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Leveraging

NGO
Resources

Knowledge Management:

Albert Simard

Presented to

Workshop on Diplomacy and Negotiation

Washington DC September 18, 2
-
13

Knowledge Structures

Fluid,
unstructured

Social Structure

(People)

Organized,
semi
-
structured

Business Structure

(Processes)

Rigid,
structured

Technology Structure


(Technology)

Knowledge
Outputs

Outline

Knowledge
Management

Social Interaction

Knowledge Work





Some Definitions

Knowledge:
Understanding cause
-
and
-
effect
relationships
that help to explain and predict
physical, biological, or social
phenomena
.

Knowledge Management:

Develop and implement a
knowledge infrastructure
to support creating, managing,
and
using knowledge.

Knowledge Work:

People creating, managing, or using
knowledge to produce products or
deliver services
that
achieve
organizational goals.

3

Knowledge Infrastructure



People

learning, motivation,
incentives
,
performance,
staffing
, skills



Content,

Services

data,
records,
analysis
, reports,
intelligence, policies

Tools

systems to
capture, store,
share, and
process content

roles, responsibilities,
authorities, resources

Governance



work
routines,

operations,
best practices


Processes



Knowledge Management

Assets

Sharing

Work

Transfer

Infrastructure

Collaboration

Assistance

Resources

Donors

Application

Stock

Flow

NGO

Creation

Stakeholders

Understanding Content


Content

is a pattern
, message, or signal
embedded within data,
information, or knowledge.

Data

are recorded, ordered
symbols or signals

that may carry
information and patterns.


Information

is
meaning in context
, arising from processing,
interpreting, or translating data to extract an underlying
message or pattern
.

Knowledge

is
understanding

of cause
-
and
-
effect
relationships
that help to explain and predict
physical, biological,
or social
phenomena.

6

Managing Content

Capture
:

Represent data,
information, or knowledge on
reproducible media.

Inventory
:

Find, list, describe, and
organize content; map to business
needs, value and prioritize.

Preserve
:

store; provide access,
search & retrieval capacity; maintain,
and migrate throughout life
-
cycle.

Storing Content


Information
technology

Network infrastructure

Database, data management

Information library,
information
management

Knowledge
repository, knowledge
management

Interfaces
for entry, retrieval, & administration


Retrieving Content


Access to content

Browser interface

Search engine

Extraction tools

Manipulation tools

Assembly tools

Retrieval system

Outline

Knowledge
Management

Social Interaction

Knowledge Work




Social Interaction Framework


Competition

defence or victory

aggressive approach
no trust
secretive, hostile

Goals

Compatible

Conflicting

Interests

Mutual

Autonomous

Collaboration

peer production

partnership approach
high trust
diverse, synergistic


Negotiation

mutual agreement

adversarial approach
nominal trust
structured, formal

Sharing

leverage knowledge

passive approach
moderate trust
benign, supportive

Sports
Business
Military

Purchasing
Contracts
Merger


Conversation
Posting
Publicatio
n

Work Group
Community
Network

Sharing Attributes

Exchange content


Incentives
/
motivation

Trust and safety

Organizational culture

Content security

Individual privacy

Different expertise

Control and hoarding

Large distances


(Autonomous interests, compatible goals)

Sense, categorize, respond

Sharing Overview

Share

Provide
Incentives

Time & Place

Technology


Interact

Explicit

tacit

Content

Access

Shared
Content

Sharing Explicit Content


Existing
Content

Shared
Content

Provide
Incentives

engagement

motivation

compliance
reciprocity

Provide
Content

e
-
mail

publishing

distribution

c
ontent repository
metadata template



Retrieve
Content

web
browser

web
portal

content repository

search
engine

help desk

Work

Service

n
etwork
permission

interoperability
awareness

Enable
Access

Interact

telephone

meeting

c
ollaboration
e
-
mail

Social
Business


Technology

Knowledge

Collaboration Attributes

Synergy and joint production

Dialogue, conversations in groups

Sharing, exchanges among peers

Candor, freedom of expression

Trust, safety, honesty, openness

Agreed rules of conduct

Diversity, flexibility, outliers

Equality, meritocracy of ideas

Collective, not individual benefit


(Mutual interests, compatible goals)

Sense, analyze, respond

Collaboration Overview

Social
Context

Knowledge
Transformation

Technology
Support

Organizational
Work

Decision

Collaborate

Shared
Knowledge

Collaboration
-

Social Context


Group
Knowledge

engagement
counseling
feedback

human resources

Work

Service

Individual
Knowledge

compliance

motivation

engagement

human resources

rules & norms
guidance

facilitation

support

Influence
Attitudes

Affect
Behavior

Foster
Relationships


Evolve
Culture

formation

org. learning

change

enjoyment
candor
openness
ethics

altruism

participation
commitment
involvement
creativity

trust & safety
equality
meritocracy
synergy

diversity
flexibility
freedom
learning
transparenc
y

Social
Business


Technology
Knowledge

Negotiation Attributes

Reaching an agreement

Debate and discussion

Positions and interests

Bargaining and compromise

Proposal and response

Attempt to establish trust

Win/win vs. win/loose


(Mutual interests, conflicting goals)

Probe, sense,
respond


Negotiation Overview

Preparation

Bargaining

Organization

Negotiate

Agreement

Collaborate

Negotiation
-

Bargaining



Social
Business


Technology
Knowledge

deception
ethics

emotions
distrust
embarrassmen
t

negotiation
service

c
ontent
mgt
.

Position

questions
assumptions
unknowns
uncertaint
y

Identify

Counter

Power

Influence

Benefits

coalition
leverage
attack
threats

multiple issues
expansion
total benefits
contingency

losses & gains
momentum
justification
references
concessions

Revise
position

Draft
Agreement

n
ew
information
?

important

no

routine

Conclude

negotiation
service

o
ffice
app.

agreement template

Work

Service

Competition Attributes

Victory
, gain, or
defence


Speed
of analysis and action are
critical

No trust, secretive,
misleading actions

Rules: dominant, important, minimal

Ongoing process, requires recurring analysis

(Autonomous Interests, conflicting goals)

Act, sense, respond

Competition Overview

Negotiate

Compete


Decision

Intelligence

Action

Monitor
Outcomes

Adapt

End

Competition


Action / Adaptation


Social
Business


Technology
Knowledge

Adapt

analysis apps.
synthesis apps.

Document

Store

Recommend

Authorize

Outcome

yes

no

d
ecision

Monitor

c
ontent
acquisition
k
nowledge
mobilization

intelligence r
epository

o
ffice
apps

competition template

Intelligence

Win /
Loose

Learn

o
rg. learning

Evaluate

after
-
action review

Act

resources

Outline

Knowledge
Management

Social Interaction

Knowledge Work





NGO Knowledge Work
(
pre
-
activity
)

Work


Technology

Interaction

1. Understand the Context

institutions
, laws, economy,
customs

Search, Synthesis,
Office Applications,
Country Database

Sharing
,

Collaboration

2. Know the Situation


domain
,
resources
,
infrastructure,
environment

Search,
Analysis,
Synthesis,
Office Applications

Sharing
,

Collaboration

3. Manage Funding

donors
, proposals, partners,
administration,
reporting

Funding Marketplace,
Funding
Database,
Office Applications

Sharing,
Collaboration,
Negotiation,
Competition

4. Manage Contacts


expertise
, representatives,
sources of supply

Contact Directory


Sharing
,

Collaboration

25

1. Understand the Context

Awareness
(Internet, web browser, search engine)

Physical Space:

libraries, journals, reports, media
(dated, source,
reliability, objectivity, purpose,
time
consuming
)

Cyberspace:

search engine, reference sites, government sites
(
source
, current, superficial, bias, efficient)

Country Report

(office applications)

Corroborate

with country or subject
-
matter experts

Integrate

content from multiple sources

Validate

in context of NGOs operations and processes

Report
: prepare, store in database, submit

26

Institutions
,
Laws
,
Economy
,
Customs

2. Know the Situation


Event
:
domain
,
resources
, infrastructure,
environment

Monitor

(
existing

systems
)

Search

(Internet, Web browser,
search

engine
,
filter
)

Contact

experts
(directory of expertise)


Uncertainty

(scenarios,
sense
,
act
,
respond
)


Conference:
participants, positions,
laws
,
agreements
,
voting

(country
database
,
voting

database
)


Report:
integrate
,
interpret
,
synthesize
, report,
recommend

(office applications)







27

3. Manage Funding

Donors:

known sources,
search,
compatibility

(donor database, search engine, funding market)

Proposals:

rules, constraints, procedures, evaluation


(office applications, proposal template
)

Partners/Competitors:

joint submissions, proposal strategy

Storing:

donor information, attachments, project links

(funding database, project database)

Administration:

invoices, accounting, accountability

(accounting/financial application, project database)

Reporting
:

as required, properly formatted


(office applications, financial reporting application)

28

4. Manage Contacts

Experts:
subject, country, law…

Internal (expertise, employee database, contact info)

External

(expertise, employer, name, contact info)

Representatives:
international, other NGOs, governments


(organization, position, role, name, contact info, links)

Suppliers:
food, medicine, supplies, transport, technology

(goods & services, company, catalogues, name, links)


Contact Directory:
data entry, searching, management


Add, change, delete, approve content

29

Mobilizing
Emergency Content


Interoperability
:

jurisdictions, organizations, disciplines


Integration
:
process, function, role, scale


Systems
:
monitoring, decision support, integration

NGO Knowledge Work
(post
-
activity)


Work

Technology

Interaction

5.
After
-
Action Review

capture, administration
,
efficiency, effectiveness,
outcomes

Event Database

Activity Database(s)
Office Applications

Sharing,
Collaboration

6.
Report activities


projects
, events,
issues,
accomplishments
,
outcomes

Activity

Database(s)
Office Applications

Sharing

7.
Learn & Adapt


individual
, community,
organization,
change

Learning Database,
Change Management

Sharing,
Collaboration

8.
Categorize positions

delegates
, organizations,
countries

Voting
Database

Collaboration,
Negotiation,
Competition

31

5. After
-
Action Review

Capture:
journal, automated input, template, multi
-
media

(notebooks, tape recorder, video, event information system)



Administration:
process, HR practices, compliance, values

Efficiency:
costs, staff, technology, time, effort

Effectiveness:
milestones & deliverables, outputs, objectives


Outcomes:
successful negotiation, influence stakeholders,
reduced risk, mitigate impacts, increase well
-
being

Lessons learned:
what was planned, what happened, what
went well, what can be improved, how to improve


After
-
Action Database:

(office applications, interface)

32

6. Report Activities

Compile content

(information systems, databases)

Draft report

(office applications, templates)

Review
(e
-
mail, collaboration
site, office applications)

Revise

(office applications, version control)

Approve

(submission & decision process)

Produce

(document production application)

Store

(report database, metadata)

Distribute

(Web site, e
-
mail, mail)




33

Projects, Events,
Response, Accomplishments


7. Learn and Adapt

Individual:
awareness, assimilate, memorize,
comprehend, apply,
analyse
, synthesize, evaluate

Community:
voluntarism, sharing, dialogue, harvesting

Organization:
identify, consensus, integrate, plan,
document, recommend, approve

Change:
sense of urgency, establish coalition, develop
strategy, engage people, empower action, early success,
maintain momentum, institutionalize

34

8. Categorize Positions

Compile
from multiple sources
(external voting data)

Analyze
statistical trends and patterns
(statistical apps.)

Interpret

underlying context and particular situations

Dialogue

with individuals (trust, role,
security
)


NGO Voting Database
(office applications, interface)

35

Delegates, Organizations, Countries

Main Messages

Managing knowledge assets
leverages an NGOs capacity to
do knowledge work.


Social interaction includes
sharing, collaboration,
negotiation, and competition.

Knowledge work involves
both technical support and
social interaction.


36

E
-
Mail:
albert.simard@drdc
-
rddc.gc.ca


http
://cradpdf.drdc
-
rddc.gc.ca/PDFS/unc121/p536618_A1b.pdf



Knowledge Services: A Synthesis of Best Practices

Presentations:
http
://
www.slideshare.net/albertsimard/slideshows


http://
www.slideshare.net/Al.Simard/slideshows