore’s marketing and distribution in particular
dramatically hurt video game console market
dramatically hurt video game console market
 C Co om mm mo od do or re e m ma ar rk ket eted ed a ag ga aiin ns stt v viid deo eo g ga am me e c co on ns so olles es
 Commodore was sold in same stores along side game consoles
 Commodore was sold in same stores along side game consolesEffects of Crash of 1983
Effects of Crash of 1983
 D Dr ra am ma attiic c d dr ro op p iin n g ga am me e p pr riic ce es s lle ed d tto o a a r ra as sh h o off llo ow w- -b bu ud dg ge ett
( (a an nd d llo ow w q qu ua alliitty y) ) g ga am me es s
– – tth hiis s ffu ur rtth her er h hu ur rtt s sa alles es a an nd d iim ma ag ge e o off tth he e v viid deo eo g ga am me e iin nd du us sttr ry y
 Bankrupted many video game companies
 Bankrupted many video game companies
– many fledgling game companies quickly died
– many fledgling game companies quickly died
– – m ma an ny y n new ew c co on ns so olle e d dev evel elo op pm men entt p pr ro ojjec ectts s s sh hu utt d do ow wn n
rd
rd
 delayed 3 generation of video game consoles
 delayed 3 generation of video game consoles
– – ev even en s so om me e p po op pu ulla ar r g ga am me e c co on ns so olle e c co om mp pa an niies es w wer ere e a affffec ectted ed: :
 Coleco and Magnavox completely abandoned the video game industry
 Coleco and Magnavox completely abandoned the video game industry
 Mattel’s division for Intellivision closed in 1984
 Mattel’s division for Intellivision closed in 1984
 Led many to believe video games were a fad
 Led many to believe video games were a fad
– – m ma an ny y r ret eta aiiller ers s r ref efu us sed ed tto o h ha av ve e a an ny ytth hiin ng g tto o d do o w wiitth h v viid deo eo g ga am mes es
ffo or r s sev ever era all y yea ear rs s a afftter er tth he e c cr ra as sh h
 this was the Nintendo NES’s greatest obstacle in 1985/1986
 this was the Nintendo NES’s greatest obstacle in 1985/1986
– – a ar rc ca ad des es a an nd d a ar rc ca ad de e g ga am mes es b be eg ga an n d dy yiin ng g o ou utt,, a an nd d n nev ever er r rec eco ov ver ered edReturn of Console
Return of Console
Systems
SystemsThird Generation of Console
Third Generation of Console
Systems (1983 – 1992)
Systems (1983 – 1992)
 Nintendo NES (1983/1985)
Nintendo NES (1983/1985)
– Originally named Famicon in Japan
– Originally named Famicon in Japan
– – R Re ev viitta alliiz ze ed d c co on ns so olle e m ma ar rk ke ett a afftte er r c cr ra as sh h o off 1 19 98 83 3
– Nintendo strongly controlled third-party game
– Nintendo strongly controlled third-party game
developers
developers
– – S Se ett tth he e s stta an nd da ar rd d ffo or r s su ub bs se eq qu ue en ntt c co on ns so olle e s sy ys stte em ms s iin n: :
 G Ga am me e d de es siig gn n
 Controller layout
 Controller layout
 Third-party software licensing
 Third-party software licensing
Nintendo NES
– Very popular
– Very popular
 sold over 60 million units
 sold over 60 million units
 Sega Master System (1986)
Sega Master System (1986)
– Only popular in European market
– Only popular in European market
 s so olld d o ov ve er r 1 13 3 m miilllliio on n u un niitts s
 Atari 7800 (1986)
 Atari 7800 (1986)
– – M Mo or re e p po op pu ulla ar r tth ha an n A Atta ar rii 5 52 20 00 0,, b bu utt n no ott c co om mp pe ettiittiiv ve e
with Nintendo NES or Sega Master System
with Nintendo NES or Sega Master System
Sega Master SystemFourth Generation of Console
Fourth Generation of Console
Systems (1987 – 1996)
Systems (1987 – 1996)
 N NE EC C T Tu ur rb bo oG Gr ra affx x- -1 16 6 ( (1 19 98 87 7/ /1 19 98 89 9) )
– Originally named PC-Engine in Japan
– Originally named PC-Engine in Japan
– – 8 8- -b biitt C CP PU U a an nd d 1 16 6- -b biitt G GP PU U
– First console to offer an optional CD module
– First console to offer an optional CD module
– Popular in Japan, but not in US
– Popular in Japan, but not in US
 s so olld d o ov ve er r 1 10 0 m miilllliio on n u un niitts s w wo or rlld dw wiid de e
 u un nc co om mp pe ettiittiiv ve e a an nd d u un np po op pu ulla ar r iin n U US S
 S Se eg ga a G Ge en ne es siis s ( (1 19 98 89 9) )
– – N Na am me ed d S Se eg ga a M Me eg ga a D Dr riiv ve e o ou utts siid de e o off U US S
– – F Fiir rs stt c co on ns so olle e s su up pp po or rttiin ng g 3 32 2- -b biitt iin ns sttr ru uc cttiio on ns s ( (b bu utt 1 16 6- -b biitt a ar rc ch hiitte ec cttu ur re e) )
Sega Genesis
– Very popular
– Very popular
 s so olld d 2 29 9 m miilllliio on n u un niitts s w wo or rlld dw wiid de e
 S SN NK K’’s s N Ne eo o- -G Ge eo o ( (1 19 99 90 0/ /1 19 99 91 1) )
– Both an arcade platform and costly home console ($649 retail)
– Both an arcade platform and costly home console ($649 retail)
– – N No otta ab blle e ffo or r b br riin ng giin ng g a ar rc ca ad de e- -q qu ua alliitty y g gr ra ap ph hiic cs s iin ntto o tth he e h ho om me e
– Popular with high-end gamers
– Popular with high-end gamers
 most graphically-superior system of the time
 most graphically-superior system of the time
 S Su up pe er r N Niin ntte en nd do o ( (S SN NE ES S) ) ( (1 19 99 90 0/ /1 19 99 91 1) )
– Named Sega Mega Drive outside of US
– Named Sega Mega Drive outside of US
– – 1 16 6- -b biitt p pr ro oc ce es ss so or r w wiitth h a ad dv va an nc ce ed d v viid de eo o a an nd d a au ud diio o c ch hiip ps se etts s
– Supported a variety of peripherals and enhancement chips
– Supported a variety of peripherals and enhancement chips
– Very popular
– Very popular
Super Nintendo (SNES)
 s so olld d 4 49 9 m miilllliio on n u un niitts s w wo or rlld dw wiid de eFifth Generation of Console
Fifth Generation of Console
Systems (1993 – 2002)
Systems (1993 – 2002)
 T Th he e 3 32 2- -b biitt ( (a an nd d s stta ar rtt o off 6 64 4- -b biitt) ) e er ra a o off c co on ns so olle es s
 T Th he e r riis se e o off ffu ulllly y 3 3D D g ga am me es s
 G Ga am me e m me ed diia a w wa ar rs s: : C CD Ds s v vs s.. C Ca ar rttr riid dg ge es s
 S Se eg ga a S Sa attu ur rn n ( (1 19 99 94 4/ /1 19 99 95 5) )
– First console to have two 32-bit (main) processors
– First console to have two 32-bit (main) processors
 d diiffffiic cu ulltt p plla attffo or rm m ffo or r p pr ro og gr ra am mm me er rs s tto o d de ev ve ello op p g ga am me es s
– – R Re elle ea as se ed d 4 4 m mo on ntth hs s e ea ar rlly y,, c ca attc ch hiin ng g g ga am me e d de ev ve ello op pe er rs s o offff- -g gu ua ar rd d
– Only popular in Japan
– Only popular in Japan
 sold less than 10 million units worldwide
 sold less than 10 million units worldwide
Sony Playstation
 S So on ny y P Plla ay ys stta attiio on n ( (1 19 99 94 4/ /1 19 99 95 5) )
– – F Fiir rs stt s su uc cc ce es ss sffu ull u us se e o off C CD D m me ed diia a ffo or r g ga am me es s
– – F Fiir rs stt u us se e o off m me em mo or ry y c ca ar rd ds s iin n c co on ns so olle es s? ?
– Very popular
– Very popular
 s so olld d o ov ve er r 1 10 00 0 m miilllliio on n u un niitts s w wo or rlld dw wiid de e
 Nintendo 64 (1996)
Nintendo 64 (1996)
– – F Fiir rs stt c co on ns so olle e w wiitth h a a 6 64 4- -b biitt p pr ro oc ce es ss so or r
– – P Po oo or r h ha ar rd dw wa ar re e d de es siig gn n c ch ho oiic ce es s lliim miitte ed d g gr ra ap ph hiic cs s c ca ap pa ab biilliittiie es s
– Moderately popular
– Moderately popular
 s so olld d 3 33 3 m miilllliio on n u un niitts s w wo or rlld dw wiid de e
 Also: Panasonic 3DO (1993), Amiga CD-32 (1980), and
 Also: Panasonic 3DO (1993), Amiga CD-32 (1980), and
A Atta ar rii J Ja ag gu ua ar r ( (1 19 99 93 3) )
Nintendo 64Sixth Generation of Console
Sixth Generation of Console
Systems (1998 – 2006)
Systems (1998 – 2006)
 S Se eg ga a D Dr re ea am mc ca as stt ( (1 19 99 98 8/ /1 19 99 99 9) )
– Several innovations, includin Internet gaming and web browsing
– Several innovations, includin Internet gaming and web browsing
– – C Co on ns siid de er re ed d o ou utt- -d da atte ed d o on nlly y ttw wo o y ye ea ar rs s a afftte er r iitts s r re elle ea as se e
Sony
– Initially successful, but discontinued early
– Initially successful, but discontinued early
 sold over 10.6 million units worldwide
 sold over 10.6 million units worldwide
Playstation 2
 S So on ny y P Plla ay ys stta attiio on n 2 2 ( (2 20 00 00 0) )
– Backwards compatible with Playstation
– Backwards compatible with Playstation
– – A Alls so o p plla ay ye ed d D DV VD Ds s
– – S Se ec cu ur re ed d lliic ce en ns siin ng g ffo or r m ma an ny y k ke ey y g ga am me es s,, e en na ab blliin ng g iitt tto o o ou uttp pe er rffo or rm m
competitors’ launches
competitors’ launches
– – B Be es stt- -s se elllliin ng g g ga am me e c co on ns so olle e iin n h hiis stto or ry y
 s so olld d 1 14 40 0 m miilllliio on n u un niitts s w wo or rlld dw wiid de e
Microsoft
 Ninetnedo GameCube (2000)
 Ninetnedo GameCube (2000)
XBox
– – S Sttr ru ug gg glle ed d w wiitth h tth he e ffa am miilly y- -ffr riie en nd dlly y iim ma ag ge e g ga aiin ne ed d iin n p pr riio or r
generation
generation
– – V Ve er ry y p po op pu ulla ar r
 s so olld d o ov ve er r 2 22 2 m miilllliio on n u un niitts s w wo or rlld dw wiid de e
 Microsoft XBox (2001)
 Microsoft XBox (2001)
– – A A v ve er ry y p po op pu ulla ar r c co on ns so olle e,, b bu utt h ha ad d d diiffffiic cu ulltty y c co om mp pe ettiin ng g w wiitth h P PS S2 2’’s s
strong start
strong start
– – X Xb bo ox x L Liiv ve e b be ec ca am me e m mo os stt p po op pu ulla ar r o on n- -lliin ne e g ga am miin ng g s sy ys stte em m
– Very popular
– Very popular
 sold 24 million units worldwide
 sold 24 million units worldwideSeventh Generation of Console
Seventh Generation of Console
Systems (2005 – present)
Systems (2005 – present)
 XBox 360 (2005)
 XBox 360 (2005)
– Introduced high-definition graphics
– Introduced high-definition graphics
– Initial heat dissipation problems caused many early
– Initial heat dissipation problems caused many early
m mo od de ells s o off tth he e c co on ns so olle e tto o ffa aiill
Xbox 360
– Very popular
– Very popular
 s so olld d o ov ve er r 2 28 8 m miilllliio on n u un niitts s w wo or rlld dw wiid de e
 Sony Playstation 3 (2006)
Sony Playstation 3 (2006)
– Included high-definition graphics
– Included high-definition graphics
– – I In nc cllu ud de ed d a a B Bllu u- -R Ra ay y d diis sc c p plla ay ye er r
– – N Ne ew w p pr ro oc ce es ss so or r a an nd d p plla ay ye er r tte ec ch hn no ollo og gy y c ca au us se ed d e ea ar rlly y
Sony
p pr ro od du uc cttiio on n s sh ho or rtta ag ge es s
– – V Ve er ry y p po op pu ulla ar r
Playstation 3
 sold over 16.8 million units worldwide
 sold over 16.8 million units worldwide
 Ninetnedo Wii (2006)
 Ninetnedo Wii (2006)
– Introduced a popular new controller with movement
– Introduced a popular new controller with movement
s se en ns so or rs s
– – L La ac ck k o off h hiig gh h- -d de eff g gr ra ap ph hiic cs s a an nd d h ha ar rd dd dr riiv ve e lliim miitts s iin ntte er re es stt
Nintendo
o off h ha ar rd d- -c co or re e a an nd d m ma attu ur re e g ga am me er rs s
Wii
– – M Mo os stt- -s su uc cc ce es ss sffu ull c co on ns so olle e o off tth hiis s g ge en ne er ra attiio on n
 sold over 34.5 million units worldwide
 sold over 34.5 million units worldwideEarly Computer Games
Early Computer GamesEarly (Mainframe) Computing
Early (Mainframe) Computing
Platforms of the 1970s
Platforms of the 1970s
 P PL LA AT TO O
– Popular educational computing environment
– Popular educational computing environment
– Designed at University of Illinois
– Designed at University of Illinois
– – R Ra an n o on n m ma aiin nffr ra am mes es m ma ad de e b by y C Co on nttr ro oll D Da atta a C Co or rp po or ra attiio on n
– Many games were exchanged between different PLATO systems
– Many games were exchanged between different PLATO systems
 DECUS
 DECUS
– User group for computers
– User group for computers
– Made by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC)
– Made by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC)
– – D Diis sttr riib bu utted ed p pr ro og gr ra am ms s,, iin nc cllu ud diin ng g g ga am mes es,, a am mo on ng g v va ar riio ou us s D DE EC C
computers
computers
 Hewlett Packard minicomputers
Hewlett Packard minicomputers
– HP2000 was one popular system
– HP2000 was one popular system
– Many games developed on HP systems
– Many games developed on HP systemsNotable Mainframe Computer
Notable Mainframe Computer
Games of the 1970s
Games of the 1970s
 First Computer Baseball Game (1971)
First Computer Baseball Game (1971)
– written by Don Daglow on a DEC PDP-10 at Pomona College
– written by Don Daglow on a DEC PDP-10 at Pomona College
 Star Trek (1971)
 Star Trek (1971)
– written by Mike Mayfield on a Sigma 7 at MIT
– written by Mike Mayfield on a Sigma 7 at MIT
– first major game to be ported across hardware platforms by students
– first major game to be ported across hardware platforms by students
 Hunt the Wumpus (1972)
 Hunt the Wumpus (1972)
– written by Gregory Yob on a DEC PDP-10
– written by Gregory Yob on a DEC PDP-10
– a hide-and-seek game
– a hide-and-seek game
– could be considered the first text adventure game
– could be considered the first text adventure game
 Maze War and Spasim (1974)
 Maze War and Spasim (1974)
– pioneering examples of early multi-player 3D first person shooters
– pioneering examples of early multi-player 3D first person shooters
 Adventure (1975)
 Adventure (1975)
– – o or riig giin na alllly y c ca alllle ed d A AD DV VE EN NT T a an nd d lla atte er r c ca alllle ed d C Co ollo os ss sa all C Ca av ve e
– first text adventure game (as we recognize it today)
– first text adventure game (as we recognize it today)
– inspired a generation of adventure game developers
– inspired a generation of adventure game developersNotable Mainframe Computer
Notable Mainframe Computer
Games of the 1970s
Games of the 1970s
 C CR RT Ts s b be ec co om me e m ma aiin n o ou uttp pu utt ( (m miid d 7 70 0s s) )
– up to this point, output was received as text on a printer
– up to this point, output was received as text on a printer
– inspired the start of “graphics” games
– inspired the start of “graphics” games
 D Du un ng ge eo on n a an nd d d dn nd d ( (1 19 97 75 5) )
– – tth he e ffiir rs stt ttw wo o D Du un ng geo eon ns s & & D Dr ra ag go on ns s- -s stty ylle e g gr ra ap ph hiic c R RP PG G g ga am mes es w wiitth h
– users had top-down view of the dungeon (like NetHack)
– users had top-down view of the dungeon (like NetHack)
 Zork (1977)
Zork (1977)
– an early extremely popular text adventure game
– an early extremely popular text adventure game
 A Aiir r ( (1 19 97 77 7) )
– – a a ttex extt a aiir r c co om mb ba att g ga am me e
 Rogue (1980)
 Rogue (1980)
– a very popular D&D-style graphic RPG game for Unix
– a very popular D&D-style graphic RPG game for Unix
– first graphic RPG game with randomly-generated dungeons
– first graphic RPG game with randomly-generated dungeons
– – iin ns sp piir red ed a a g gen ene er ra attiio on n o off r ro og gu ue e- -lliik ke e g ga am mes esHome Computers
Home Computers
 Tandy TRS-80 (1977, 1980)
 Tandy TRS-80 (1977, 1980)
– not particularly popular
– not particularly popular
Tandy
– but, helped start the personal computer revolution
– but, helped start the personal computer revolution
TRS-80
 A Ap pp plle e I II I ( (1 19 97 77 7+ +) )
– – ffiir rs stt p po op pu ulla ar r h ho om me e c co om mp pu utte er r
– – p pr riic ce ed d a affffo or rd da ab blly y ( ($ $1 10 00 00 0 – – $ $1 15 50 00 0) ) ffo or r m mo os stt m miid dd dlle e- -c clla as ss s ffa am miilliie es s
– had an immense impact on the personal computer industry
– had an immense impact on the personal computer industry
– extremely popular
– extremely popular
 tth he e b be es stt- -k kn no ow wn n e ea ar rlly y h ho om me e c co om mp pu utte er r
Apple II
 Commodore Vic-20 (1980)
 Commodore Vic-20 (1980)
– first very inexpensive ($295) personal computer
– first very inexpensive ($295) personal computer
– popular
– popular
 ffiir rs stt p pe er rs so on na all c co om mp pu utte er r tto o s se ellll o on ne e m miilllliio on n u un niitts s
 Commodore 64 (1982)
Commodore 64 (1982)
– a very popular inexpensive ($595) personal computer
– a very popular inexpensive ($595) personal computer
– – m ma ar rk ke ette ed d ffo or r c co om mp pu utte er r g ga am me es s
C64
– – e ex xttr re em me elly y p po op pu ulla ar r
 sold over 30 million units
 sold over 30 million unitsHome Computers
Home Computers
 IBM PC/AT (1984)
IBM PC/AT (1984)
– first IBM PC to be competitive in the game market
– first IBM PC to be competitive in the game market
– – h ha ad d 1 16 6- -b biitt g gr ra ap ph hiic cs s
 e ea ar rlliie er r I IB BM M P PC Cs s o on nlly y h ha ad d 4 4- -b biitt g gr ra ap ph hiic cs s
– – s sttiillll h ha ad d p po oo or r s so ou un nd d q qu ua alliitty y ( (r re es so ollv ve ed d iin n lla atte e 8 80 0s s) )
– appealing combo for home computers
– appealing combo for home computers
 parents could use for business
parents could use for business
 k kiid ds s c co ou ulld d u us se e ffo or r g ga am me es s
IBM PC/AT
 A Ap pp plle e M Ma ac ciin nt to os sh h ( (1 19 98 84 4) )
– first user-friendly GUI
– first user-friendly GUI
– – o on nlly y b blla ac ck k & & w wh hiitte e g gr ra ap ph hiic cs s u un nttiill 1 19 98 87 7
 Atari ST (‘85), Commodore Amiga (’85), and
Atari ST (‘85), Commodore Amiga (’85), and
IBM PS/2 (’87)
IBM PS/2 (’87)
– – ffiir rs stt h ho om me e c co om mp pu utte er rs s c ca ap pa ab blle e o off 2 25 56 6- -b biitt V VG GA A g gr ra ap ph hiic cs s
Apple
MacintoshIBM PC –
IBM PC –
The Game PC for the 90s
The Game PC for the 90s
 IBM controlled home computer market
IBM controlled home computer market
– PCs dominated the business market
– PCs dominated the business market
 s so o ffa am miilliie es s o offtte en n b bo ou ug gh htt P PC Cs s a att h ho om me e ffo or r c co om mp pa atta ab biilliitty y
– PCs now had a decent GUI (Windows)
– PCs now had a decent GUI (Windows)
– – P PC Cs s w we er re e m mu uc ch h c ch he ea ap pe er r
 P PC C c co om mp pa attiib blle es s w we er re e a av va aiilla ab blle e ffr ro om m m ma an ny y m ma an nu uffa ac cttu ur re er rs s
 M Ma ac cs s o on nlly y a av va aiilla ab blle e ffr ro om m A Ap pp plle e ( (n no o c co om mp pe ettiittiio on n) )
 Most games available only on PC
 Most games available only on PC
– Mac and PC hardware not compatible so difficult to also release game
– Mac and PC hardware not compatible so difficult to also release game
for Mac
for Mac
– – M My ys stt w wa as s tth he e o on nlly y p po op pu ulla ar r g ga am me e o on nlly y ffo or r M Ma ac c
 Computers superior to consoles
Computers superior to consoles
– – G Gr ra ap ph hiic cs s a an nd d s so ou un nd d iin n P PC Cs s s su up pe er riio or r tto o c co on ns so olle e s sy ys stte em ms s
– – L Liittttlle e c co op py y p pr ro otte ec cttiio on n iin n e ea ar rlly y 9 90 0s s,, s so o e ea as sy y tto o c co op py y ( (p piir ra atte e) ) g ga am me e
– Computer games offer better processing capability and larger interface
– Computer games offer better processing capability and larger interface
 much better playability than console systems
 much better playability than console systems
 s sttr ra atte eg gy y,, s siim mu ulla attiio on n,, a an nd d R RP PG G g ga am me es s w we er re e a aw wffu ull o on n c co on ns so olle es sPCs for Gaming in 2000 –
PCs for Gaming in 2000 –
now a much smaller market
now a much smaller market
 C Co on ns so olle es s o of ff fe er r s sa am me e c ca ap pa ab biilliit ty y a at t b be et tt te er r p pr riic ce e
– console systems cheaper
– console systems cheaper
 if you just want a game machine, why buy a PC?
if you just want a game machine, why buy a PC?
– console games cheaper to play
– console games cheaper to play
 can rent console games (but not PC games)
can rent console games (but not PC games)
 PC games no longer easy to copy (pirate)
 PC games no longer easy to copy (pirate)
 Games for consoles always work on consoles
Games for consoles always work on consoles
– gamers knows that a game designed for a console will run on a
– gamers knows that a game designed for a console will run on a
console
console
– – P PC Cs s h ha av ve e a a w wiid de e r ra an ng ge e o off h ha ar rd dw wa ar re e c ca ap pa ab biilliitty y,, s so o c ca an n b be e h ha ar rd d tto o
determine whether a game will run on your PC
determine whether a game will run on your PC
 BUT, consoles have a limited interface
BUT, consoles have a limited interface
– console controllers have a limited number of buttons, so complex
– console controllers have a limited number of buttons, so complex
games don’t play well on consoles
games don’t play well on consoles
 tth he es se e g ga am me es s ffo or rm m tth he e b ba as siis s o off tth he e P PC C’’s s n niic ch he e g ga am me e m ma ar rk ke ett