Computer Hardware and

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A
-
1

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Extended Learning Module A


Computer Hardware and
Software


A
-
2

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Presentation Overview


A Quick Tour of Technology


Categories of Computers by Size


Software: Your Intellectual Interface


Hardware: Your Physical Interface


The Complete Computer At Work

A
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3

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Introduction


Information technology (IT)



computer
-
based tool that people use
to work with information and support
the information and information
-
processing needs of an organization.



Hardware



the physical devices that
make up a computer.



Software



the set of instructions that
your hardware executes to carry out a
specific task for you.


A
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4

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

A Quick Tour of Technology


Six categories of
hardware

1.
Input device

2.
Output device

3.
Storage device

4.
Central processing unit
(CPU)

5.
Telecommunications
device

6.
Connecting device





A
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5

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

A Quick Tour of Technology


Software types include:


Application software

-

solves specific
problems or perform specific tasks.


System software

-

handles tasks specific to
technology management.



Operating system software

-

controls application
software and manages hardware devices.


Utility software

-

provides additional functionality
to the operating system.

A
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6

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Categories of Computers By Size

Personal Digital Assistants, Notebook
Computers, and Desktop Computers


Personal digital assistant

(
PDA
)
-

small hand
-
held
computer that surfs the Web
and performs simple tasks.



Notebook computer

-

a fully
functional computer that runs
on battery power.



Desktop computer

-

the most
popular choice.




A
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7

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Categories of Computers By Size

Minicomputers, Mainframe Computers, and
Supercomputers


Minicomputer



used in a small to
medium
-
size business
environment.



Mainframe computer



used in a
large business environment.



Supercomputers

-

the fastest,
most powerful, and most expensive
type of computer.


A
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8

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Software: Your Intellectual Interface

Application Software


Application software is used to meet
specific information
-
processing needs,
including such things as:


Payroll


Customer relationship management


Project management


Training


Word processing and many others.

A
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9

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Software: Your Intellectual Interface

Application Software


Personal productivity
software

-

performs
personal tasks, including
such things as creating:


Memos


Graphs


Slide presentations



Team Work

Buying Personal

Productivity

Software Suites

A
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10

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Software: Your Intellectual Interface

Application Software


Vertical market software

-

unique to a
particular industry. Examples include:


Patient
-
scheduling software


Nursing allocation software



Horizontal market software

-

general enough
to be suitable for use in a variety of industries.
Examples include:


Inventory management software


Payroll software


A
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11

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Software: Your Intellectual Interface

System Software


Operating system software
-

controls
application software and manages how
hardware devices work together.


Microsoft Windows 2000 Pro


Microsoft Windows 2000 ME


Microsoft Windows XP Home


Microsoft Windows XP Pro


Mac OS


Linux





A
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12

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Software: Your Intellectual Interface

System Software


Utility software

-

adds
additional functionality
to the operating system.


Anti
-
virus software


Crash
-
proof software


Uninstaller software


Disk optimization
software

Team Work

Evaluating Utility

Software Suites

A
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13

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Hardware: Your Physical Interface




Binary digit

(
bit
)
-

the smallest unit of
information.



ASCII

(
American Standard Code for
Information Interchange
)
-

the coding system
that most personal computers use to represent,
process, and store information.



Byte
-

a group of eight bits represents one
natural language character.






A
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14

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Hardware: Your Physical Interface

Common Input Devices


Input device

-

a tool you use to capture information and
commands. Examples include:


Keyboard



Point
-
of
-
sale

(
POS
)


Microphone


Mouse



Trackball


Pointing stick


Touch pad



Touch screen


Bar code reader


Optical mark recognition

(
OMR
)


Scanner





A
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15

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Hardware: Your Physical Interface

Common Output Devices


Output device
-

a
tool you use to see,
hear, or otherwise
accept the results of
your information
-
processing requests.








A
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16

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Hardware: Your Physical Interface

Common Output Devices


CRTs


look like
television sets.



Flat
-
panel displays


thin, lightweight
monitors that take up
much less space than
CRTs.




A
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17

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Hardware: Your Physical Interface

Common Output Devices


Resolution of a screen


number of pixels it
has.



Dot pitch



the distance between the centers of
a pair of like
-
colored pixels.



Resolution of a printer

-

the number of dots per
inch (dpi) it produces, which is the same
principle as the resolution in monitors.





A
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18

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Hardware: Your Physical Interface

Common Output Devices

A
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19

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Hardware: Your Physical Interface

Common Output Devices


Inkjet printers



make images by
forcing ink droplets through
nozzles.



Laser printers



form images
using an electrostatic process.



Multifunction printers



scan,
copy, and fax, as well as print.


On Your Own

Finding a Printer to

Meet Your Needs

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20

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Hardware: Your Physical Interface

Characteristics of CPUs and RAM


CPU


Speed measured in megahertz (MHz) and
gigahertz (GHz).



Contains control unit and arithmetic/logic unit
(A/L unit)



RAM


Capacity measured in megabytes (millions of
characters)

A
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21

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Hardware: Your Physical Interface

Characteristics of CPUs and RAM

A
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22

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Hardware: Your Physical Interface

Common Storage Devices


Common storage devices include:


Floppy disk



High
-
capacity floppy disk



Hard disk



CD
-
ROM



CD
-
R

(
compact disc


recordable
)


CD
-
RW

(
compact disc


rewritable
)


DVD
-
ROM



DVD
-
R



DVD
-
RW,
or

DVD
-
RAM
, or
DVD+RW

(all different
names by different manufacturers)


A
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23

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Hardware: Your Physical Interface

Telecommunications Devices


Network

-

two or more computers connected so
that they can communicate with each other and
possibly share information, software, peripheral
devices, and/or processing power.



Telephone modem

-

a device that connects
your computer to your phone line so that you
can access another computer or network.

A
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24

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Hardware: Your Physical Interface

Telecommunications Devices


Types of modems include:


Telephone modem


Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) modem


Cable modem


Satellite modem



Module E covers these in more detail.


A
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25

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Hardware: Your Physical Interface

Telecommunications Devices


Communication software includes:


Connectivity software



enables you to use
your computer to “dial up” or connect to
another computer.


Web browser software



enables you to surf
the Web.


E
-
mail software



enables you to
electronically communicate with other people
by sending and receiving e
-
mail.



A
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26

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Hardware: Your Physical Interface

Connecting Devices


Connecting devices enable your hardware to
communicate with each other.



Busses


system and expansion.



Expansion


slots and cards.



Ports and connectors


USB, serial, parallel,
and IrDA


A
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27

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Hardware: Your Physical Interface

Connecting Devices

A
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28

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Hardware: Your Physical
Interface


Parallel port

Serial port

USB port

Keyboard and mouse ports

A
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29

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Hardware: Your Physical Interface

Connecting Devices

A
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30

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Hardware: Your Physical Interface

Connecting Devices


Popular connectors include:


USB

(
universal serial bus
)

the most
popular means of connecting devices to a
computer.


Serial connector



usually has 9 holes but
may have 25, which fit into the corresponding
number of pins in the port.


Parallel connector



has 25 pins, which fit
into the corresponding holes in the port.

A
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31

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Hardware: Your Physical Interface

Connecting Devices


IrDA

(
infrared data association
)
ports


are for wireless devices that work in
essentially the same way as the remote
control on your TV does.


A
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32

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

The Complete Computer at Work

A
-
33

Management Information Systems
for the Information Age

Copyright 2004

The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved

Summary

Assignments and Exercises

1.
Customizing a computer purchase

2.
Web
-
enabled cell phones and web
computers

3.
Operating system software for PDAs

4.
Types of monitors and their quality