the Scope of project and LID

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21 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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Sustainable
Infrastructure and
Low Impact
Development

Images

Nancy Givens and

Dr. Terry Wilson, WKU
Center for Environmental
Education and Sustainability

DEGRADATION


Increased runoff & flooding

Groundwater and surface

water contamination

Increased sedimentation

Decreased infiltration

Degraded vegetation

Soil loss and

compaction

Increased

Irrigation

needs


Degradation vs.
Stewardship:

Effective land
management
practices can preserve
and restore
ecosystems, promote
water and air quality,
and contribute to
human and other
species well
-
being

STEWARDSHIP


Beauty

Habitat

Restoration

Improved soil

conditions

Cleaner air and water

Reduced potable water

irrigation needs

Increased water absorption

and filtration







Objectives

1.
Create an integrated green infrastructure
model that retains, filters, and reuses all
stormwater on the site

2.
Provide professional training and community
education on NPS pollution + LID techniques

3.
Involve residents and the community in
project + shared stewardship of environment

4.
Seek building policy revisions for KyHfH

Notable Features

Amphitheater

Walking trails / connection with Greenways

Green infrastructure + Green housing

Community Center

Housing and access roads restricted to perimeter

Rain gardens, community gardens, edible landscaping

Educational programming

Shared functions: bike swap, car sharing program

Low Impact Development (LID)
Techniques


Conservation design


Permeable Pavers and Asphalt


Underground cisterns, rain barrels, and
piping


Rain gardens and community gardens


Native plants, edible plants, and tree cover


Sedimentation basin, retention and
detention basins



BMP: Conservation Design

Land use development that allows sustainable

development while preserving the natural features and creating a
park like environment for residents.

Benefits:
Preserves open space and vista, creates or protects
habitat for wildlife, creates natural spaces for recreation and
reflection; puts people in communities in contact with nature.

Design &
Siting

Considerations
:


Unique, scenic or significant natural features are preserved


Homes and lots are laid out to maximize visual and physical
access to the natural spaces


Homes are clustered to maximize open space (up to 50%)

Cost Considerations
:


When well
-
designed, generally not higher cost then
traditional developments



BMP: Permeable Pavers

Alternate paving systems that integrates

stormwater

management with an aesthetic amenity on the site

Benefits:
Slows
stormwater
; reduces runoff volume; permits
infiltration into ground; resources groundwater

Design &
Siting

Considerations
:


Best suited to low traffic, low speed areas


Avoid in high pollution areas since direct filtration is uses


Pavers hold up well to freeze/thaw cycles

Cost Considerations
:


Initial costs may exceed traditional paving materials, but
long
-
term maintenance are less over the 25
-
year life cycle


Costs offset by reduced amount of
stormwater

structures
and land to manage
stormwater

that is needed



BMP: Permeable Asphalt

Resembles conventional asphalt but has more air

spaces that allow water to pass and into an underlying stone

reservoir that stores the surface runoff.

Benefits:
Reduces
stormwater

runoff volume and peak discharge rates;
allows water to infiltrate into the ground; reduces pollutant transfer

Design &
Siting

Considerations
:


Best suited for low to medium traffic areas


Avoid areas with high amount of sediment or erosion


Less prone to cracking or buckling from freezing and
thawin


Don’t use in areas with high potential for contamination

Cost Considerations
:


Initial costs may exceed traditional materials, costs may be offset
by reduced amount of
stormwater

structures; costs vary
depending on site size, design, piping, and soil characteristics



BMP: Underground Cistern

Allow
stormwater

to be treated as a resource and harvested for
reuse, reducing water demand; water collected is for non
-
drinking

Benefits:
Capture rainwater for reuse; reduce
stormwater

runoff
volume and discharge rate; provide alternative source for
irrigation needs

Design &
Siting

Considerations
:


Designed with a filter to capture debris; pumps to facilitate
reuse; and overflow systems to convey excess rainwater


Lifespan estimated at 20
-
50 years


To maximize storage drain cistern between storm events

Cost Considerations
:


Without installation, cost can range from $250 for 200
-
gal. to
$5,000 for 10,000 gal. cistern. Long
-
term savings include
lower water usage fee.



BMP: Rain Barrels

A system to collect and store rainwater from

roofs that would otherwise be lost to runoff and diverted to storm
drains and streams; relatively simple and inexpensive to construct

Benefits:
Collects and stores water from storm events during
periods of drought; provides ample and free “soft water” for
gardens; diverts water from storm drains thereby reducing runoff;
saves money and improves the environment

Design &
Siting

Considerations
:


Can be placed under any downspout; elevate from ground


Drain after storm events so water can be stored at next event


A longer hose will give more flexibility in where you water

Cost Considerations
:


Costs range from $60 to $250 for purchased, or make your
own for about $35; some are designed as art forms.

BMP: Rain Gardens

A shallow depression that
biofilters

stormwater


runoff rather than allowing it to flow into storm drains and surface
water where it can cause erosion, pollution, or flooding.

Benefits:
Prevents erosion, pollution, flooding; filters water and
improves water quality; slows runoff rate; beautifies site

Design &
Siting

Considerations
:


Where soils are not permeable enough to allow water to drain
and filter properly the soil should be replaced: 60% sand, 20%
compost, 20% topsoil


Subsurface drainage from a thick bed of gravel may be used


Native plants are recommended because they generally don’t
require fertilizer and are drought
-
resistant

Cost Considerations
:


Moderate costs but high benefits

BMP: Community Gardens

Promote healthy communities, provide nutritious

food and food security especially for low income persons. Contribute to
the preservation of open space and create recreational opportunities.

Benefits:
Provide nutritious food; give control over the quantity and
kind of pesticides used; increase food security; save $$; increase
community bonds; get people outside; improve health

Design &
Siting

Considerations
:


Plots should be ‘leased’ per season


Some aspects can be shared, e.g., tools and equipment; watering
according to a schedule


Soil preparation is crucial, and as you sow so you shall reap

Cost Considerations
:


Generally, a great return for the amount invested

BMP: Native Plants

Plants that evolved naturally in a particular area and

are well
-
suited to the soil, moisture, and weather conditions.

Their root systems help rainfall percolate into the soil; reducing
erosion and runoff. This improves water quality

Benefits:
They are low
-
maintenance, require less water, are in
natural balance with other species and are often quite beautiful.

Design &
Siting

Considerations
:


Many are heat and drought tolerant


Plant to provide habitat to butterflies, birds, and other wildlife

Cost Considerations
:


These can be planted from seed, transplanted from the wild
(if access), or purchased. Reduced water and maintenance
needs offset the purchase costs.


BMP: Tree Cover

Planting trees provides shading and can moderate

the microclimate. Trees prevent direct sunlight, reduce surface
temperature, create habitat, and have strong aesthetic appeal.

Benefits:
May be the most economical and practical method to
provide shading benefits to buildings and outdoor areas; they are
inexpensive and fairly easy to plant. The main disadvantages are
they are slow
-
growing and require some maintenance.

Design &
Siting

Considerations
:


Plant where cutting solar gain does the most good


Plant along banks to slow flow rate and increase absorption
and filtration


Maintain properly


watering, pruning, (naturally) fertilizing

Cost Considerations
:


Generally inexpensive and easy to maintain

BMP: Edible Landscaping

An alternative to conventional landscaping that

can be just as beautiful but offers fruits and vegetables for home use.

Benefits:
Enjoy fresh and flavorful home
-
grown foods; control the
quantity and kind of pesticides used; increase food security; save $;
get outside, interact with the world, and have fun

Design &
Siting

Considerations
:


Choose a variety of fruit and nut trees, berry bushes,
vegetables, herbs, and edible flowers


Most like well
-
drained soil and at least 6 hours of full sunlight


Plants will require a certain amount of attention


watering,
pruning, (naturally) fertilizing, pest
-
control, harvesting


Plant to maximize the decorative garden aspects

Cost Considerations
:


Well
-
maintained plants and abundant yields will minimize costs

BMP: Sedimentation Basin

A controlled
stormwater

release structure formed by

constructing an embankment of compacted soil across a
drainageway

and installing an outlet structure and pipe
-

detains
runoff long enough for the majority of sediment to settle.

Benefits:
Effective at trapping medium and coarse
-
grained
particles; helps to control runoff; relatively easy to construct

Design &
Siting

Considerations
:


Drainage area should be at least 10 acres


Must be cleaned regularly to maintain effectiveness


Not particularly effective for fine silts or clay soils or for
intense rainfall events

Cost Considerations
:


Relatively inexpensive to construct; good maintenance
practices required



BMP: Retention Basin

A constructed pond that maintains a permanent pool

of water for
stormwater

control plus aesthetics

Benefits:
Reduces
stormwater

runoff volume and rate; reduces
sediment, solids and metals; Improves water quality; aesthetic
and recreational benefits; provides wildlife habitat

Design &
Siting

Considerations
:


Drainage area should be at least 10 acres


Cannot be placed on steep or unstable slopes


Should have a sediment
forebay

and proper depth


Proper lining is required

Cost Considerations
:


Costs vary due to value of land, size, and complexity of
basin design



BMP: Detention Basin

Holds
stormwater

and then slowly releases it to

the receiving stream after a storm event.

Benefits:
Effective in controlling peak
stormwater

discharge rates
and therefore downstream flooding; some water quality control

Design &
Siting

Considerations
:


Drainage area should be at least 10 acres


Should be designed to properly drain so no standing water


Approval may be needed by dam safety authorities


Fencing may be needed

Cost Considerations
:


A low
-
cost BMP for water quality control. Cost will vary
depending on the value of the land, location, size, and design



Strength of Project = Partners

WKU


CEES, Planning and Construction, Landscaping, WKYU
-
PBS

KY HfH + HfH BG WC

Mayor’s Office + BG Dept. Public Works

BG City Schools

BGGreen Partnership for a Sustainable Cmmty.

Bluegrass PRIDE

River Basin Coordinator + Team