Credits / sources

learnedbawledΗλεκτρονική - Συσκευές

24 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

85 εμφανίσεις

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

Weizmann Institute’s Alternative Sustainable Energy Research Initiative


http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

Presentations are at http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/
presentations.html



Credits / sources

many slides or parts of them came from (websites of):

IEA, USDOE BES,
NREL ++++

N. Lewis (Caltech),
G. Crabtree (ANL), P
.
Alivisatos
, S. Chu
(UCB /LBL)
, A.
Nozik
, S. Kurtz, D.
Ginley

(NREL), the late R.
Smalley (Rice
). , L.
Bronicki

(
Ormat
), Y. Lou (CWRU)

J.
Karni
, I.
Lubomirsky
, I.
Maron
, G.
Hodes

(WIS),

A.
Zaban

(BIU
) +
+++

Pls

inform us* of any credit that we missed. Thanks!

* david.cahen@weizmann.ac.il

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

Weizmann Institute’s Alternative Sustainable Energy Research Initiative


http://www.weizmann.ac.il/AERI/

Presentations are at http://www.weizmann.ac.il/AERI/presentations.html


ENERGY

THE Global Challenge

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

climate

water

food

energy

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

To live the life we aspire
to,
Sustainably
,


is
an unprecedented challenge

Why?

Weizmann Institute’s Alternative Sustainable Energy Research Initiative


http://www.weizmann.ac.il/AERI/

Presentations are at http://www.weizmann.ac.il/AERI/presentations.html


Three
Reasons:

ENERGY

THE Global Challenge

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

Mankind’s Top Challenges
*

E N E R G Y


resource
sustainability

WATER




(


energy)

(rest of) ENVIRONMENT

(


energy)

FOOD




(


energy)

HEALTH/DISEASES

(



energy)

POVERTY



(
~
energy)

EDUCATION
,
SECURITY

P O P U L A T I O N
(


(
~
cheap
energy
)

-
a
-

Energy defines accessibility

to

most

other

resources

Credits/sources: many slides or parts of them came from (websites of)
: IEA, USDOE BES, NREL, N.
Lewis (Caltech), P.
Alivisatos
, S. Chu (UCB /LBL), A.
Nozik
, S. Kurtz, D.
Ginley

(NREL), J.
Karni
, I.
Lubomirsky
, I.
Maron
, G.
Hodes

(WIS), A.
Zaban

(BIU), L.
Bronicki

(
Ormat
), Y. Lou (CWRU)

, G.
Crabtree,
*
after the

late
R. Smalley

(Rice U)

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

Not really; ….………. It is more like

WHICH Energy “Types” we need

WHEN and WHERE ?


It
costs energy to
transform energy
of

type A
to
type B




exergy
”,
Δ
G






What is Energy?

Energy

(work)
:
kWh


Power

kW
(
rate of energy use/generation)

your
electricity bill
!


kW/person

~
0.75
India


(
2009
-
2011
data)

~ 2.2

Mexico



~ 2.3 world average
*



~

2.5


China



~ 4.2

Israel



~
5.5


(W.)
Europe



~ 9.5 USA





* for food: 0.15 is world average








Are we running out?



(Energy is conserved,
E=mc
2
;
--
>
nuclear energy !)

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

Total World Need for Power


in
2010
:
~14.5
T
W;

in
2050
: ~28



40
?
?

T
W

1
T
W = 1000
G
W

1
G
W = 1000
M
W

1
M
W = 1000
k
W

2011
estimates(%)

----------------

U.S.A


~ 19

EU



~

14

FSU



~

9

Brazil



~ 2.3

Mexico


~ 1.5


E.Asia


~


30


China


~

21.5


Japan ~ 4








India

~ 3.1



Sub Saharan


Africa ~ 1.6

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

Total World Need for Power


in
2010
:
~
15
T
W;

in
2050
: ~28



40
?
?

T
W

1
T
W =
1,000,000,000,000

W

(Mexico~ 0.06 TW)

1
G
W =

1,000,000,000 W

(
Itaipu

~ 12.5
G
W)

1
M
W
=




1,000,000 W

(power for 1000 US homes)

1
k
W
=




1,000
W

(1 room air conditioner)


Cell phone charger

~


5

W

TV or Laptop PC


~

20


W

Frig + freezer


~

40

W

Washing machine



~500


W

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

World Power Sources by Type

T
W

for
2010


0

1

2

3

4

5

Oil

coal

Nuclear

ENERGY: J, Wsec; BTU

POWER : W = J/sec

1
T
W = 1000
G
W

1
G
W = 1000
M
W

1
M
W = 1000
k
W

gas

> 80% of world
power from

Fossil Fuels


-
b
-

Can we rely on our present energy sources?

Hydro

Other

Bio

mass

Renewables

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

but ..…

we’ll run out of oil

Sure
, at some point we will,

and,
yes
,

we’re running out of cheap, clean oil,


but…

do we really know?


-
b
-

Can we rely on our present energy sources?

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

From S. Kurtz, NREL;

Source: EIA (Energy Information Administration)

Oil Reserves
as reported
by
several
c
ountries

and relying on oil companies isn’t much better

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

Energy “Reserves” and Resources

(as
number of years of

yearly consumption in 2000)

Ultimate

Resources


time
-
independent constant : ~30
-
50 yrs of oil


Reserves

but remember….

“the Stone Age did not end because of

a shortage of stones”

Sheik Ahmed
Zaki

Yamani, Saudi Oil Minister 1962
-
1986


-
b
-

Can we rely on our present energy sources?



Oil


≥ 40










50



Gas


≥ 70










≥ 200


David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

Energy “Reserves” and Resources

(as
number of years of

yearly consumption in 2000)

Ultimate

Resources



Oil



40










50



Gas



70











200



COAL~
100








~

4
00



Reserves

So, … coal solves the
problems

but…

-
b
-

Can we rely on our present energy sources?

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

while not everyone may agree

about coal


global warming

few dispute that

WE

pollute
OUR

water
, air and earth

-
b
-

Can we rely on our present energy sources?

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

and … are there alternatives?

The “logical” candidate:


NUCLEAR ENERGY


WHY?

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%

Nuclear
Natural Gas
Oil
Coal
Biomass
Animals
Energy Sources Through the Ages*

* “Western” world

-
c
-

Until today, new energy sources always packed
more energy in same weight & volume than older ones

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

and are there other alternatives?



Nuclear





“Lunar” (gravitational)


David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

and are there other alternatives?



Nuclear
(geothermal,
solar
)





Renewable
energy sources:




*
SOLAR
(incl. wind,

hydroelectric,

biofuel
)




*
geothermal
;

tides,

ocean

currents
/waves


David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/


1.2
x
10
5

TW

~
100
s TW (x
0.1

10
s TW)


0
.22
TW
p


(other)

solar

Renewable Energy on Earth

Wind


~50 TW


~3
-
8 TW



0.24
TW
p

Biomass

with

all un
-
used cultivatable land



~
5 TW (H
2
O?
)











1.9 TW










(0.2 TW sustainable)

Hydroelectric

4.6
TW

1.5
TW

0
.
8
TW (installed)

Geothermal

12 (+30 ocean)

~1 TW

~ 0.03 TW

but…

storage

black: exists, but no idea how to get it

red: exists and know how to get it

purple: presently used

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

System Power Rating

s

1 kW

10 kW

100 kW

1MW

10 MW

100 MW

1
GW

seconds

hours

minutes

Discharge Time

S
MES

Low
-
Speed

Lead
Acid

Flow

(
redox
; Vanadium
)

Na
-
S

Compressed Air

Pumped Hydro

System Power Rating

Super

capacitors

Ni
-
Cd

Li
-
ion


High
-
Speed

Metal
Air

Adapted from ORNL

Batteries

Flywheel

Energy Storage:

Existing Options

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

~ 6 x 6 m
2

solar cell panel

for
2 days

1
(US)

gallon

~ 3.8 liter


~ 37 kWh

work

of 2
horses

for 25
hrs;

of 15 men

1 (40h) week

Fossil

Fuels

are a true
Energy

Treasure

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

Short term

(<
2020
)

evolutions

in technology & engineering:

e.g.:



Cleaner
use of fossil
fuels

























Improve, Optimize; coal


gas /liquid





2
nd

Generation”
Biofuels




CONSERVATION:

recycle
,

re
-
use
,

reduce











+

E D U C AT E

So, what should / can we do in the

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

Medium term

(up to 2030
-
2050):


develop applied science & engineering

+


EVOLUTIONS

in basic
science


+

E D U C AT
E


So, what should / can we do in the

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

Long term

(> 2040):


Stimulate

R
EVOLUTIONS

in
science …


+

E D U C AT E








So, what should / can we do in the

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

Some proven Weizmann strengths in

Basic Multi
-
& Inter
-
Disciplinary Science


Materials
-
nano
-

and molecular
-
science;

electronics





phys
/
biol/chem





Life Sciences
-

Structural Biology, genetic
engn
., plant science




chem
/phys/math






Physics
-

plasma physics, optics











materials


Chemistry
-
catalysis










phys/
biol
/math

------------------------


Solar Energy
:

Solar
Cells

(
2
nd

&
3
d

g
eneration
)






Photosynthesis
(e.g.,
algae
)






Concentrated
Solar
(
tower
)

Weizmann Institute’s

Alternative, Sustainable
Energy
Research Initiative

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

World’s Largest Solar
-
Electric
Plant

30
T
W
p

(~
6
T
W
C
)

requires 1 such plant,

every
HOUR
, for the next

~ 16 years

(+ a bit of storage…)

Solar Cell Power Stations TODAY

1/’13
Global Cumulative
installed PV power

~0.1
T
W
p

PRC goal >
2011

≥ 0.002
T
W
p
/yr

0.25
GW
p

(


~
50
M
W
c
) Agua Caliente
in USA

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

God’s
gifts to mankind

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

God’s
gifts to mankind

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

God’s
gifts to mankind

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

Wind Energy

Off Shore

Wind Farm

WIND

12/’12
Cumulative

~

0.28
TW
p

~ 0.095
TW
c

World’s largest wind farm:

Alta (Oak Creek
-
Mojave)
1.32
GW
p

(


0.45
GW
c
)

To get
10
T
W
c

3
/ day for
20
yrs

PRC goal
:~0.05
T
W
c

in 10
yr

BIOFUEL:



2011
production ~
nearly 0.1
T
W

if 50 x



5
T
W

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

Brazil’s electricity
generation capacity: ~
0.1
T
W
(0.5
kW/capita)

Israel’s
electricity generation capacity:
~ 0.016
T
W (2
kW/capita)

China’s electricity growth plan:

0.1
T
W
/year
……

One such plant,



every day,




for the next …

11 years

10

T
W

electricity from COAL ?

So, “if you want to,

it won’t be a fairy tale”

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/


*

Efficient, Affordable

Artificial Photosynthesis


*

Cheap, Efficient

Solar Cells
:








smart optics;

solar paint …… ?



Smart Natural

Photosynthesis:



genetic/metabolic
engn
.;

synthetic biology …… ?



3
-
D
(Holographic)

Video
-
Conferencing



“Memory
-
shape” wind turbine blades




Clean(
er
) and Safe(r)

Nuclear
Energy




and




Where Creativity & Curiosity Will Lead Us !

To provide the necessary Alternative Energy

we (scientists) need
to pursue BASIC SCIENCE

to realize what are DREAMS today, such as:

“if
YOU

want to,

it won’t be a fairy
tale”

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

Weizmann Institute’s

Alternative, Sustainable Energy Research Initiative

Energy, it’s
the
Global Challenge

for that we
need

to start…

Rising to the

ENERGY (
T
W) CHALLENGE

can be
mankind’s most
important breakthrough


but …

Meeting it requires
all of us to work together

David Cahen WIS
-
AERI 04
-
2013;
http://
www.weizmann.ac.il
/AERI/

Weizmann Institute’s Alternative Sustainable Energy Research Initiative


http://www.weizmann.ac.il/AERI/

Presentations are at http://www.weizmann.ac.il/AERI/presentations.html


now