for STEM Teachers

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6 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Providing On
-
going Support

for STEM Teachers

Joan D. Pasley

Horizon Research, Inc.


Successful K
-
12 STEM Education: Identifying
Effective Approaches in Science, Technology,
Engineering, and Mathematics

Recommendations for schools and districts:


Enhance the capacity of K
-
12 teachers.


Create school conditions that appear to
support student achievement.


Purpose of this Session

1.
What do we know about effective
professional development to enhance
the capacity of K
-
12
STEM

teachers
?



2.
What “conditions” support effective
STEM teaching and learning?


MSP Knowledge Management
and Dissemination Project


Goal: To synthesize knowledge generated
through the Math and Science Partnerships
and integrate it into the broader knowledge
base for education reform


Deepening Teacher Content Knowledge


Teachers as Intellectual Leaders


Involvement of STEM faculty


Professional Learning Communities


What do we know about effective
professional development to enhance
the capacity of K
-
12 STEM teachers?



Think about the most effective
professional development you’ve
offered or attended. What were the
factors that made the experience
effective
?



Discuss with
others
at your table.



How many of you discussed the
following?


On
-
going, sustains focus over time



Content
-
focused



Models effective practice, including active
learning experiences



Provides opportunities for teachers to apply
what they are learning to their own practice



Engages teachers in communities of learners

What do we know?


Professional development design and
implementation is complex, with many
decisions to make
.


Decisions are interrelated.


Our eyes are always bigger than our
stomachs


we always want to do more
in professional development than we
are able to do
.



Professional

Development

Teacher

Knowledge

and Skills

Teaching

Practice

Student

Outcomes

Simplified Logic Model for

Professional Development

Professional

Development

Teacher

Content

Knowledge

Teaching

Practice

Student

Outcomes

Teacher content knowledge
matters…


For teaching practice:



Selecting content to emphasize


Selecting instructional strategies and sequence


Selecting assessment tasks


Implementing curriculum materials


Professional

Development

Teacher

Content

Knowledge

Teaching

Practice

Student

Outcomes

Teacher content knowledge
matters…

Students of teachers with stronger content
knowledge have higher achievement scores than
other students, in particular on measures of
conceptual understanding.

So if TCK matters…



What do we know about
deepening teacher content
knowledge?

Facets of

Teacher Content Knowledge



Disciplinary content knowledge



Pedagogical content knowledge



Ways of knowing content

MSP KMD Review of Research


Identified more than 1000 “studies” on PD
to deepen teacher content
-
related
knowledge

MSP KMD Review of Research


However, approximately 90% of the
studies were screened out because:


They were advocacy or opinion pieces, not
research, and/or



They were studies of pre
-
service teachers only,
and/or



They did not include a measure (quantitative
or qualitative) of teacher content knowledge.



MSP KMD Review of Research



Applied standards of evidence to 65
studies of professional development,
those that were not simply opinion or
advocacy pieces
and

actually measured
teacher content knowledge.

Based on the Evidence:

An Effective PD Program…


Duration: Multi
-
year, ongoing, with substantial number of
contact hours



Collective participation: Involves all teachers within each
school



Job
-
embedded with active learning opportunities, with
evaluation/assessment feedback
.



Focus on content, student
-
learning, and instruction:


Disciplinary content


How students learn


Specific teaching practices


Research studies
typically looked at the
effectiveness of
multiple professional
development elements
as a set,
so we
don’t know how much particular
components of an intervention
contributed
to the gains.


An Emerging Consensus
Effective PD:


Focuses on content knowledge and how
students learn
content



Involves a substantial number of
hours



Sustains focus over
time



Models effective practice, including active
learning
experiences



Engages teachers in communities of
learning



Involves active participation of school leaders


Recent Study

A randomized controlled trial tested
characteristics of PD, including…



Substantial number of contact hours over a full
-
year
duration, including summer institutes, academic year
seminars and in
-
school coaching



Focus on developing teachers’
mathematics content
and pedagogical content knowledge



Collective participation of teachers in a
school

The study findings indicated no
statistically significant impact on
student
achievement after two years.

What research tells us


Available research points to some
elements of effective PD, but does not
provide sufficient guidance about how to
design and implement PD for particular
purposes in particular kinds of situations.

Filling the gap


“Sensible propositions” can provide
additional guidance
and
serve as
hypotheses for research.



MSP
-
KMD project developed a
methodology for collecting and vetting
practice
-
based insights.

Disciplinary Content Knowledge


Research suggests that:


teachers can deepen their understanding
of disciplinary content by working on
challenging problems at an advanced
level.




Disciplinary Content Knowledge


Expert practitioners caution that:


Teachers need to see the connection
between how they are encountering
the content at an advanced level, and
how the topic appears in the grade
-
level content.






Disciplinary Content Knowledge

Expert practitioners caution that:


Developing deep conceptual
understanding takes time; teachers need
multiple opportunities to explore new
ideas.



Research suggests that teachers can
deepen their understanding of
disciplinary content and their
pedagogical content knowledge by
experiencing the student materials as
learners.






Expert practitioners highlight the need to:



Be careful that the content doesn’t get
lost. Teachers need to learn the content
AND learn how the activities are
intended to help students develop their
understanding.

Expert practitioners highlight the need
to:



Go beyond modeling effective
pedagogy; professional development
should allow time for facilitators to
explicitly discuss the pedagogy that
was modeled.

Research suggests that:


teachers be encouraged to implement
student instructional materials as
intended.

Lesson
Quality is Associated with
Adherence to District
-
Designated Materials

11
46
55
0
20
40
60
80
100
Low
Medium
High
Percent of Lessons
Receiving High Ratings
Adherence

39

Pedagogical Content Knowledge

Research suggests that:


examining student work can help
teachers to understand student
thinking.



Expert practitioners suggest:


Not any student work will do; student
work samples should be rich enough
to illustrate their thinking and include
the full range of student ideas about
the mathematics.


Expert practitioners highlight the need
for:



Teachers to first analyze a carefully
crafted set of student work before
analyzing their own students' work.



Analysis of student work to focus on what
students understand, not just what they
do not understand.



Research suggests
the need for school
-
based
and/or
job
-
embedded professional
development for STEM teachers.






Specifically,
participation
in
PLCs has
been linked to
increased teacher
confidence and positive changes in
teachers’ instructional practices.





Expert practitioners suggest:


STEM PLCs should not be expected to
address all of the needs for teachers’
continuing education.






Expert practitioners suggest:


STEM PLCs may be more amenable to
some professional development purposes
than others.





Expert practitioners suggest:


Skilled facilitation is important to the
success of STEM PLCs.






Expert practitioners suggest:


Protocols and tools can increase the
likelihood that a STEM PLC will be
successful.



Expert practitioners suggest:



High quality PD materials save time and
effort in designing PD, and provide
scaffolding for novice PD providers.


Expert practitioners (and common
sense) highlight:


the need to select approaches that fit your
particular context



the fact that no design will work without
good implementation

Professional

Development

Teacher

Knowledge

and Skills

Teaching

Practice

Student

Outcomes

Simplified Logic Model for

Professional Development

Principal
Support

Appropriate
Instructional
Materials

Policies Aligned
with the Vision



As individuals, complete the reflection
form considering
(1) whether
the
system in a designated
district
reflects
each of the listed
attributes and (2)
how easy/difficult the attribute would
be to fix if not in place.



Discuss at your table

Lessons from the

MSP Case Studies


Design and implement professional
development that is both feasible and
likely to be effective with the teachers in
the particular context.

Designing
Feasible
,
Effective
PD


Choose interventions that both address perceived needs
explicitly and are likely to contribute to long
-
term
improvements by focusing on more entrenched issues.



Recognize the pros and cons when considering
incentives for teacher participation in professional
development.



Have a plan for addressing varying levels of teacher
knowledge and skills.



Provide support for application of enhanced teacher
content knowledge to the classroom.


Consider how to engage a range of
important stakeholders whose support is
important for efforts to deepen teacher
content knowledge.

Engaging
Key Stakeholders


Identify the stakeholders whose understanding
and support will be crucial for the work to be
sustained.



Involve stakeholders in activities that help
develop a shared vision around deepening
teacher content knowledge.



Anticipate that changes in stakeholders may
create new opportunities and/or barriers to
sustainability.


Help ensure that key policies in the
system are aligned with the vision
underlying the reform efforts.



Aligning
Key Policies


Identify the most pertinent and influential
policies and align interventions with those
policies.



Work to align institutional policies with the
program vision.




Help teachers deal with unaligned policies.



Data
-
Driven Decision
-
making


Use data to inform decisions about selecting,
implementing, and adapting interventions.



Use data to ensure an acceptable level of
quality during implementation and scale
-
up,
and to encourage support for system change.




Work to develop capacity and
infrastructure to strengthen teachers’
content knowledge and pedagogical
skills.


Developing Capacity
and
Infrastructure


Consider from the get
-
go how to develop
capacity for long
-
term sustainability
.



Plan for succession of program leaders.



Identify and develop the infrastructure needed
for the work to be sustained.