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10 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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I Sys 580


Winter

200
7


1.

.NET Platform



(pronounced Dot Net)
is both a business strategy from Microsoft and
its collection of programming support for what are known as
w
eb services
.
Web services
allow you to use the
web

rather than your own computer for various services
.
The .NET
platform includes servers; building
-
block services, such as
web
-
based data storage; and
device software
.
It also inc
ludes Passport, Microsoft's fill
-
in
-
the
-
form
-
only
-
once identity
verification service.

2.

404



404 is a frequently seen status code that tells a
web

user that a requested page is

Not found
.”
404 and other status codes are part of the
web
's Hypertext Transfe
r
Protocol (HTTP), written in 1992 by the
web
's inventor, Tim Berners
-
Lee.

3.

Absolute Address (Absolute Reference)


An example for cell E10 in Microsoft Excel
would be $E$10
.
When a formula is copied into a different cell, an absolute address
remains the s
ame
. (see also Relative Address)

4.

Access Point



Sometimes abbreviated “AP.” A

hardware device or a computer’s
software that acts as a communication hub for users of a wireless device to connect to a
wired LAN
.
APs are important for providing heightened
wireless security and for
extending the physical range of service a wireless user has access to.

5.

Active Directory



Microsoft
-
developed directory service that allows administrators to
assign enterprise
-
wide policies, deploy programs to many computers, and
apply critical
updates to an entire organization. An Active Directory stores information and settings
relating to an organization in a central, organized, accessible database. Active Directory
networks can vary from a small installation with a few hundre
d objects, to a large
installation with millions of objects.

6.

ActiveX Control



created by Microsoft,
ActiveX controls provide encapsulated
reusable functionality to programs

(such as Excel, Word, etc.)

and internet applications.
ActiveX controls

incorpora
te
applet
-
like functionality
into web pages. Because of that,
ActiveX Controls have since been much derided in the mainstream and technical press
for their ability to be used by unethical deve
lopers to create computer viruses, trojans and
spyware infections.

7.

ADO



ActiveX Data Object
.
(Please note the spelling with X.)

A

collection of ActiveX
controls that allow high level access to a variety of data sources (most notably relational
databases
)
.
A program written for ADO can be used with any compatible data store,
instead of having to be rewritten to work with each type of database.

8.

AGP



Accelerated Graphics Port
. A dedicated graphics bus slot on PC motherboards
that runs several times faste
r than PCI, but slower than PCI
-
express. AGP's greater
bandwidth allows game and 3D application developers to store and retrieve larger, more
realistic textures in system memory rather than video memory, without incurring a
dramatic performance hit.

9.

Alias



As with the general definition, it is simply another name for the same item
.
On
the Internet, you can have an email address and an Alias name that point to the same
mailbox
.
In database usage, we give an alias name to a table in an SQL statement
.
The

table then can be referenced either by its table name, or by its alias name
.

10.

Anonymous FTP



A way to log onto a remote machine to search for files that can be
downloaded (ftp
-
ed)
.
Anonymous means you logon as a guest.

11.

Antivirus



A utility that search
es a hard disk for viruses and removes any that are
found
.
Most antivirus programs include an auto
-
update feature that enables the program
to download profiles of new viruses so that it can check for the new viruses as soon as
they are discovered.

12.

Applet


An applet is a small program written in Java that runs within your browser
.
It is
part of a
webpage

that comes from a server and is viewed through a browser.

13.

Application Software



Application software is that software that provides business
functionali
ty
.
It is the software used directly by users
.
(System software generally is
behind the scenes.)

14.

Arguments



Values used in Excel and VB macro functions
.
Excel example:
=AVERAGE(Num1, Num2,…)
the inputs for Num1 and Num2 are arguments
.
VB
example: In
putBox (Prompt, [Title], [Default], [XPos], [YPos],…) all inputs inside the
parentheses are arguments; the arguments inside the brackets are optional.

15.

ASCII Text



Each byte of storage (RAM or Disk) contains 8 binary bit
.
These 8 bits
can represent 256 d
ifferent combinations or values
.
ASCII texts are those values which
are assigned to the first 128 values, and which consist only of the values that can be
entered through the standard keyboard
.
(Lower and upper case alphanumeric)
.
Files that
are ASCII t
ext generally do not include the second 128 values.

16.

ASP


Also
an abbreviation for Application Service Provider
.

17.

ASP



An Active Server Page (ASP) is an HTML page that includes one or more scripts
(small embedded programs) that are processed on a Microso
ft Web server before the
page is sent to the user
.
It is somewhat similar to a server
-
side include or a common
gateway interface
.

18.

Attribute



Attributes are those variables that comprise the relation
.
Attributes are to
relations as columns are to table
s
.
In a relational database, a table (or relation) is
comprised of columns (or attributes).

19.

B2B



Business
-
to
-
Business. On the Internet, B2B
, also known as e
-
biz, is the exchange
of products, services, or information between businesses rather than betwee
n businesses
and consumers.

20.

BIOS



B
asic
I
nput/
O
utput
S
ystem
. T
he program a personal computer's microprocessor
uses to get the computer system started after you turn it on
.
It also manages data flow
between the computer's operating system and attached de
vices such as the hard disk,
video adapter, keyboard, mouse, and printer
.

21.

Bit



Stands for binary digit, and holds either a zero or a one
.
Alone, bits do not
usually
have significant meaning; however, when combined they equal bytes.

22.

Bluetooth


Bluetoot
h is an open standard for short
-
range radio transmission for data
synchronization between computers and/or computer
-
based devices
.
Bluetooth’s range is
about 30ft (9m).

23.

Blu
-
ray


Blu
-
ray is a

high
-
definition DVD format supported by a group of
manufacturer
s led by Sony
.
Disc
s

are
available in 25GB single
-
layer and 50GB dual
-
layer

capacities. (see HD
-
DVD)

24.

BMP files



BitMapped File
.
Another graphical file storage technique
.
Used by
Windows
.
A bit map defines a display space and the color for each pixel
or

bit


in the
display space
.
BMP files are not compressed, as are GIF or JPG files.

25.

Bookmark



Within a
web

browser, bookmarks act as a shortcut to a favorite or
frequently used site
.

26.

Broadband



When talking about Internet access, broadband refers to

a connection that
is faster than the typical 56K dial
-
up modem
.
Broadband transmission rates generally are
in the one megabit range
.
Examples are DSL and Cable
.

27.

Browser


A browser is an application that provides a way to look at and interact with all

the information on the World Wide Web.

28.

Bug



A mistake in a computer program
.

29.

Button



A button is a control that can be clicked
.
You can associate either a script or a
macro with a button
.
A button can have text or a picture on its face
.

30.

Byte



One

byte equals eight bits, and is the smallest significant unit of memory
.
Different computers are capable of holding different sizes of bytes or memory; for
example, megabyte (MB or
1,048,576 bytes
) or gigabyte (GB or
1,073,741,824 bytes
).

31.

CD
-
R



Able to w
rite to CD only once
.
(Recordable)

32.

CD
-
ROM



Able to only read from this CD
.
(Read
-
Only Memory)

33.

CD
-
RW



Able to write to CD many times
.
(ReWriteable)

34.

Centrino


Centrino is
Intel’s

technology package f
or

laptop computers

that
(1)
provides
built
-
in wirele
ss support
and (2) makes

it possible to run a laptop much longer without a
battery recharge
.
Batteries can last up to seven hours because of Intel’s processor and
chipset that have low power consumption.

35.

Client



A client is the requesting program or user

in a client/server relationship
.
For
example, if you are downloading a file from an FTP server, your computer would be the
client.

36.

Client Management


Client management refers to the concept of keeping track of the
clients and providing the necessary supp
ort to them
.
For example, the Novell network
operating system must keep track of all the clients using the file server.

37.

Client/server



Client/server describes the relationship between two computer programs
in which one program

the client

makes a service
request from another program

the
server

which fulfills the request
.
Although programs within a single computer can use
the client/server idea, this is a more significant concept in a network
.
In a network, the
client/server model provides a convenient wa
y to interconnect programs that are
distributed efficiently across different locations
.
Computer transactions using the
client/server model are very common.

38.

Client/server environment



A Network environment where one computer is a server
(providing servic
es) and other computers request those services (clients)
.
Generally these
services are more comprehensive than just file server or returning a file.

39.

ClipArt


Clip art, frequently used in desktop publishing before the arrival of the
web
, is

canned


artwo
rk designed for use in publications or
webpage
s by artists or non
-
artists.

40.

Clock Speed



A measure of how fast data is processed in a microprocessor, usually
measured in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz)
.
Newer computers can run at over 3
GHz

3 billion c
ycles per second.

41.

CMOS



C
omplementary
M
etal
O
xide
S
emiconductor
.

Personal computers contain a
small amount of battery
-
powered CMOS memory to hold the date, time, and system
setup parameters.

42.

ColdFusion


A product created by Allaire Corporation (merged w
ith Macromedia in
2001) that includes a server and a development toolset designed to integrate databases
and
webpage
s
.
ColdFusion is a tag
-
based
web

scripting language supporting dynamic
webpage

creation and database access in a
web

server environment
.
I
n the language,
ColdFusion tags are embedded in HTML files
.
The HTML tags determine the page’s
layout while the ColdFusion tags import content based on user input or the results of a
database query.

43.

Combo Box



A Combo Box is a control for a form that all
ows data from a distinct table
to be referenced
.
It contains a text box and a drop down arrow that, when clicked, opens
up the other table and displays values from the rows in this other table
.
A Combo Box
may be bound (if when it changes the underlying
table changes) or unbound.

44.

Control



In Access terminology,

a

generic term used to identify all the individual
components of a form or report
.
For example, a text box is a control, a label is a control,
a line is a control, a button is a control
.
In the
accounting context, controls are those
procedures and methods which are used to ensure the safeguarding, integrity, and
reliability of information or assets.

45.

Cookie


A cookie is information that a
website

stores on your hard drive to remember
something ab
out you at a later time
.
A
website

that greets you by name usually uses
cookies.

46.

CPU



C
entral
P
rocessing
U
nit
.

A
n older term for processor and microprocessor
.
It is
the central unit in a computer, containing the logic circuitry that performs the instru
ctions
of a computer's programs.

47.

CSS



Cascading Style Sheets
. A

feature that gives w
ebsite

developers more control
over how pages are displayed
.
With CSS, designers can create style sheets that define
how different elements appear, such as headers and l
inks
.
These style sheets can then be
applied to any
webpage.
This can save a lot of time when you want to change to look of
many pages at once.

48.

Data modeling



Data modeling is the analysis of data objects that are used in a business
or other context and

the identification of the relationships among these data objects.

49.

Data Warehouse



The data warehouse concept is that all data for the entire enterprise is
kept in one giant warehouse
.
The warehouse is probably comprised of several
computers
.
The data i
s at a very detailed level, and includes data from all functional
areas of the enterprise
.
Difficulties are in keeping the data current, maintaining integrity,
and providing easy access
.
One of the largest problems is to construct an enterprise
database
that satisfies the needs of all parts of the enterprise.

50.

Database



In the broadest sense, a database is simply any conglomeration of data
.
In a
narrower view, a database is a set of tables that is managed by database management
system (DBMS)
.
In Access
a database is the .mdb file, and thus can consist of both a set
of tables and the application forms, queries, reports, and macros.

51.

Database Integrity



Integrity means wholeness, consistency, congruency
.
Database
integrity means the same for the database
.

It means that all of the data in the database is
consistent with each other.

52.

DB2



DB2, an IBM family of products, is a relational database management system
(RDBMS) for large business computers that

according to IBM

leads in terms of
database market sha
re and performance.

53.

DDE


Dynamic Data Exchange
.
This is the protocol upon which OLE is based
.
This
allows dynamic tracking of the source of embedded objects.

54.

Debugging



The process of ridding a program of any bugs (mistakes).

55.

Desktop Publishing



Bring
ing text and graphics together to make a polished document
without depending on outside sources.

56.

Detail Section



The detail section of a form or report contains the data that does change
for each row of the underlying table or query
.
Usually it consists
of textboxes that are
bound to fields on the table.

57.

Device Drivers



Device drivers are system software programs that let the operating
system

talk


to the different hardware devices
.
There are screen device drivers,
keyboard device drivers, printer devi
ce drivers, speaker device drivers, etc.

58.

DHTML


Dynamic HTML is a collective term for a combination of new Hypertext
Markup Language (HTML) tags and options, style sheets, and programming that will let
you create
webpage
s more animated and more responsive

to user interaction than
previous versions of HTML.

59.

Digital Signature


A digital code that can be attached to an electronically transmitted
message that uniquely identifies the sender
.
Like a written signature, the purpose of a
digital signature is to g
uarantee that the individual sending the message really is who he
or she claims to be
.
Digital signatures are especially important for electronic commerce
and are a key component of most authentication schemes
.
To be effective, digital
signatures must be

unforgeable
.
There are a number of different encryption techniques to
guarantee this level of security.

60.

Distributed Database



A database where the database itself resides on multiple
computers
.
There are various ways to distribute a database
.
For exam
ple, some tables
may be on one computer and other tables on another
.
Or, some rows from a table may be
on one computer and other rows for the same table may be on another computer
.
The
difficulty is maintaining database integrity in the face of distinct
computers and long
distance connections.

61.

DOS



Disk Operating System
.
It is the operating system invented by IBM, built by
Microsoft and used on IBM compatible microcomputers (PCs)
.
The interface to DOS
from Windows is now done in a DOS window with comma
nd line (text) instructions
.

62.

DSL


Digital Subscriber Line
.
A digital WAN (Wide Area Network) technology that
brings high
-
speed digital networking (broadband) to homes and businesses over POTS
(Plain Old Telephone System)
.
There are many types, includi
ng HDSL (high
-
speed
DSL) and VDSL (very high bit
-
rate DSL).

63.

Dual
-
core CPU



A
d
ual
-
core CPU combines two independent processors and their
respective caches and cache controllers onto a single silicon die, or integrated circuit
.
Various dual
-
core CPUs are
being developed by companies such as Motorola, IBM, Intel
and AMD
.
These chips
first appeared

in consumer products in 2005.

64.

DVD


Digital Versatile Disk or Digital Video Disc
.
An optical storage medium that can
store up to 4.7 Gigabytes (single layer), 8
.5 GB (double layer), 9.4 GB (double sided,
single layer), or 17 GB (double sided, double layer)
.
Transfer rates and seek times are
comparable to those of CD
-
ROM for currently available drives
.
The DVD spec included
higher level specs for audio and video

capabilities.

65.

DVD+R (Digital Versatile Disk, Recordable)


DVD+R discs look the same as regular
DVDs, but can be used to record data
.
The DVD+R format is not quite as common as the
DVD
-
R format, but is still supported by most current DVD players and DVD
-
ROM
drives.

66.

DVD
-
R (Digital Versatile Disk, Recordable)


A DVD
-
R looks the same as a regular
DVD, but like a CD
-
R, it can be used to record data
.
Once a DVD
-
R has been

burned,


or written to, it cannot be written to again
.
DVD
-
R is the most common forma
t of
writable DVDs (compared to the DVD+R and DVD
-
RAM formats)
.
Most DVD players
and DVD
-
ROM drives can read DVD
-
R discs.

67.

E
-
mail



Electronic Mail
.
A method of sending messages from one computer to the
mailbox of a user on another computer.

68.

E
mulator



An

emulator is
a program that performs the same operation of another
program or a piece of hardware
.
For example, there are programs that allow a PC to act
like a Commodore 64, a Nintendo Entertainment System, or even a Macintosh.

69.

Entity Relationship Model



This is a model that is used to explain real world ideas
.
It
is called semantic data model because it captures meaning or reality
.

It is comprised of
Entities (drawn as boxes) and Relationships (drawn as lines between boxes)
.
An Entity
Relationship M
odel can be translated into a Relational Model and implemented as a
relational database.

70.

Ethernet


Ethernet is the most common standard for connecting computers into a local
area network (LAN) using CAT
-
5 cables
.
Typical data transfer rates are 10 Mbps a
nd
100 Mbps.

71.

FAQ



Frequently Asked Questions.


Usually each Usenet group and other groups keeps
a list of FAQs so those new to the group can find out general information about the group
without having to ask other group members.

72.

Field


A
f
ield (sometimes

called a data field) is a single variable that can contain a piece
of information
.
It is the smallest unit of information that a DBMS will track
.
A record is
made up of a set of fields
.
A set of fields in a file is analogous to a set of columns in a
ta
ble.

73.

File/server environment


A simpler network environment than client/server
.
The
concept is the same, but the services provided are limited to the server providing access
to files by clients.

74.

Firewall



A firewall is a set of related programs, located

at a network gateway server
that protects the resources of a private network from external users
.
Firewalls can be
programmed so that they check the source ID of all incoming network traffic and exclude
those who are not authorized
.

75.

FireWire



The popu
lar name for IEEE 1394, which is a very fast external bus standard
that supports data transfer rates of up to 400 Mbps
.
It is ideal for devices that need to
transfer high levels of data in real
-
time, such as video devices
.
It supports Plug
-
and
-
Play
and h
ot plugging, and also provides power to peripheral devices
.
Also known as i.link &
Lynx.

76.

Folder


In a Windows file system (that uses a filing cabinet metaphor) it is a like a
manila folder that can contain files
.
A synonym is a directory
.

77.

Foreign Key



A Foreign Key is NOT really a key
.
It is a field (or column) in a file (or
table) that references a key or part of a key in another (foreign) table.

78.

FTP



File Transfer Protocol.


A protocol to transfer files between computers
.
It
provides for rapid tr
ansfer of large files.

79.

Gigabit Ethernet


a version of Ethernet, which supports data transfer rates of 1 Gigabit
(1,000 megabits) per second.

80.

GUI


Graphical User Interface
. This is the portion of the application that is visible to
the user.

81.

HD
-
DVD


HD
-
D
VD is a

high
-
definition DVD format supported by a group of
manufacturers led by
Toshiba.
Disc
s

are available in 15GB single
-
layer and 3
0GB dual
-
layer

capacities. (see Blu
-
ray)

82.

Hot Plugging


The ability to add and remove devices to a computer while the c
omputer
is running and have the operating system automatically recognize the change
.
Also
known as hot swapping
.

83.

HTML



HyperText Markup Language.


Special codes embedded in an ASCII file to
allow
web

Browsers to know how to display the file
.
HTML defi
nes the structure and
layout of a
web

document by using a variety of tags and attributes.

84.

HTTP



HyperText Transfer Protocol.

A communication protocol used by the
web

for
transferring text documents (like html)
.
It defines a type of high
-
level protocol f
or
communication
.
(Contrast this definition with TCP/IP which is a lower level internet
communication protocol.)

85.

HTTPS



T
he secure version of HTTP, used in electronic commerce
.
It is the
communication protocol of the World Wide Web to provide authentica
tion and encrypted
communication
.
Instead of using plain text socket communication, HTTPS encrypts the
session data using either a version of the SSL (Secure Socket Layer) protocol or the TLS
(Transport Layer Security) protocol, thus ensuring reasonable p
rotection from
eavesdroppers, and middle
-
man attacks
.
In w
ebpage
s that use HTTPS, the URL begins
with 'https://' rather than 'http://'.

86.

Hub



A

common wiring point so that information can flow through one central location
to any other
device

on the networ
k
. A networking hub is a piece of hardware

used to
network computers together (usually over an Ethernet connection)
. USB hubs are used to
plug several USB devices into one USB port on a computer.

87.

Hyperlink



On the
web

or other hypertext systems, hyper
link is a synonym for both link
and hypertext link
.
Possibly, the term originated because

link


was not felt to be
specific enough
.
And it's shorter than

hypertext link.


88.

Index



An index is like a book index
.
It is simply a column (or field) that can

be used to
look up rows (or records) in a table (or file)
.
It can be unique with no duplicates, or it can
allow duplicates, like in the case of a last
-
name index.

89.

INI files


Initialization Files.


U
sed by older Windows programs to know how to
initialize

themselves when they are executed.

90.

Internet



The set of computers and connections that support inter
-
computer
communication throughout the world.

91.

IP address



Internet Protocol address.

In the most widely installed level of the Internet
Protocol today,
an IP address is a 32
-
bit number that identifies each sender or receiver of
information that is sent in packets across the Internet (IPv4)
.
IP addresses are composed
of four sets of digits ranging from 0 to 255 in the form of xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx
.
(
example:
1
28.187.4.4
)

92.

IPv6



A new 128
-
bit addressing scheme that offers more than 79 octillion times as many
available IP addresses as IPv4 (32
-
bit)
.
(see IP Address)

93.

IRDA



I
nfra
r
ed
D
ata
A
ssociation
. A

group of device manufacturers that developed a
standard for
transmitting data via infrared light waves
.
Thus,

line of sight


is usually
required for communication
.
Increasingly, computers and other devices (such as printers)
come with IrDA ports
.
This enables you to transfer data from one device to another
with
out any cables
.

94.

ISP



Internet Service Provider
.


A company which allows users to connect to the
internet via their equipment (leased lines, servers, etc.)
.
An ISP is also sometimes
referred to as an IAP (Internet access provider).

95.

J
ava



A

programming
language originally invented by engineers at Sun computer
company
.
It is particularly oriented to doing programming for
web

applications.

96.

JavaScript



A
n interpreted programming or script language from Netscape
.
It can be
embedded within a w
ebpage

to pro
vide dynamic actions by the page when a browser
displays it
.
It has nothing to do with J
ava.

97.

JSP



Java Server Pages.


Similar to active server pages (ASP)
.
This is a w
ebpage

written in Java that can change dynamically to support dynamic changes (such
as reading
from a data base and updating data fields) to w
ebpage
s
.
JSP is the open source/Unix
solution for dynamic pages
.

(ASP is Microsoft’s version.)

98.

Key



T
he single field or set of fields that are required to uniquely identify a record
.
We
talk of
a file as having a key, because for that file, any record within the file can be found
if one knows the value(s) in the key field(s)
.
Since a table is analogous to a file, a key in
a table is the column or set of columns that are required to find a partic
ular row
.

99.

LAN


Local Area Network
.
A network that is restricted to a single building, groups of
buildings, or even a single room
.
A LAN can have one or more servers.

100.

Linked table



A

table used in MS Access that is not part of the local .mdb file; can

be
an Excel sheet, ODBC database, or another table in a separate MS Access file.

101.

Linux


A version of the Unix operating system that is free and can be installed on a
Personal Computer
.
There are also commercial versions available for sale such as Red
Ha
t Linux
.

102.

List Box



A

combination text box and drop down list
.
It is like a combo box, except it
only allows predefined lists of values that you code in
.
It is not designed to go to a
distinct table to get data.

103.

M
ac



The Macintosh (often called

the M
ac

), introduced in 1984 by Apple Computer,
was the first widely sold personal computer with a graphical user interface (GUI)
.
The
Mac was designed to provide users with a natural, intuitively understandable, and, in
general,

user
-
friendly


computer inte
rface.

104.

MAC Address



Me
dia
A
ccess
C
ontrol
address. A

hardware address that uniquely
identifies each node of a network (network card, wireless card, etc)
.
Each different type
of network media requires a different MAC layer
.
An example would be:
00:40:33
:56:B0:6D.

105.

Macro



A

set of keystrokes or actions that are played whenever the macro is invoked
.
In Access a macro is a set of actions
.
In Excel a Macro is a set of keystrokes
.
Macros are
associated with events
.
In other words, in Access the occurrence

of an event can cause a
macro to fire
.
Thus when writing a macro, one must also associate it with the correct
event.

106.

Macro Recorder



The Excel tool that records the macro keystrokes.

107.

Macromedia Flash



Popular authoring software developed by Macromedia
.

Used to
create vector graphics
-
based animation programs with full
-
screen navigation interfaces,
graphic illustrations, and simple interactivity in an anti
-
aliasing, resizable file format that
is small enough to stream across a normal modem connection.

108.

Ma
il
-
merge



A

function in M
icrosoft

Word and other word processors that enables a
connection to a database and feeds database records into a template word processing
document.

109.

M
-
Commerce



Mobile Commerce.

The use of mobile devices to purchase goods or
ser
vices.

110.

MDB

files



Microsoft Access databases are stored in .mdb files.

111.

Megapixel


One
-
million pixels, a unit of measurement in an image
.
This number will
determine the quality of the image
.
Think of it as the number of dots in your picture
.
A
low dens
ity of dots will result in a poor image.

112.

MIDI


Musical Instrument Digital Interface. A

file that allows the creation of sounds equivalent
to sheet music
.
A MIDI synthesizer can play several different

instruments


at once.

113.

MIME



Multipurpose Internet M
ail Extensions
.

An
e
mail protocol that supports the
mailing of non
-
ASCII files
. MIME supports the e
mailing of files such as graphics,
spreadsheets, etc.

114.

Modem



The device that Modulates and Demodulates audio signal to digital signals
(also cable modem)

115.

Mozilla Firefox


A

free, cross
-
platform, graphical web browser developed by the
Mozilla Foundation and hundreds of volunteers that features integrated pop
-
up blocker,
tabbed browsing, live bookmarks, good (X)HTML and CSS support, and an extension
mechanis
m for adding functionality.

116.

MP3



T
he file extension for MPEG, audio layer 3
.
Layer 3 is one of three coding
schemes for the compression of audio signals
.
Layer 3 uses perceptual audio coding and
psychoacoustic compression to remove the redundant and irr
elevant parts of a sound
signal (the stuff the human ear doesn't hear anyway)
.
The result in real terms is MP3’s
are around 12 times smaller than the original sound data from a CD without sacrificing
noticeable sound quality
.

117.

Netscape



A Mozilla
-
based
web

browser
.
It sends requests for HTML documents and
displays received HTML documents.

118.

NetWare



A network operating system for a file/server and client/server environment
.
Produced by Novell, it runs on a variety of different types of LANs.

119.

NIC


Netwo
rk Interface Card.


A

computer circuit board or card that is installed in a
computer so that it can be connected to a network.

120.

Normalization



A
n algorithm that helps the database designer define a correct schema
.
It is the process of organizing the set o
f tables so that redundancy is minimized, data
access is optimized, and database integrity can be maintained
.
Most database schemas
have a set of tables that are
normalized
in
Third Normal Form
.

121.

NOS


Network Operating System.

An operating system that ru
ns the server and the
networking of computers together
.
Such as Novell Netware, Windows NT.

122.

Object
-
Oriented Database



A
n extension of the relational database concept
.
In an OO
database, each column or field is an object
.
Since objects can contain neste
d objects, then
a single field may end up being a hierarchy
.

123.

ODBC



Open Data
b
ase Connectivity
.
Microsoft’s standard protocol for accessing
databases
.
It is the protocol for sending queries into a database and for passing the
answers (query results) ba
ck out
.
Because of ODBC, Access can use DBASE databases
.
Paradox can read FoxPro tables, etc.

124.

OLE



Object Linking and Embedding
.

Microsoft's framework for a compound
document technology
.
Briefly, a compound document is something like a display
desktop

that can contain visual and information objects of all kinds: text, calendars,
animations, sound, motion video, 3
-
D, continually updated news, controls, and so forth.

125.

Opera



A
web

browser developed in 1994 by Norwegian company Telenor
.
Opera is
boasted
as being the speediest and most standards
-
compliant of the current browsers in
use, supporting such standards as 128
-
bit encryption, SSL2 and 3, CSS1, partial CSS2,
XML, HTML and JavaScript
.
Opera has been rising in popularity during the last year.

126.

Operat
ing System



T
he software that makes the hardware components all work
together
.
It contains the services to read files from disks, send characters to the screen,
accept characters from the keyboard, etc.

127.

OS/2



IBM’s answer to Windows 3.1
.
It is an opera
ting system with a graphical user
interface built in
.
It does not depend on DOS.

128.

Outline View



In the outline pane of PowerPoint, your presentation appears as an
outline made up of the titles and main text from each slide
.
Working with an outline is
the

best way to organize and develop the content of your presentation because you can
see all titles and main text on the screen as you work.

129.

Overclock



the process of running a computer’s CPU and motherboard at a higher speed
than it is certified for; usual
ly violates the processor’s warranty.

130.

P2P


Peer
-
to
-
Peer Network.


A network where there is no dedicated server
.
Every
computer can share files and peripherals with all other computers on the network, given
that all are granted access privileges
.
In a bu
siness setting, such a network is usually only
practical for small workgroups of less than a dozen computers
.
This is the technology,
however, behind such file
-
sharing programs as Kazaa, Limewire, and Morpheus.

131.

Path


This is the set of directories to whi
ch DOS (and Windows) will look to try to
execute programs that you request through Command.com
.
It is normally set through the
autoexec.bat file that is executed when your computer starts
.

132.

PCI



Peripheral Component Interconnect
.
A computer bus for att
aching peripheral
devices to a computer motherboard
.
These devices can be integrated circuits fitted onto
the motherboard or expansion cards that fit in sockets
.
The PCI bus is common in
modern PCs (and Macs), where it has displaced ISA and VESA Local Bu
s as the standard
expansion bus
.
The bus will eventually be succeeded by PCI Express and other
technologies, which have already started to appear in new computers.

133.

PCI
-
E
xpress



A
n implementation of the PCI computer bus that uses existing PCI
programming
concepts, but bases it on a completely different and much faster serial
physical
-
layer communications protocol
. PCI
-
Express video cards are now replacing
AGP cards because of greater standardization and much faster speeds.

134.

PCMCIA


Personal Computer Memor
y Card International Association
. P
ronounced as
separate letters, PCMCIA is an organization consisting of some 500 companies that has
developed a
standard

for small, credit card
-
sized
devices
, called
PC Cards
.
Originally
designed for adding
memory

to
portable computers
, the PCMCIA standard has been
expanded several times and is now suitable for many types of devices
.

135.

PDF



Portable Document Format.

Adobe PDF documents can be shared, viewed, and
printed b
y anyone, on any system, using free Adobe Reader software

regardless of the
operating system, original application, or fonts.

136.

Phishing


Phishing is a
n online scam that attempts to dupe a victim into revealing
sensitive account information such as the logi
n name and password for electronic access
to a banking or other financial account
.
Attacks usually take the form of an email that
pretends to be from a legitimate financial institution, that requests you confirm login,
password and sometimes other credent
ials such as account number and similar.

137.

PHP



Self
-
referentially short for
PHP
:
H
ypertext
P
reprocessor
. A
n open source, server
-
side, HTML embedded scripting language used to create dynamic
webpage
s
.
PHP
(similar syntax to that of Perl or C) is embedded
within tags which allows the author to
jump between HTML and PHP (similar to ASP and Cold Fusion)
.

138.

Pivot Table



A table that summarizes information in a detail spreadsheet
.
The row and
column headings of the pivot table are data values from columns in
the detail table.

139.

Plug and Play



Windows

95 concept that allows devices (like modems or sound cards)
to be plugged in and then used without requiring a special installation or setup step
.
These devices use a standard protocol that the operating system re
cognizes and can do an
automatic installation
.
With the release of Windows XP, Microsoft released a newer
version called True Plug and Play.

140.

POP3



Post Office Protocol 3
. T
he most recent version of a standard protocol for
receiving e
-
mail
.
POP3 is a cl
ient/server protocol in which e
-
mail is received and held
for you by your Internet server.

141.

PostScript



A type of printing language which allows any kind of graphical or textual
image to be printed by only using ASCII text
.
A postscript file can be sent t
hrough email
as an ASCII file and printed on a postscript printer.

142.

POTS



Plain Old Telephone System
.
Another name for the Public Switched Telephone
Network (PSTN).

143.

PPP



Point
-
to
-
Point Protocol
.
Another protocol similar to SLIP
.
PPP is a
protocol

for
communication between two computers using a
serial

interface, typically a personal

computer connected by phone line to a server
.
PPP can share a line with other users and
it has error detection that SLIP lacks
.
Where a choice is possible, PPP is preferred over
SLIP.

144.

Protocol


A protocol is the special set of rules for communicating t
hat the end points in
a telecommunication connection use when they send signals back and forth
.
Protocols
exist at several levels in a telecommunication connection.

145.

QBE



Query By Example
.
It is not the industry standard, but it is a very powerful way
to

formulate queries for a relational database
.
It is the graphical form of SQL
.
SQL and
QBE are equivalent expressively
.

146.

Query



A Query is a question that is posed to a database
.
It is a request for information
from a DBMS
.
A query utilizes the relat
ional operators of SELECT, PROJECT, JOIN to
build a temporary answer table.

147.

Quicktime


QuickTime is more than a media player; it is a multimedia technology
architecture enabling products from Apple and third parties
.
Some of the features include
RealTime

Video Streaming, MPEG
-
4 Video compression, and QuickTime Broadcasting
.
This is a popular platform for web and multimedia developers.

148.

RAM



Random Access Memory
.
Memory that stores software while th
e computer is
turned on. It lo
ses its memory when the c
omputer is turned off
.
A type of computer
memory that can be accessed randomly.

149.

Range name



A name given t
o a range of values (column row :

column row) in an
Excel Spreadsheet
.

150.

Real
-
time


Real
-
time is a level of computer responsiveness that a user sen
ses as
sufficiently immediate or that enables the computer to keep up with some external
process (for example, to present visualizations of the weather as it constantly changes)
.
Real
-
time is an adjective pertaining to computers or processes
that operate
in real time.
Real
-
time describes a human rather than a machine sense of time.

151.

Record


The same as a row, except in data processing terminology
.
It is made up of the
particular values (fields) that are associated with a single entity in the file.

152.

Refere
ntial Integrity



Referential integrity refers to the concept of a field in one table
referencing a field in ano
ther table. (Like a foreign key).
To maintain integrity, the
reference must be valid
.
In other words, the reference to a foreign key must ref
er to a
valid value in the foreign table.

153.

Registry


A file used by the newer Windows operating systems to store information
about the configuration of the personal computer
.
It contains information about all the
hardware and software on the computer
.

154.

R
elative
A
ddress



(be able

to give example) A1. Row and c
olumn relative to a
beginning point
.
An address specified by indicating its distance from another address,
called the
base address
.
In absolute addressing, you specify the actual address (called t
he
absolute address
) of a memory location
. If a formula with a relative address is copied
into a new cell, the reference will change positions based on the distance changed. (see
also Absolute Address)

155.

RFID


R
adio
F
requency
I
dentification
. A

technology

similar in theory to
bar code

identification
.
An RFID system consists of an antenna and a
transceiver
, which read the
radio fre
quency and transfer the information to a processing
device
, and a
transponder
, or
tag, which is an
integrated circuit

containing the RF circuitry and information to be
transmitted
.
RFID systems can be used just about anywhere, from clothing tags to
missiles to pet tags to food
--

anywhere that a unique identif
ication system is needed
.
The tag can carry information as simple as a pet owners name and address or the cleaning
instruction on a sweater to as complex as instructions on how to assemble a car
.

156.

ROM



Read Only Memory
.
“B
uilt
-
in


computer memory conta
ining data that normally
can only be read, not written to
.
ROM contains the programming that allows your
computer to be

booted up


or regenerated each time you turn it on
.
Unlike a computer's
random access memory (
RAM
), the data in ROM is not lost when
the computer power is
turned off
.
The ROM is sustained by a small long
-
life battery in your computer.

157.

Router


A device that forwards data packets along networks
.
A router is connected to
at least two networks, commonly two LANs or WANs or a LAN and its
ISP’s network
.
Routers are located at gateways, the places where two or more networks connect.

158.

Row



In database terminology, a single record in a table
.
It is the horizontal line of
attribute values that represent a single entity in the database.

159.

RSS



Really Simple Syndication
. A

popular new way of encoding news, blogs, and
other information in XML that is fed to a newsreader program.

160.

RTF



Rich Text Format files
.
ASCII text files with special codes to fancy printing and
formatting
.
Invented by Micro
soft, frequently used in email to send fancy messages
.
(Similar concept to HTML codes).

161.

SCSI



Small Computer System Interface
. A

standard interface and command set for
transferring data between devices on both internal and external computer buses
.
It i
s
pronounced
“skuzzy.”
SCSI is most commonly used for hard disks and tape storage
devices, but also connects a wide range of other devices, including scanners, printers,
CD
-
ROM drives, CD recorders, and DVD drives
.

162.

Server



The computer providing servic
es
.
A computer or device on a network that
manages network resources.

163.

Servlet



A servlet is a program that runs on the server side of a
web
site
.
It provides

dynamic processing to support webp
age display
.
For example, a servlet can be written to
process

t
he data that is submitted in a w
eb
f
orm.

164.

SFTP



Secure File Transfer Protocol
.
An encrypted version of the FTP protocol used to
transfer large files across a network securely.

165.

Slide Master



A master slide that controls the background, fonts
,

etc
.
of t
he other slides
in the presentation in PowerPoint
.

166.

SLIP



Serial Line IP
.
A protocol used by the Internet to go from an Internet computer
across the audio telephone lines to a modem on a computer
.
Not as efficient as PPP.

167.

SMTP



Simple Mail Transfer Pr
otocol
. A

standard protocol used by most mail systems
to read and write email messages.

168.

Solver



In Excel, solver allows the user to ask

what if


questions of the spreadsheet
.
Solver works backwards from an equation
.
In this instance, you give the answ
er (or
target value), and the solver changes the inputs to arrive at that target value.

169.

Spaghetti
C
ode



C
ode which has a complex and tangled control structure, especially
one using many GOTOs, exceptions, threads, or other "unstructured" branching
constru
cts
.
It is named such because program flow tends to look like a bowl of spag
hetti,
i.e. twisted and tangled. Reading and understanding this code can be difficult as the
system grows in size.

170.

Spooling



S
imultaneous
Peripheral O
perations
On
-
L
ine
. R
efe
rs to putting jobs in a
buffer, a special area in memory or on a disk where a device can access them when it is
ready
.
Spooling is useful because devices access data at different rates
.
The buffer
provides a waiting station where data can rest while the
slower device catches up
.
The
most common spooling application is print spooling.

171.

Spreadsheet audit



An Excel function to trace source cells and destination cells.

172.

SQL



Structured Query Language
.
This is the industry standard syntax for accessing
relat
ional databases
.
It is a high
-
level query language that formulates queries or requests
for data from a relational database.

173.

Streaming media



A technology that allows audio and video to be played in real
-
time
over the Internet
.
Instead of downloading the

entire file before it begins playing, the
multimedia begins playing with a short delay as it is downloaded from the Internet.

174.

System Software



This is software that runs the computer hardware
.
Included are
operating systems, device drivers, print driver
s, and so forth
.

175.

Table



Within a database is a single file or a single relation
.
It is equivalent to a relation
(mathematical) or can also be called a file (implementation data processing)
.
A table is
made up of columns (which identifies the fields or

attributes), and rows (which make up
the individual records or entities within the table).

176.

Task List

(Task Manager)



The operating system’s list of active tasks
.
In Windows it
is
invoked by Ctrl
-
Alt
-
Del keys (and
clicking on the task manager button

for
Windows
2000).
Application tasks (the ones you are running) are shown under the applications tab
.

177.

Task Management



The management of all the tasks
.
An operating system that
supports multitasking allows multiple tasks to be in the computer at the same
t
ime, all of
which are “running.”

178.

TCP
/
IP


Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
.
The standard
communication protocol used by the Internet
.
It is a

lower
-
level


communication
protocol upon which other protocols (FTP and HTTP) are built
.
(See
FTP, and HTTP)

179.

Telnet



The method of signing onto a remote computer
.
For example, I can log onto my
brother's computer in North Carolina or a colleague

s computer at Utah State
.
The Telnet
program runs on your computer and connects your PC to a server o
n the network.

180.

Template


In word processing and desktop publishing, a
template

is a file or form that
defines the layout of a document
.
In spreadsheet and database applications, a template is
a blank form that shows which fields exist, their locations, a
nd their length.

181.

Toolbar


A Button Bar associated with a specific program
.
It is a collection of icons
that represent the functions that the program can perform
.

182.

TrueType Fonts



Fonts that print the same as they appear on the screen
.
TrueType
support

is built into all Windows and Macintosh operating systems,

183.

TXT files


T
ext files
. S
ynonymous with ASCII text files
.

184.

UNIX



An
o
perating system that is used on workstations (HP, SUN, DEC) and is much
more powerful than DOS, Windows

3.1, Windows

95
.
A po
pular
multi
-
user
,
multitasking
-
operating system developed at Bell Labs in the early 1970s.

185.

URL



Uniform Resource Locator
. T
he address of a file (resource) accessible on the
Internet
.
The type of resource depends on the Internet application protocol
.
Th
e URL
contains the name of the protocol required to access the resource, a domain name that
identifies a specific computer on the Internet, and a hierarchical description of a file
location on the computer.

186.

USB



U
niversal
S
erial
B
us
. A
n external bus stan
dard that supports data transfer rates of
12 Mbps USB
.
It supports Plug
-
and
-
Play installation and hot plugging, and also provides
power to peripheral devices
.
USB has become the standard for connecting peripheral
devices, such as mice, keyboards, scanner
s, printers, and has almost completely replaced
serial and parallel ports
.

187.

USB 2.0


Also referred to as
Hi
-
Speed USB
, USB 2.0 is an external bus that supports
data rates up to 480Mbps
.
USB 2.0 is an extension of USB 1.1
.
USB 2.0 is fully
compatible wi
th USB 1.1 and uses the same cables and connectors
.
USB 2.0
specifications were released in April 2000, to meet the bandwidth demands of developing
technologies.

188.

USB Flash drive



A small, portable flash memory card that plugs into a computer’s
USB port a
nd functions as a portable hard drive with up to 2GB of storage capacity
.
USB flash drives are touted as being easy
-
to
-
use as they are small enough to be carried in
a pocket and can plug into any computer with a USB drive
.
USB flash drives have less
stor
age capacity than an external hard drive, but they are smaller and more durable
because they do not contain any internal moving parts
.
USB flash drives also are called
pen drives
,
key drives
, thumb drives,

or simply
USB drives
.

189.

VBScript


A version of Vis
ual Basic used within HTML documents.

190.

Video card



A PCI or AGP card that plugs into a personal computer to give it display
capabilities
.
Modern video cards contain memory, so that the computer's RAM is not
used for storing displays
.
In addition, most vi
deo cards have their own graphics
coprocessor for performing graphics calculations
.
These cards are often called graphics
accelerators
.
Video cards are also called video adapters, video boards, video display
boards, graphics cards
,

and graphics adapters.

191.

Virtual
M
achine



S
oftware that creates a virtualized environment between the
computer platform so that the end user can operate software
. Many Java web
applications operate in a virtual machine to create a standard environment for the
application regard
less of the computer on which it is running.

192.

Virtual Memory



Virtual memory is a

logical


range of memory
.
It is logical or
virtual, because it does not really exist as RAM
.
It is pretend
.
However, when it is
needed, it can be mapped to real RAM so th
at it can be used
.
During the time when it is
not needed, the items

stored


in virtual memory are usually stored on a hard drive
somewhere
.
The purpose of virtual memory is to enlarge the
address space
, the set of
addresses a program can utilize.

193.

Visual

Basic



Visual Basic (VB) is a programming language and environment that is
used to write programs for graphical (Windows) environments
.
Various versions of VB
are also used to write macros in Excel and scripts in HTML
.

194.

VoIP



Voice Over IP.
Telephone
/v
oice delivered using the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
in instead of the public switched telephone network
.

Advantage is that the there are no
toll charges when using VoIP.

195.

WAN


Wide Area Network
.
A network that crosses local, regional, and internationa
l
boundaries.

196.

WAV



Digital sound files without compression.

197.

Wi
-
Fi



Wireless Fidelity.
Term

used generically when referring of any
type of 802.11
network

whether

802.11g
, 802.11b, 802.11a, or dual
-
band
.
Essentially the same as
wireless network communica
tion
.

198.

Wildc
ard



characters that allow users to search for a pattern within a text field
.
Example: searching for a file named computer.exe by inputting comp*.*
would also
return compare.txt (The * is the Wildc
ard)

199.

WiMAX



A

standards
-
based technology
enabling the delivery of wireless broadband
access as an alternative to cable and DSL
. Accessing WiMAX high
-
speed Internet access
is comparable to accessing service on a cell phone network.

200.

WinZip



A program used to zip and unzip compressed files.

201.

Wizard



A wizard is a tool that
helps users quickly and easily create documents and
files. This includes
the construction of database objects such as tables, forms, buttons,
etc
.
A wizard tries to automatically build the correct object with the correct proper
ties by
asking a few key questions and using default property values.

202.

Workbook



An Excel File in which you work and store your data
.
Each workbook can
contain many sheets.

203.

Worksheet



The primary document used in Excel to store and work with data, also
c
alled spreadsheet
.
A worksheet consists of cells that are organized into rows and
columns; a worksheet is always stored in a workbook.

204.

Workspace



The area within a Window that is provided for the user to work
.
It
excludes the menu area, button bars, scr
oll bar areas, etc.

205.

WWW



World Wide Web.
A set of computers connected to the Internet that support
and respond to messages sent to them using Internet addressing and http protocol
.
A
system of Internet servers that support specially formatted documents
.

The documents
are formatted in a language called HTML (
HyperText Markup Language
) that supports
links to other documents, as well as graphics, audio, and video files
.
Not all Internet
servers are part of the World Wide Web.

206.

WYSIWYG



What You See Is Wha
t You Get
.
WYSIWYG application is one that
enables you to see on the display screen exactly what will appear when the document is
printed
. Dreamweaver and FrontPage are examples of WYSIWYG editors.

207.

XBRL



Extensible Business Reporting Language
.
XBRL is
a set of specialized XML
tags for financial reports
.

208.

XML


Extensible Markup Language
.
XML is a flexible way to create common
information formats and share both the format and the data on the World Wide Web,
intranets, and elsewhere
.
It is similar to H
TML in that it has markup tags
.
However, the
tags are specialized by industry to define standard data fields
.
The fields are identified
and then the values are both sent in the document
.

209.

Zip file/Zipping



Zipping is the act of packaging a set of files

into a single file or
archive that is called a zip file
.
Usually, the files in a zip file are compressed so that they
take up less space in storage or take less time to send to someone.